Knowledge Management System Model
in a Traditional Classroom
Mohamad Haitan Rachman and Charles B. Andoh
Faculty of Information Technology Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, Malaysia
ABSTRACT 2. LEARNING PROCESS
The quality of learning process in a traditional The educational system can be depicted as the
classroom is dependent on the activity level of relationship between the student and the teacher .
students and teacher that are involved, also on more The teacher chooses the learning methods that
complex factors, such as different background of employ book and other traditional learning means and
students, keeping up-to-date with new knowledge or courseware as new learning means. There is direct
information, experiences, and tasks. Knowledge interaction between the student and the teacher. The
management can be applied to handle learning student uses books and other traditional learning
process in a traditional classroom and improve the means in one-way interaction, and courseware as new
knowledge communication and sharing processes. learning means in two-way interaction. The teacher
The aim of this paper proposes a model of knowledge performs evaluation of interaction between the
management system (KMS) to enhance knowledge student and the courseware. In this sense, the teacher
communication and sharing process in a traditional and the courseware are teaching units, and the student
classroom. is the learning unit. The remaining entities support
Keyword: Knowledge Management, Learning
The quality of learning process in a traditional
classroom is dependent on the activity level of
students and teacher that are involved, also on more
complex factors, such as different background of
students, keeping up-to-date with new knowledge or
information, experiences, and tasks.
Knowledge management can be applied to handle
learning process in a traditional classroom and
improve the knowledge communication and sharing Figure-1: The Educational System
processes. Knowledge management (KM) is the
collection processes that support the creation, Two commonly used instructional models and
dissemination and utilization of knowledge between principles are objectivist and constructivist .
individuals and groups. A well-structured knowledge Objectivists believe that knowledge and truth exist
repository can improves the flexible knowledge outside the mind of the individual and are, therefore,
acquisition, sharing and application. objective. Learners may be told about the world and
be expected to replicate its content and structure in
The approach to build knowledge management their thinking. Constructivists, on the other hand,
system (KMS) combines a design process, which believe that knowledge and truth are constructed by
leads to the development of a KMS, a knowledge the learner and do not exist outside of his mind.
management toolkit, which provides concepts of Therefore, according to constructivists, learners
knowledge management, e.g. shared perspective of construct their own knowledge by actively
information and knowledge, and a learning process, participating in the learning process.
which provides concepts of transferring and
understanding the knowledge and experiences. Learning is a process of active engagement with
experience. It is what people do when they want to
In this paper, we propose a model of knowledge make sense of the world. It may involve an increase
management system (KMS) to enhance knowledge in skills, knowledge, understanding, values and the
communication and sharing process in a traditional capacity to reflect. Effective learning leads to change,
development and a desire to learn more . There are application is the use of past knowledge to help
four learning styles: solving the current problem. Knowledge is created in
Activists – learning by doing. a learning experience, such as problem-solving
Reflectors – learning by watching other people experience, project or task.
Theorists – understating the theory and having a 4. MODEL OF KMS FOR A TRADITIONAL
clear grasp of the concept before doing. CLASSROOM
Pragmatists – having some practical tips and
techniques from someone with experience before The model of knowledge management system (KMS)
doing. consists of three components: (1) Control, (2)
Knowledge Repository, and (3) Communication.
3. KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT
Knowledge is defined as a fluid mix of framed
experience, values, contextual information and expert
insight that provides a framework for evaluating and
incorporating new experiences and information .
There are two kinds of knowledge, explicit
knowledge and tacit knowledge . Explicit
knowledge can be expressed in words and numbers
and shared in the form of data, scientific formulae,
specifications, manuals and the like. This kind of
knowledge can be readily transmitted between
individuals formally and systematically. Tacit
knowledge is highly personal and hard to formalize,
making it difficult to communicate or share with
others. It is deeply rooted in an individual‟s actions
Figure-2: Components of KMS
and experiences. Nonaka  identifies four
knowledge transformation processes: socialization,
Communication may be a one-to-one, one-to-many,
externalization, combination and internalization.
or a many-to-many interactions. The chat-rooms,
1. Tacit to tacit knowledge via socialization. It
consultation, and discussion forums can be used to
involves the sharing of tacit knowledge between
communicate among teachers and students.
Knowledge repository contains the structured and
2. Tacit to explicit knowledge via externalization. It
documented learning knowledge. It can reside on
requires the expression of tacit knowledge and its
papers, course material, and links to web sites.
translation into comprehensible forms that can be
Control provides students and teacher (knowledge
understood by others, such as articles, books.
provider or seeker) with the appropriate resources of
3. Explicit to explicit knowledge via combination. It
knowledge. The interactions of these components are
involves the conversion of explicit knowledge into
used to handle the four knowledge transformation
more complex sets of explicit knowledge.
processes in a traditional classroom, socialization,
4. Explicit to tacit knowledge via internalization. It
externalization, internalization and combination.
requires the individual to identify the knowledge
relevant for one‟s self. Learning by doing,
Communication component is used to communicate
training, and exercises allow the individual to
knowledge sharing among students and teacher. They
access and understand the knowledge.
can use the chat-rooms to support internalization and
socialization. A teacher can describe the course
Knowledge management (KM) is a necessary and
material as knowledge, and students can ask some
integral part of the effective and successful activities.
topics that are not understood well. Or a teacher can
Knowledge management (KM) is the set of human,
provide the open discussion forum, and students can
process and tool interventions to support the creation,
involve that forum directly. A teacher can analyze
assimilation, dissemination and application of
some feedbacks and questions from students, and
knowledge . Knowledge creation is the
he/she can compile and transfer into knowledge
improvement of and/or increasing the certainty of a
repository. Or a teacher can ask some students to
piece of knowledge and occurs during a learning
perform it. This process is one of externalization
experience. Knowledge assimilation is the collection,
processes that can be supported by KMS in a
storage, and refinement of the created knowledge
traditional classroom. Teacher and students can add
with existing knowledge. Knowledge dissemination is
the knowledge repository through searching Internet
the retrieval and distribution of the knowledge to use
web sites, and they can make one summary paper to
in another learning experience. Knowledge
be transferred into knowledge repository. This is one
of combination processes.
From model of knowledge management system, we
can capture processes and entities, and create a
logical data diagram. Here is a logical data structure
that can be used to represent the model of knowledge
management system (KMS).
Figure-5: Knowledge Matrix
5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
Knowledge management has been practiced and
reported, but it is barely introduced and practiced in
university courses. Knowledge management in a
traditional classroom can emphasize involvement of
Figure-3: Logical Diagram students and teacher in knowledge sharing and
communication that enhance the learning process in a
The main entities consist of member, knowledge, traditional classroom. And also they can improve
classroom and type of knowledge. Member entity their creativities, because they get the ideas or
handles information of student and teacher profile. information that are related to their studies from
This entity is used to control the learning process anywhere using the Internet resources.
when knowledge management system is applied to
support a traditional classroom. Knowledge can We have presented a model and logical structure that
consist of some types of knowledge, such course can be adopted to support knowledge management in
material, Internet web sites, papers, results of a traditional classroom. Also this system can be
discussion forums and consultation. This logical enhanced with intelligent agents to improve the
diagram can support more than once classroom. routine tasks in a traditional classroom, such as
Students and teacher can list the classrooms that they keeping up-to-date new knowledge or information.
select. Figure-4 depicts the home interface of KMS
 Charles B. Andoh, David Asirvatham, Mohamad
Haitan Rachman, “Intelligent Agents for e-
Education”, Malaysian Science and technology
Congress, Penang, Malaysia, 2001.
 Mahnaz Moallem, “Applying Constructivist and
Objectivist Learning Theories in the Design of A
Web-Based Course: Implications for Practice”,
Educational Technology & Society, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp.
113 – 125, 2001
 Thomas Davenport, Laurence Prusak, Working
Knowledge How Organizations Manage What They
Know, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1998,
ch. 1, pp. 1-24
Figure 4: Interface of KMS Model
 Ikujiro Nonaka, Noboru Knno, “The Concept of
„Ba‟: Building a Foundation for Knowledge
Students and teacher can get a quick view of the
Creation”, California management Review, Vol. 40,
number of knowledge through figure-5. This matrix is
called the knowledge matrix, and each cell show the
 Tim Kotnour, Collen Orr, Jeff Spaulding, John
number of knowledge in the particular type of
Guidi, “Determining the Benefit of Knowledge
knowledge. By clicking on any of cells in the matrix,
Management Activities”, International Conference on
they can get the list of knowledge in that cell.
Systems, Man, Cybernetics, Orlando, Florida,
October1997, pp. 94-99.