3rd Global Congress on Engineering Education 2002 UICEE Glasgow, Scotland, 30 June-5 July 2002 Engineering education and training in the field of high technology in the context of “intelligent economics” Yu.P. Pokholkov, B.L. Agranovitch & V.N. Chudinov Russian Association for Engineering Education Moscow, Russia Tomsk Polytechnic University Tomsk, Russia ABSTRACT: The paper is based on the issues of high technology engineering education in the context of emerging intelligent economics. The analysis of the issues covers the fundamental features of a new technology set-up (system) that influence significantly the engineering curricula. The definitions are given to the following notions: high technology and an engineer specialized in the high technology area. Discussed are the ways of solving existing problems of high technology engineering education. The paper suggests that the fundamental educational approach, engineers‟ innovation thinking formation and special training in technology transfer are vital for reorganization of the engineering education curriculum. INTRODUCTION The latest technology set-up is formed together with the creation of transnational virtual corporations on the basis of The authors have been conducting a substantial research based information technologies and global computer networks. on the issues of engineering formation for several years. The research paper  shows that heuristic procedures and methods These producing establishments based on knowledge and high of the “goal tree”, function and structure formation may act as a technology promote the processes of the intensive solid frame for a uniform engineering activity. concentration of intellectual and innovation forces, eliminate the distinctions between goods and services and realize mass The process of a uniform engineering activity creation is production of custom designed goods. It is hardly possible to supposed to involve experts to implement the formal aspect of refer their final products to the national production of a the tree formation, specific features of engineering activity separate country. They can be considered as an aggregate curriculum and to determine how complete, simple and vital the product, the result of international division of labor. acquired goals and functions are. All mentioned above allows Transnational industrial corporations change their idea of the receiving a standardized variant of a uniform education activity. economic situation due to growing importance of such That is supposed to be the basis for reorganization of existing intangible assets as human, structural, managerial and engineering curricula for a new generation of specialists. The innovation resources and others. “Intelligent economy” analyzed “goal tree”, functions and structures allowed the promotes the global changing of technology set-up in the line of authors in their works ,  and  to show that engineering developing regions, education and information service, education curriculum can be regarded as a combination of providing healthy environment, improving the quality of life training, methodology standard formation and habilitating and contributing to creative personal self-actualization . process. Therefore, the modern period of social and economic Training implies acquisition of humanitarian, socio-economic, development can be characterized as a period of global mathematic, scientific, general and specific attainments on the technological development of the world. Now it is already required level. universally recognized that the sources and main motivating forces of the strong economic growth are scientific and Education along with training provides graduate‟s methodology technical ideas and discoveries, high technology and scientific standard formation, mastering skills and methods in cognitive, production, intellectual and educational potential of the professional, communicative, and value forming activity on the personnel rather than mere capital accumulation. required level. Russia accumulated vast resources in the area of high Habilitating process along with education and training give full technology. The facts that engineering education and industry preparation of an individual to the professional career. in Russia have existed for more than three hundred years, fundamental research in various fields was well financed in last Within the framework of this paper the authors continue years, and Russia is one of the first countries in the world in the analyzing and extending the developed methodological number of highly qualified research workers allowed the principles of professional engineers specialized in high country to accumulate vast intellectual resources which are its technology education in the context of developing “intelligent principal property now. economy”. Both Russian (the Russian Academy of Engineering, Russian Association for Engineering Education, League of Russian Independent Scientists) and foreign experts (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) evaluate the existing in Russia intellectual property as ten times as much as the basic assets of the country. According to the experts from the Russian Association for Engineering Education, engineering universities and scientific establishments attached to the, we have accumulated more than forty thousand high technologies, high-tech techniques and complete scientific and technical projects. The Innovation Activity Committee of the European Community repeatedly emphasizes in its annual reports on the innovation activity analysis that innovation is a key factor in the new century, and the true wealth of a country is its intellectual property. At the same time, the EC Committee admits that A professional engineer in high technology is able to fully Europe has been facing a considerable decrease in innovation combine research, designing and entrepreneurship that are activity in the economy for the last 15-20 years, mentions aimed at highly effective structure creation that promote the innovation challenge and innovation stagnation. As American growth and development in various fields of social activities. politicians and experts say, growing concern of modern states in the technological development of their countries and According to the above-mentioned definition, a professional providing them with up-to-date technologies to promote the engineer in the field of high technology is an explorer, growth and development of various fields of social and intellectual value creator who knows how to put them into economic activity is due to the fact that high-tech production is practice and to create on their basis new material values as well a determining factor of economic development in the 21 st as to convert the latter into goods. Century. In the near future, the USA and the countries of South-East Asia will face the phenomenon of innovation Complexity of training of specialists in the area of high challenge. technology is concerned with necessity to combine profound mastering of fundamental knowledge and engineering In its report submitted in September 1997, the International creativity, as well as entrepreneurial ability. Bank for Reconstruction and Development stated, “We are facing a unique situation in our history. New technologies The solution of the problem of training specialists in the area of together with reforms and investments into education give high technology requires reorganization of curriculum, shift to developing countries the possibility of rapid economic growth. new educational technologies, and new forms of training It especially concerns the group of countries possessing half of administration. It is also essential to incorporate industrial and world resources. Russia together with China, India, Indonesia scientific community potential into modern training of and Brazil will have made five new economic „tigers‟ and will specialists (Fig.1). play an important and active role in global economy by 2010- 2015 (D. Stiglech, the Vice-President of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development). It is natural that under such conditions engineering curricula and technologies of engineering education change significantly. This paper covers the problems of developing engineering curricula. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION IN THE FIELD OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY An updated technology set-up is characterized by its information telecommunications approach. The key role is played by global information network, systems of artificial intelligence and integrated high-speed transport Reorganization of curriculum in training of high technology communications. The recent developments in energy storage specialists demands a fundamental approach in the first place, and ecology technologies, in nuclear power and space formation of creativity among specialists and special training engineering, in structure material with required properties according to the technology transfer. With all this going on, the manufacturing and flexible process of automatic production requirements refer equally to research, designing, and are used. entrepreneurial training. High technology is understood in the paper as a high-end As a consequence of systematic analysis of the factors technology promoting the growth and development in various discussed above, the curriculum of training of specialists in the fields of socio-economic activities and insuring peak efficiency area of high technology includes mastering of humanitarian, as well as their harmonious involvement in natural and social socio-economic, mathematic, scientific, general and specific systems (Table 1). attainments. It also involves formation of methods of cognitive, professional, communicative, value forming activities, and complex preparation of the graduate for professional activity. The knowledge system feature of training of engineer in the area of high technology lies in solid scientific, mathematic, world view basis. It lies in breadth of interdisciplinary system- integrative knowledge of nature, society, and world outlook, high level of general and specific attainments, which provide solution in thorny problems. Universally recognized idea in training engineers in the area of high technology is that conventional approach to professional education as learning certain amount of information based on teaching fixed courses is not enough. Moreover, a conventional approach becomes a hindrance to engineer‟s new style of thinking. The basis of education must consist not so much of regular courses, rather than methods of thinking and acting, i.e. reflection methods. It is essential to incorporate attainments, FORMATION OF INNOVATIVE THINKING methods of cognition and activity into one coherent entity. An important constituent part of education curriculum should The knowledge system feature of training engineers in the area be education mediums and education technologies, which of high technology should be of high methodology standard, provide conditions to form innovative thinking. Multi-criteria and exceptionally and creatively wield cognition and activity problem setting and solution, non-linear thinking, long lasting methods. skills of wielding of information are implied (Fig. 3). Not only classical methods of natural science aimed at search of one solution are implied, but also the methods of formation and broad inculcation of multi-criteria target settings and innovative problem solving into education. Search for multiple resolution, methods of systematic approach to optimum selection of any decision to satisfy customers‟ needs are of vital importance as well. As the previous experience of specialists‟ training, engineer‟s success is determined in many respects not only by high level SPECIAL TRAINING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE of education and fruitful command of cognition and activity TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER methods, but also by full preparation for professional career. This preparation includes not only the professional activity in An essential element in the area of high technology is normal living conditions and debugged industry, but also in test considered to be guaranteeing of social training in accordance conditions, change in mode of life, ideas, outlook, and attitude. with technology transfer. It includes knowledge acquisition and Thus, a successful professional activity implies not merely the forming of methods of systematic design and programming of high level of training and education, but also intellectual development, strategic management and marketing, wealth, morality, socio-psychological and physical culture of a entrepreneurship, formation of scientific basics of technology human being. transfer, wielding methods and means of cross-culture communication (Fig. 4). While projecting the curriculum and requirements to the standards of engineers‟ training, there is a need to find place for knowledge and methods aimed at developing of self-knowledge and self-actualization. MAKING ENGINEERING EDUCATION FUNDAMENTAL IN THE HIGH TECHNOLOGY FIELD The fundamental education curriculum is achieved through the broadening and deepening of interdisciplinary attainments of a specialist. These attainments are directed to/at solution of CONCLUSIONS thorny problems in scholarly, designing, and entrepreneurial activity. Fundamental education curriculum is achieved through The discussed approaches to specialist training in the area of increasing level of formed methods of cognitive, high technology in the condition of “intelligent economics”, the communicative and value activity; through providing synthesis stated requirements for the curriculum were systematically of science and humanities as well. The fundamental education accomplished in the Tomsk Polytechnic University. These curriculum is achieved by providing change into combined approaches and methods were reached along with the production criteria, effectiveness, and quality; ability to enlarge development of the new generation of the university scientific background of socio-professional life with the help of educational standards, and the quality management of training methodology, generalization and various kinds of modeling and educational services. (Fig.2). REFERENCES 3. Agranovitch, B.L. & Chudinov, V.N., Top specialist training under conditions of scientific technological 1. Agranovitch, B.L. & Chudinov, V.N., System models for development. Proc. 2nd Global Congress on Engineering innovations in modern engineering education. Proc. 4th Education, Wismar, Germany, 402-405 (2000). Global Congress on Engineering Education, Bangkok, 4. Dolgolaptev, A.V. & Rubanov, V.A. The Russian Thailand, 117-122 (2001). national scientific and industrial policy in the 21st 2. Zhurakovsky, V.M., Pokholkov, Yu.P. & Agranovitch, Century. Conceptual principles of engineering education. B.L., Engineering education in Russia and the quality Bauman State University Publishing House, Moscow, training of specialists in the area of high technologies. Russia, 16-27 (2001). Global J. of Engineering Education, Vol. 5, No. 1, 7-17 5. Moskovchenko, A.D., Methodological project of the (2001). university engineering education. The Siberian Academy of Sciences of Higher Education, Tomsk, Russia, (2001).