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					ICT and Society
             ICT and progress
• The arrival of ICT on a wide scale has been a
  quiet revolution.

• 30 years ago you had to queue for your money
  in banks

• What do we do now?
• When ICT was first introduced, there was a lot
  of worry about thousands of people being
  made redundant:
• Those doing routine work such as filing in
• Assembly line workers

• Did this happen?
              The reality is…
• In reality more jobs have been created by
• Call centres depend on extensive databases
• Printing and publishing companies
• Many people make their living in software and
  maintenance of computer systems.
         Work has changed…
• Spreadsheets used by accountants
• Engineers use computers rather than hand
  drawing their designs
• What is the result of this?
• With the help of ICT, people do not have to
  work in the office at all. They can do their
  work at a terminal at home, and submit their
  work to the office through a telephone line.

• What are the advantages of this?
• Easier to concentrate at home than in a noisy office (?)
• No commuting is needed.
• Greater flexibility to do work around home and family
• Cost savings by employers.
• Teams of teleworkers can be made in different
• Recruitment can be from a much wider geographical
• People can work outside standard office hours.
• There can be difficulties in management of a
  workforce that’s not in the office.
• There can be a lack of a corporate identity and
• Employees can feel isolated and miss out on the
  social life of an office.
• Employees might not be able to get help when
  they need it.
• Work can invade on family life, or children can be
  a distraction.
Our penguins more social than us…
            Social interaction
• How did we interact 30 years ago?

• What about now…
             Social interaction
• Face to face            • Social networking sites
• Letter                  • Phone
• Passed on message via     SMS
  a friend                • E-mail
Did we move to this…
Are we moving to this..?
           Migrating business
• Some companies have moved much of their
  operations from expensive offices in London
  to cheaper parts of the country or the world.
  Some organisations can do a lot of their
  routine work with employees who live abroad.
  London Underground has its daily data
  processing done in India.
• BT are now using employees in India for
  directory enquiries.
• What are they?
      Business shape is changing
• More people are going into business by
• Larger organisations are becoming less
  hierarchical, with employees working more in
  groups needing less supervision.
• The use of problem-solving skills, ability to use
  initiative and familiarity with ICT is increasingly
  important in recruitment.
• Many people now use the Internet for contacting
  companies and doing business with them.
                ICT and Education
• Computer modelling
• Interactive learning (ECDL)
• Presentations using
• Word-processing to produce
  student notes, and
  worksheets with a much more
  professional appearance.
• Students increasingly use
  word-processors in essay
  writing and projects.
• Multimedia and Internet
  resources are used widely for
• Telephone and Internet banking
• Cash-point machines
• Debit cards have made cheque writing an infrequent
• Magnetic Ink Character Recognition speeds up the
  clearing of cheques.
• Credit cards used to make telephone and Internet
• Salaries and bills are paid automatically by direct debit.
• Smart cards.
• Goods are delivered by couriers and that can take
  a long time. It is often quicker to go to a shop
  and take the goods away with you.
• You cannot inspect or ask about the goods before
  you buy.
• Many people are concerned about security of
  credit card details.
• Orders can be lost, even though the money
  transaction has not.
• Fraudulent trading is made easier.
     Part II

ICT and Society
• Some people become obsessed and this can damage their social
• There is a substantial proportion of the population that still do not have
  access to ICT, and there are worries about an information underclass.
• People feel threatened by the burgeoning of computers
• Information has been misused by a variety of individuals and groups who
  disseminate loathsome material on the Internet, such as extremist
  propaganda or pornography, or use the information for criminal activity.
• Some people spread malicious programs such as viruses, Trojan Horses,
  and worms that make a damned nuisance of themselves in people’s
  computers, wiping out vital files.
• The millennium bug was a very real threat, with fears of major computer
  failures. In the event, Saturday 1st January 2000 was not accompanied by
  the total breakdown of all our modern systems. This was due to
  government and business foresight in tackling this problem.
  Information and the professional
• As well as technical knowledge and skills, the kind of personal
  qualities shown by an ICT professional would be summarised as:
• Communication Skills, the ability to explain what you are doing to a
  range of people from the highest level to the most non-technical
• Initiative, taking risks or going beyond the call of duty. This is highly
  regarded by many employers (or not if it all goes pear-shaped).
• Management Skills, of schedules, resources, and people.
• Design Skills, creative and critical thinking are as important as
  technical knowledge.
• Problem Solving Ability, especially with customer support, after-
  sales, or in programming.
       What does it all mean?