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Kanjanarach_Pharmacists

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									TITLE: ROLE OF THAI PHARMACISTS IN DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINES (DS/CM): COMPARISION OF
COMMUNITY AND HOSPITAL PHARMACISTS’ OPINIONS


Stream
Structural Equation Modelling Theory and Applications

Authors
Tipaporn Kanjanarach B Sc in Pharm, MPH
Research student
School of Public Health
University of Sydney.


Ines Krass B.Pharm, DHP, PhD, Grad Dip Ed Studies (Health Education), MPS
Associate professor in Pharmacy Practice
Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Sydney


Robert G Cumming. MB BS, MPH, PhD.
Professor of Epidemiology and Geriatric Medicine
School of Public Health and Centre for Education and Research on Ageing
University of Sydney.



Email address and telephone number of the contact author
Tipaporn Kanjanarach

School of Public Health, Edward Ford Building, A27
University of Sydney
Camperdown NSW 2006
Australia
Tel 61-2-9351-4382, 61-2-9351-3645
kanjant@health.usyd.edu.au , ktipaporn@yahoo.com
                                                      ABSTRACT

Self–administered postal questionnaires were used to collect data from community pharmacists (CP) and hospital
pharmacists (HP) in 5 randomly selected provinces in the North-eastern region of Thailand (603 pharmacists).
Factor analysis, using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) technique, was performed in the statistical software
AMOS version 5.0. Chi-square difference test was used to determine the invariance between CP and HP model.
Separate analyses were conducted for CP and HP. The overall reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha
using the statistical program SPSS for Windows, Release 11.5. Construct validity was assessed by Chi-square
test, performed in AMOS. A P-value greater than 0.05 supported construct validity.

The response rate was 72%. Of 404 questionnaires which contained enough information for further analysis, 207
were from CPs and 182 from HPs. In the CP model, two constructs were extracted from 10 opinion statements
about services in the area of DS/CM. The first construct, Main Provider, comprised 3 statements reflecting that
pharmacists, not shop assistants, should be the main personnel providing assistance to customers purchasing
DS/CM. The second construct, Pharmacists’ Tasks, comprised 3 statements on provision of information and 1
statement on determining the necessity of use of DS/CM. The model fit the data well and had construct validity
  2
(    13   = 25.323, Bollen-stine P =.116, AGFI = .93, TLI =.94, RMR =.04). Cronbach’s alpha for Main Provider, and
Pharmacists’ Tasks were .71 and .72 respectively. In the HP model, two similar constructs were identified.. The
first labelled as, Main Provider, comprised the same statements as in CP model. The second, Pharmacists’
Tasks, comprised 4 statements on provision of information, and 1 statement on reporting adverse effects of
                                                                          2
DS/CM. The model also fit the data well and had construct validity (         19   = 27.047, Bollen-stine P =.168, AGFI =
.93, TLI =.96, RMR =.03). Cronbach’s alpha for Main Provider, and Pharmacists’ Tasks were .63 and .72
respectively. Respondents identified that additional support in the form of strengthening their knowledge about
DS/CM, and allowing only DS/CM products which are safe and meet quality standard to be sold in the market
were needed to enable them to fulfil their professional responsibility.

It was agreed that pharmacists have a professional role to play in the sale and consultation regarding DS/CM.
However, the views of CP and HP differed with respect to the tasks pharmacists should perform in relation to
DS/CM. According to CPs, pharmacists should determine whether or not customers should use DS/CM as well as
provide customers with necessary information. HPs considered that the pharmacists’ role should focus only on
providing information. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and academic institutes are the key organizations to
support pharmacists in order to improve their quality of services.

								
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