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TITLE: ROLE OF THAI PHARMACISTS IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINES (DS/CM): COMPARISION OF COMMUNITY AND HOSPITAL PHARMACISTS’ OPINIONS Stream Structural Equation Modelling Theory and Applications Authors Tipaporn Kanjanarach B Sc in Pharm, MPH Research student School of Public Health University of Sydney. Ines Krass B.Pharm, DHP, PhD, Grad Dip Ed Studies (Health Education), MPS Associate professor in Pharmacy Practice Faculty of Pharmacy University of Sydney Robert G Cumming. MB BS, MPH, PhD. Professor of Epidemiology and Geriatric Medicine School of Public Health and Centre for Education and Research on Ageing University of Sydney. Email address and telephone number of the contact author Tipaporn Kanjanarach School of Public Health, Edward Ford Building, A27 University of Sydney Camperdown NSW 2006 Australia Tel 61-2-9351-4382, 61-2-9351-3645 email@example.com , firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT Self–administered postal questionnaires were used to collect data from community pharmacists (CP) and hospital pharmacists (HP) in 5 randomly selected provinces in the North-eastern region of Thailand (603 pharmacists). Factor analysis, using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique, was performed in the statistical software AMOS version 5.0. Chi-square difference test was used to determine the invariance between CP and HP model. Separate analyses were conducted for CP and HP. The overall reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha using the statistical program SPSS for Windows, Release 11.5. Construct validity was assessed by Chi-square test, performed in AMOS. A P-value greater than 0.05 supported construct validity. The response rate was 72%. Of 404 questionnaires which contained enough information for further analysis, 207 were from CPs and 182 from HPs. In the CP model, two constructs were extracted from 10 opinion statements about services in the area of DS/CM. The first construct, Main Provider, comprised 3 statements reflecting that pharmacists, not shop assistants, should be the main personnel providing assistance to customers purchasing DS/CM. The second construct, Pharmacists’ Tasks, comprised 3 statements on provision of information and 1 statement on determining the necessity of use of DS/CM. The model fit the data well and had construct validity 2 ( 13 = 25.323, Bollen-stine P =.116, AGFI = .93, TLI =.94, RMR =.04). Cronbach’s alpha for Main Provider, and Pharmacists’ Tasks were .71 and .72 respectively. In the HP model, two similar constructs were identified.. The first labelled as, Main Provider, comprised the same statements as in CP model. The second, Pharmacists’ Tasks, comprised 4 statements on provision of information, and 1 statement on reporting adverse effects of 2 DS/CM. The model also fit the data well and had construct validity ( 19 = 27.047, Bollen-stine P =.168, AGFI = .93, TLI =.96, RMR =.03). Cronbach’s alpha for Main Provider, and Pharmacists’ Tasks were .63 and .72 respectively. Respondents identified that additional support in the form of strengthening their knowledge about DS/CM, and allowing only DS/CM products which are safe and meet quality standard to be sold in the market were needed to enable them to fulfil their professional responsibility. It was agreed that pharmacists have a professional role to play in the sale and consultation regarding DS/CM. However, the views of CP and HP differed with respect to the tasks pharmacists should perform in relation to DS/CM. According to CPs, pharmacists should determine whether or not customers should use DS/CM as well as provide customers with necessary information. HPs considered that the pharmacists’ role should focus only on providing information. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and academic institutes are the key organizations to support pharmacists in order to improve their quality of services.
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