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Knowledge Management in Systems Development

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Knowledge Management in Systems Development Powered By Docstoc
					                            Knowledge Management System Model
                                in a Traditional Classroom
                                 Mohamad Haitan Rachman and Charles B. Andoh
                  Faculty of Information Technology Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia
                                  {haitan.rachman, charles.andoh}@mmu.edu.my



ABSTRACT                                                   2. LEARNING PROCESS

The quality of learning process in a traditional           The educational system can be depicted as the
classroom is dependent on the activity level of            relationship between the student and the teacher [1].
students and teacher that are involved, also on more       The teacher chooses the learning methods that
complex factors, such as different background of           employ book and other traditional learning means and
students, keeping up-to-date with new knowledge or         courseware as new learning means. There is direct
information, experiences, and tasks. Knowledge             interaction between the student and the teacher. The
management can be applied to handle learning               student uses books and other traditional learning
process in a traditional classroom and improve the         means in one-way interaction, and courseware as new
knowledge communication and sharing processes.             learning means in two-way interaction. The teacher
The aim of this paper proposes a model of knowledge        performs evaluation of interaction between the
management system (KMS) to enhance knowledge               student and the courseware. In this sense, the teacher
communication and sharing process in a traditional         and the courseware are teaching units, and the student
classroom.                                                 is the learning unit. The remaining entities support
                                                           units.
Keyword: Knowledge Management, Learning


1. INTRODUCTION

The quality of learning process in a traditional
classroom is dependent on the activity level of
students and teacher that are involved, also on more
complex factors, such as different background of
students, keeping up-to-date with new knowledge or
information, experiences, and tasks.

Knowledge management can be applied to handle
learning process in a traditional classroom and
improve the knowledge communication and sharing                      Figure-1: The Educational System
processes. Knowledge management (KM) is the
collection processes that support the creation,            Two commonly used instructional models and
dissemination and utilization of knowledge between         principles are objectivist and constructivist [2].
individuals and groups. A well-structured knowledge        Objectivists believe that knowledge and truth exist
repository can improves the flexible knowledge             outside the mind of the individual and are, therefore,
acquisition, sharing and application.                      objective. Learners may be told about the world and
                                                           be expected to replicate its content and structure in
The approach to build knowledge management                 their thinking. Constructivists, on the other hand,
system (KMS) combines a design process, which              believe that knowledge and truth are constructed by
leads to the development of a KMS, a knowledge             the learner and do not exist outside of his mind.
management toolkit, which provides concepts of             Therefore, according to constructivists, learners
knowledge management, e.g. shared perspective of           construct their own knowledge by actively
information and knowledge, and a learning process,         participating in the learning process.
which provides concepts of transferring and
understanding the knowledge and experiences.               Learning is a process of active engagement with
                                                           experience. It is what people do when they want to
In this paper, we propose a model of knowledge             make sense of the world. It may involve an increase
management system (KMS) to enhance knowledge               in skills, knowledge, understanding, values and the
communication and sharing process in a traditional         capacity to reflect. Effective learning leads to change,
classroom.



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development and a desire to learn more [3]. There are       application is the use of past knowledge to help
four learning styles:                                       solving the current problem. Knowledge is created in
 Activists – learning by doing.                            a learning experience, such as problem-solving
 Reflectors – learning by watching other people            experience, project or task.
     do.
 Theorists – understating the theory and having a          4. MODEL OF KMS FOR A TRADITIONAL
     clear grasp of the concept before doing.               CLASSROOM
 Pragmatists – having some practical tips and
     techniques from someone with experience before         The model of knowledge management system (KMS)
     doing.                                                 consists of three components: (1) Control, (2)
                                                            Knowledge Repository, and (3) Communication.

3. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT

Knowledge is defined as a fluid mix of framed
experience, values, contextual information and expert
insight that provides a framework for evaluating and
incorporating new experiences and information [4].
There are two kinds of knowledge, explicit
knowledge and tacit knowledge [5]. Explicit
knowledge can be expressed in words and numbers
and shared in the form of data, scientific formulae,
specifications, manuals and the like. This kind of
knowledge can be readily transmitted between
individuals formally and systematically. Tacit
knowledge is highly personal and hard to formalize,
making it difficult to communicate or share with
others. It is deeply rooted in an individual‟s actions
                                                                       Figure-2: Components of KMS
and experiences. Nonaka [5] identifies four
knowledge transformation processes: socialization,
                                                            Communication may be a one-to-one, one-to-many,
externalization, combination and internalization.
                                                            or a many-to-many interactions. The chat-rooms,
1. Tacit to tacit knowledge via socialization. It
                                                            consultation, and discussion forums can be used to
    involves the sharing of tacit knowledge between
                                                            communicate among teachers and students.
    individuals.
                                                            Knowledge repository contains the structured and
2. Tacit to explicit knowledge via externalization. It
                                                            documented learning knowledge. It can reside on
    requires the expression of tacit knowledge and its
                                                            papers, course material, and links to web sites.
    translation into comprehensible forms that can be
                                                            Control provides students and teacher (knowledge
    understood by others, such as articles, books.
                                                            provider or seeker) with the appropriate resources of
3. Explicit to explicit knowledge via combination. It
                                                            knowledge. The interactions of these components are
    involves the conversion of explicit knowledge into
                                                            used to handle the four knowledge transformation
    more complex sets of explicit knowledge.
                                                            processes in a traditional classroom, socialization,
4. Explicit to tacit knowledge via internalization. It
                                                            externalization, internalization and combination.
    requires the individual to identify the knowledge
    relevant for one‟s self. Learning by doing,
                                                            Communication component is used to communicate
    training, and exercises allow the individual to
                                                            knowledge sharing among students and teacher. They
    access and understand the knowledge.
                                                            can use the chat-rooms to support internalization and
                                                            socialization. A teacher can describe the course
Knowledge management (KM) is a necessary and
                                                            material as knowledge, and students can ask some
integral part of the effective and successful activities.
                                                            topics that are not understood well. Or a teacher can
Knowledge management (KM) is the set of human,
                                                            provide the open discussion forum, and students can
process and tool interventions to support the creation,
                                                            involve that forum directly. A teacher can analyze
assimilation, dissemination and application of
                                                            some feedbacks and questions from students, and
knowledge [6]. Knowledge creation is the
                                                            he/she can compile and transfer into knowledge
improvement of and/or increasing the certainty of a
                                                            repository. Or a teacher can ask some students to
piece of knowledge and occurs during a learning
                                                            perform it. This process is one of externalization
experience. Knowledge assimilation is the collection,
                                                            processes that can be supported by KMS in a
storage, and refinement of the created knowledge
                                                            traditional classroom. Teacher and students can add
with existing knowledge. Knowledge dissemination is
                                                            the knowledge repository through searching Internet
the retrieval and distribution of the knowledge to use
                                                            web sites, and they can make one summary paper to
in another learning experience. Knowledge



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be transferred into knowledge repository. This is one
of combination processes.

From model of knowledge management system, we
can capture processes and entities, and create a
logical data diagram. Here is a logical data structure
that can be used to represent the model of knowledge
management system (KMS).




                                                                     Figure-5: Knowledge Matrix

                                                         5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

                                                         Knowledge management has been practiced and
                                                         reported, but it is barely introduced and practiced in
                                                         university courses. Knowledge management in a
                                                         traditional classroom can emphasize involvement of
             Figure-3: Logical Diagram                   students and teacher in knowledge sharing and
                                                         communication that enhance the learning process in a
The main entities consist of member, knowledge,          traditional classroom. And also they can improve
classroom and type of knowledge. Member entity           their creativities, because they get the ideas or
handles information of student and teacher profile.      information that are related to their studies from
This entity is used to control the learning process      anywhere using the Internet resources.
when knowledge management system is applied to
support a traditional classroom. Knowledge can           We have presented a model and logical structure that
consist of some types of knowledge, such course          can be adopted to support knowledge management in
material, Internet web sites, papers, results of         a traditional classroom. Also this system can be
discussion forums and consultation. This logical         enhanced with intelligent agents to improve the
diagram can support more than once classroom.            routine tasks in a traditional classroom, such as
Students and teacher can list the classrooms that they   keeping up-to-date new knowledge or information.
select. Figure-4 depicts the home interface of KMS
model.
                                                         REFERENCE:
                                                         [1] Charles B. Andoh, David Asirvatham, Mohamad
                                                         Haitan Rachman, “Intelligent Agents for e-
                                                         Education”, Malaysian Science and technology
                                                         Congress, Penang, Malaysia, 2001.
                                                         [2] Mahnaz Moallem, “Applying Constructivist and
                                                         Objectivist Learning Theories in the Design of A
                                                         Web-Based Course: Implications for Practice”,
                                                         Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp.
                                                         113 – 125, 2001
                                                         [3] http://www.campaign-for-
                                                         learning.org.uk/aboutlearning/aboutlearning.htm
                                                         [4] Thomas Davenport, Laurence Prusak, Working
                                                         Knowledge How Organizations Manage What They
                                                         Know, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998,
                                                         ch. 1, pp. 1-24
         Figure 4: Interface of KMS Model
                                                         [5] Ikujiro Nonaka, Noboru Knno, “The Concept of
                                                         „Ba‟: Building a Foundation for Knowledge
Students and teacher can get a quick view of the
                                                         Creation”, California management Review, Vol. 40,
number of knowledge through figure-5. This matrix is
                                                         No. 3.
called the knowledge matrix, and each cell show the
                                                         [6] Tim Kotnour, Collen Orr, Jeff Spaulding, John
number of knowledge in the particular type of
                                                         Guidi, “Determining the Benefit of Knowledge
knowledge. By clicking on any of cells in the matrix,
                                                         Management Activities”, International Conference on
they can get the list of knowledge in that cell.
                                                         Systems, Man, Cybernetics, Orlando, Florida,
                                                         October1997, pp. 94-99.



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