ch ppt Systems Analysis and Design Allen Dennis and Fundamental Analysis by mikeholy


									        Chapter 4:
Requirements Determination
                  Key Ideas
• Goal of the analysis phase:
  – Truly understand the requirements of the new
  – Develop a system that addresses them -- or decide
    a new system isn’t needed.
• The line between systems analysis and
  systems design is very blurry
                  Key Ideas
• The first challenge is finding the right people
  to participate.
• The second challenge is collecting and
  integrating the information
       What is a Requirement
• Business Requirement
  – Statement of what the system must do
  – Focus on what the system must do, not how to do it
• There are 2 kinds of requirements
  – Functional
  – Nonfunctional
       Functional Requirement
• Defines the functions the system must carry
• Specifies the process that must be performed
• Examples:
  – Must search for inventory
  – Must perform these calculations
  – Must produce a specific report
          Nonfunctional Requirements

•   Deals with how the system behaves
•   Operational – Physical/technical environment
•   Performance – Speed and reliability
•   Security – Who can use the system
•   Cultural & Political – Company policies, legal
       Requirements Definition
• Report that lists the functional and
  nonfunctional requirements
• All requirements must be traceable back to
  business requiremets
          Analysis Across Areas
• Analysis of the IS system is:
  – A business task
  – An IT task
• Need to balance expertise of users and
The SDLC Process
 Three Steps of the Analysis Phase
• Understanding the “As-Is” system
• Identifying improvement opportunities
• Developing the “To-Be” system concept
Three Steps of the Analysis Phase
• Understanding the “As-Is” system
  – To-Be derived from As-Is
  – Can’t focus just on what users want, need to
    understand what they need
  – Can’t focus just on dry analysis
    need to listen to users’ experience
Three Steps of the Analysis Phase
• Identifying improvement opportunities
  – Need business and technology skills
  – Business skills
     • Improvements in business processes
        – improve what we do
     • Technology skills
        – improve how we do it
 Three Steps of the Analysis Phase
• Developing the “To-Be” system concept
  – Starts out as a fuzzy set of possible improvement
  – Refined into a viable system concept
  – Analysis ends with a system proposal
  – Proposal presented to approval committee in the
    form of a system walk-through
                  Proposal Outline
•   Table of contents
•   Executive summary
•   System request (from chapter 2)
•   Work plan (from chapter 3)
•   Analysis strategy
    – Summary of analysis tasks from this chapter
• Recommended system
    – Summary of system concept with justification
    – Possibly different alternatives
     Proposal Outline (cont’d)
• Feasibility analysis (from chapter 2)
• Behavioral and structural models
  (from chapters 5, 6, 7)
• Appendices
  Survey results, interviews, industry reports, potential
  design issues etc.
  Anything needed to support recommendation
    Three Fundamental Analysis
  – Business process automation
  – Business Process Improvement
  – Business Process Reengineering
    Business Process Automation
• Makes almost no changes to business processes
  – Just makes them more efficient
• Improves efficiency by automating the business
• Least impact on users
  – They do the same things, just more efficiently
  1. (BPA) Understanding the As-Is
• Much effort spent here
  – To-Be system continues to support As-Is system
  – Will be doing essentially the same things
  – Build detailed behavioral and structural models
     • To document As-Is system
   2. (BPA) Identifying Improvement
• Most improvements come from problems in the
  current system
• Two techniques for identifying improvements:
  – Problem Analysis
  – Root Cause Analysis
            Problem Analysis
• Problem Analysis
  – Most commonly used
  – Asks users to identify problems and solutions (users
    love to do this anyway)
  – Very good at improving users’ efficiency
  – But Rarely finds significant monetary benefits
         Root Cause Analysis
• Identify symptoms
• Trace each back to
  its causes


                           ROOT CAUSES
         Root Cause Analysis
• Root Cause Analysis
  – Tracing symptoms to their causes
  – Problem analysis focuses on solutions to symptoms
    of problems
  – Root cause analysis focuses on the problems
  – Generate list of all problems
  – Prioritize the list
  – Tracing symptoms to their causes
          Root Cause Analysis
• Root Cause Analysis
  – Users generate list of problems with As-Is system
  – Prioritize the list
  – Generate all possible root causes
  – Investigate each, until true root cause is identified
  – Look for root causes that fix more than one problem
Root Cause Analysis Example
  3. (BPA) Developing To-Be System
• To-Be system is quite similar to As-Is system
  – No real change is business processes
  – Models of To-Be system not much different from As-
    Is system
  – Often models are just copied and small changes are
    Business Process Improvement
• Goal is to improve the business processes
• Change what the users do,
  not just how efficiently they do it
• Changes to business process must be decided
• Decisions to change the business processes
  cannot be made by the analyst
   1. (BPI) Understanding the As-Is
• Still need to spend significant effort to
  understand As-Is system
  – The new system will support most of the As-Is
  – New system will do many of the same things
  – But some processes will be very different
  2. (BPI) Identifying Improvement
• Focus considerable effort here
  – Looking for improvements to business processes
  – Users and managers
    actively seek out new business ideas and
    2. (BPI) Identifying Improvement
•        Four techniques for identifying improvement
    1.     Duration Analysis
    2.     Activity-Based Costing
    3.     Informal Benchmarking
    4.     Formal Benchmarking
               Duration Analysis
• Calculate time for each process step
• Calculate time for overall process
• Compare the two
     If sum(time for each individual step)
        is much less than
     sum (time for overall process)
   – Then there is a problem
• Will need to develop
   – Process integration or
   – Parallelization
            Duration Analysis
• When many different people work on small
  parts of the overall process
• Process integration
  – Change fundamental process so fewer people work
    on the input
• Parallelization
  – Change the process so the people can do their part
    at the same time
         Activity-Based Costing
• Calculate cost of each process step
• Consider both direct and indirect costs
• Identify most costly steps and focus
  improvement efforts on them
• Studying how other organizations perform the
  same business process
• Informal benchmarking
  – Check with customers
  – Pose as customers
• Formal benchmarking
  – Establish formal
    relationship with other organization
   3. (BPI) Developing To-Be System
• A small amount of information gathering is
• To-Be system is still very similar to As-Is
• But some (often very few) processes are
  completely reworked
  Business Process Reengineering
• “Fundamental rethinking and radical redesign
  of business processes to achieve dramatic
• Throw away everything
• Start with a blank page
• Appealing, but very expensive and risky
  1. (BPR) Understanding the As-Is
• Little effort spend here
• Just get a basic understanding of the As-Is
  – It’s going to be scrapped anyway
  2. (BPR) Identifying Improvement
• Focus is on radical improvements
  – These are not easy to identify
• Need techniques that are more powerful than is
  BPA or BPI
• Need to be pushed to
  “think outside of the box”
       Techniques for Identifying
      Improvements Opportunities
1.   Outcome Analysis
2.   Breaking Assumptions
3.   Technology Analysis
4.   Activity Elimination
5.   Proxy Benchmarking
6.   Process Simplification
            Outcome Analysis
• Consider desirable outcomes from customers’
• Pretend to be the customer
• Consider what the organization could enable
  the customer to do
  – Insurance company fixes cars
         Breaking Assumptions
• Identify fundamental business rules
• Systematically break each rule
• Identify how the the business would benefit if
  rule is broken
  – Bank accepts NSF checks & draws funds from
    credit card
             Technology Analysis
• Analysts & managers list important and
  interesting technologies
• The group identifies
  – How each can be applied to business
  – The benefits of each scenario
     • Saturn building intranet with suppliers for JIT parts delivery
            Activity Elimination
• Identify what would happen if each
  organizational activity were eliminated
• Use “force-fit” to test all possibilities, even
  though some results might be silly
   – Mortgage company removes approval process
          Proxy Benchmarking
• List different industries that have a similar
• Look for techniques from other industries that
  could be applied by the organization
• Throw in a few radically different industries
  – Hotel might look at:
  – Airlines, newspapers, rock concerts
        Process Simplification
• Eliminate complexity from routine transactions
• Concentrate separate processes on exception
  – Online course registration
  – Handle lack of prerequisites separately
  3. (BPR) Developing To-Be System
• New system is radically different
• Requires extensive information gathering
         Developing an Analysis Plan
• Analysis Plan: plan for activities during the
  analysis phase
• Select analysis strategy first
  – Determined by project sponsor
  – It is a business decision
     •   Potential business value
     •   Project cost
     •   Breadth of analysis
     •   Risk
              Analysis Strategies
• Potential business value
  – BPA: benefits are tactical and small
  – BPI: potential benefits are moderate
  – BPR: largest potential benefits
               Analysis Strategies
• Project cost
  – BPA
     • Narrow scope, lest expensive
  – BPI
     • Depending on scope, can be moderately expensive
  – BPR
     • Almost always very expensive
               Analysis Strategies
• Breadth of analysis
• The extent to which the analysis looks throughout
  the entire business function and beyond
  – BPA
     • Very narrow focus on current systems only
  – BPI
     • More extensive, but usually in just one narrow area
  – BPR
     • Broad perspective, focusing on many business processes
                 Analysis Strategies
• Risk – of failure due to:
  – Being unable to complete the system
  – The completed system being unable to deliver the
    business benefits
     • BPA
        – Low risk (same processes used)
     • BPI
        – Low to Moderate
     • BPR
        – High (completely new system)
   Characteristics of Analysis
                     BPA            BPI           BPR

  Potential      Low-Moderate    Moderate        High
Business Value

 Project Cost        Low        Low-Moderate     High

 Breadth of        Narrow        Narrow-       Very Broad
  Analysis                       Moderate

     Risk            Low        Low-Moderate   Very High
   Avoid Classic Analysis Mistakes
• Reduced analysis time
  – Solution?
  – Use RAD and timeboxing

• Requirement gold-plating
  – Unnecessary features are added
  – Users over-specification of features
  – Solution?
  – Expensive requirements should be re-verified with requester
    Lower cost solutions should be looked at
                   Analysis Tasks
•        How do we do the following?
    1.     Understanding the As-Is system
    2.     Identifying improvements
    3.     Developing a concept for To-Be system
               Analysis Tasks
• To accomplish these tasks:
  – Need to gather information
• Many projects go wrong
  – due to a poor understanding of the requirements
    early on
    1st challenge of Info Gathering
Finding the right people to participate
   2nd challenge of Info Gathering
Deciding how to gather the information
Five techniques:
  1.   Interviews
  2.   Joint Application Design (JAD)
  3.   Questionnaires
  4.   Document Analysis
  5.   Observation
• Most commonly used technique
• Very natural
  – If you need to know something, you ask someone
• There are 5 basic steps to interviewing…
     Interviews -- Five Basic Steps
1.   Selecting interviewees
2.   Designing interview questions
3.   Preparing for the interview
4.   Conducting the interview
5.   Post-interview follow-up
      1. Selecting Interviewees
• Need an interview schedule
  – list all people to be interviewed
  – when each will be interviewed
  – for what purpose they will be interviewed
• The list may be informal… or it may be part of
  the Analysis Plan
• List is based on info. needed
      1. Selecting Interviewees
• Good to get different perspectives
  – Managers
  – Users
  – Ideally, all key stakeholders
• Select people for political reasons
• Interviewing is iterative
  – List often grows by 50% to 75 %
       2. Designing Questions
• Don't ask for information that can be obtained
• Want to show interviewee respect
• Will get better information anyway
  2. Designing Questions
Types of Questions               Examples

Closed-Ended Questions   *   How many telephone
                             orders are received per day?
                         *   How do customers place orders?
                         *   What additional information
                             would you like the new system
                             to provide?

Open-Ended Questions     *   What do you think about the
                             current system?
                         *   What are some of the problems
                             you face on a daily basis?
                         *   How do you decide what types of
                             marketing campaign to run?

Probing Questions        *   Why?
                         *   Can you give me an example?
                         *   Can you explain that in a bit
                             more detail?
       Closed-Ended Questions
• Requires a specific answer
• Often multiple choice
• Good for specific, precise info.
  – not "are there a lot of requests?"
  – but "how many requests are there?"
• Analyst is control
• Doesn't uncover "why"
        Open-Ended Questions
• Leave room for elaboration
• Gives interviewee more control
• Yields more rich, deep info
            Probing Questions
•   Follow-up questions
•   For clarification
•   Encouraged to expand answer
•   Show your listening and interested
        2. Designing Questions
• No one type of question is best
• Initially use unstructured interviews to
  determine As-Is system (open-ended
• As the analyst gains knowledge, structured
  interviews will be used (closed-ended
        2. Designing Questions
• Unstructured interview
  – Broad, roughly defined information
• Structured interview
  – More specific information
           Interviewing Strategies

                   High-level:       can order
                Very general       processing be

    Medium-level:      How can we reduce the
Moderately specific number of times that customers
                        return ordered items?

   Low-level:          How can we reduce the number of
Very specific       errors in order processing (e.g., shipping
                              the wrong products)?

     3. Preparing for the Interview
• Prepare for the interview in the same way you would
  for a presentation
• Prepare general interview plan
   – List of question
   – Anticipated answers and follow-ups
   – Segues between related topics
• Confirm interviewee's area of knowledge
   – Don't ask questions that can't be answered
• Set priorities in case of time shortage
    3. Preparing for the Interview
• Structured Interviews with closed-ended
  questions take longer
• Don't try to "wing it"
  –will need follow-up interviews
  –user's don't like you to waste their time
          4. Conducting the Interview
•   Appear professional and unbiased
•   Build rapport (and trust) with interviewee
•   Record all information
•   Check on organizational policy regarding tape recording
•   Be sure you understand all issues and terms
•   Separate facts from opinions
•   Give interviewee time to ask questions
•   Be sure to thank the interviewee
•   End on time
        4. Conducting the Interview
               Practical Tips
•   Don’t worry, be happy
•   Pay attention
•   Summarize key points
•   Be succinct
•   Be honest
•   Watch body language
        5. Post-Interview Follow-Up
•   Prepare interview notes
•   Prepare interview report within 48 hours
•   Get buy-in from interviewee
•   Look for gaps and new questions
              JAD Key Ideas
• Allows project managers, users, and
  developers to work together
• May reduce scope creep by 50%
• Avoids requirements being too specific or too
    Joint Application Design (JAD)
           Important Roles
• Facilitator
• Scribe
     Joint Application Design (JAD)
•   U-Shaped seating
•   Away from distractions
•   Whiteboard/flip chart
•   Prototyping tools
•   e-JAD
                The JAD Session
• Include 10 to 20 users
• Tend to last 5 to 10 days over a three week period
• Prepare questions as with interviews
• Formal agenda and groundrules
• Facilitator activities
   – Stay neutral
   – Keep session on track
   – Help with technical terms and jargon
   – Record group input
   – Help resolve issues
• Post-session follow-up
          Questionnaire Steps
• Selecting participants
   – Using samples of the population
• Designing the questionnaire
   – More important than interview questions
   – Prioritize questions to grab attention
   – Distinguish between
     • Fact-oriented questions (specific answers)
     • Opinion questions (agree – disagree scale)
  – Test the questionnaire on colleagues
            Questionnaire Steps
• Administering the questionnaire
   – Need to get good response rate
   – Explain its importance & how it will be used
   – Give expected response date
   – Give it out in person
   – Follow up on late returns
   – Have supervisors follow up
   – Promise to report results
• Questionnaire follow-up
   – Send results to participants
4. Document Analysis
            Document Analysis
• Provides clues about the "formal" existing As-Is
• Typical documents
  – Forms
  – Reports
  – Policy manuals
• Look for user additions to forms
• Look for unused form elements
• Do document analysis before interviews
5. Observation
• Users/managers often don’t remember everything they
• Validates info gathered in other ways
• Behaviors change when people are watched
• Keep low profile, don’t change the process
• Careful not to ignore periodic activities
   – Weekly … Monthly … Annual
           Selecting the Appropriate
                   Interview   JAD         Question-   Document   Observation
                                           naires      Analysis
Type of            As-is,      As-is,      As-is,      As-is      As-is
information        improves,   improves,   improves
                   to-be       to-be
Depth of info      High        High        Medium      Low        Low
Breadth of info    Low         Medium      High        High       Low
Info integration   Low         High        Low         Low        Low
User               Medium      High        Low         Low        Low
Cost               Medium      Low-        Low         Low        Low-
                               medium                             medium

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