Ballad Worksheet - PowerPoint

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					  Chapter 3

 Teacher Planning
Behavior Objectives
                  Key Points
         Components of Objectives
 Instructional objectives written using the
Mager model consist of three components:
  the behavior, the conditions, and the
  criteria for success. Combined, they
   provide a clear statement of what the
learner is expected to know or do, in what
     situation the student is expected to
perform, and what constitutes success for
    the student. These components are
         generally defined as follows:
   Behavior
    What the learner is expected to know or
    do after completing instruction in the skill,
    strategy, or subject matter being learned.
    Behaviors must be observable and
    measurable.
   Conditions
    The circumstances under which the
    learner is expected to accomplish the
    behavior. Conditions include materials,
    limitations, and contexts.
   Criteria
    The level of proficiency the learner must
    achieve to be considered competent.
    Criteria can be stated in terms of
    accuracy, speed, or quality.
   Examples
    Given a worksheet with 25 problems, compute
    two-column addition requiring regrouping with
    95% accuracy.
   Given a labeled diagram of the human digestive
    system, explain in writing the function of
    identified organs with 80% accuracy.
   After reading James and the Giant Peach,
    create a story map describing the sequence of
    events that meets at least a Level 4 on a scoring
    rubric.
   Behavior
    The behavior defined in an instructional
    objective describes the performance
    required of the learner. This performance
    must be observable and measurable. It
    must be visible or audible or must produce
    a tangible product that can be assessed.
   To insure that instructional objectives
    focus on observable, measurable
    behaviors an emphasis is placed on
    writing statements that contain strong
    "action" verbs. These are verbs such as
    "recite," "summarize," "construct,"
    "dissect," "combine" or "critique." Many
    useful lists of verbs for writing objectives
    have been compiled
   The behavior statement may also include
    a phrase describing a tangible product or
    event that results from completing the
    behavior.
 Examples
 Action Verb   Product
 Write         an essay
 Present       conclusions orally and
                      graphically
 Sing          a ballad
 Compose       a written response
 Compute       long division problems
 Create        a graphic
   Conditions

    Conditions define any circumstances that
    will have significant impact on the learners’
    ability to perform the behavior. They
    include:
 Materials: the resources that the learner
  will be able to use while performing the
  behavior e.g. tools, books, pens, paper,
  etc.
 Limitations: the resources that the learner
  will not be able to use while performing
  e.g. notes, reference books
 Context: the situation or the scenario
  under which the behavior will be
  demonstrated e.g. before a live audience
   Criteria

    The final step in writing instructional
    objectives is to establish the criteria for
    success. At what level must learners
    perform to be considered proficient?
    Criteria can be judged by using one of
    three categories of measure: accuracy,
    speed, or quality.
 Accuracy: a statement of required
  precision or the minimum acceptable
  percentage of correct responses
 Speed: a statement of required duration or
  the maximum time that can be spent
  completing the performance
 Quality: a description of the characteristics
  comprising a successful performance.
   Accuracy:

 With 90% accuracy
 Within .1 centimeter
 With no more than 3 errors
 With at least 4 out of 5 correct
   Speed:

 In less than two minutes
 For at least sixty seconds
 In less than one month
   Quality:

 Level four on a district developed rubric
 That include a statement of behavior,
  condition, and criteria for each of six levels
  of Bloom's taxonomy
   Though it may seem grammatically
    awkward, the statement of Criterion is
    typically placed at the end of the
    instructional objective in the Mager model.

   This results in the following structure:
    Condition – Behavior – Criterion.
Examples



Condition            Behavior             Criterion


                     compute two-column
Given a worksheet
                     addition requiring with 95% accuracy
with 25 problems,
                     regrouping

Given a labeled
                     explain in writing the
diagram of the
                     function of identified with 80% accuracy
human digestive
                     organs
system,
                                          that meets at least a
                     create a story map
After reading James                       Level 4 on a teacher
                     describing the
and the Giant Peach,                      developed scoring
                     sequence of events
                                          rubric.
   Writing Objectives for the Cognitive Domain

Key Points

    In the mid-1950’s, Benjamin Bloom and a team
    of educational psychologists developed a
    classification system for educational objectives.

   The cognitive domain of this taxonomy
    encompasses intellectual skills ranging from the
    simple recall of information to choosing among
    alternatives in problem-solving, and evaluating
    ideas or actions.
Definitions
       Knowledge – remembering
  material/information.
       Comprehension – grasping the
  meaning of material/information.
       Application – using the
  material/information some way.
       Analysis – comparing and contrasting
  categories of material/information.
   Synthesis – creating new material or
    products.

    Evaluation – assessing or judging the
    value of new material/information/ideas;
    making value judgments.
   It might be useful to think of the first three
    levels as having a type of predictable or
    "correct" answer;

    Analysis as having either a predictable or
    non-predictable response, and the last two
    levels as having no predictable or "right"
    answer.
   Intellectual tasks at the Knowledge, Comprehension, and
    Application level are generally considered less cognitively
    demanding than tasks at the levels of Analysis, Synthesis, and
    Evaluation.

   Intellectual activities at the Knowledge level require that the learner
    to simple recall or recognize specific information.

   Comprehension requires the learner to grasp information as shown
    through summarization, interpretation, or translation of material or
    prediction based upon new knowledge.

   Application requires the use of the information in new situations.


   While proficiency with these lower level functions is necessary, it is
    important not to focus on them to the exclusion of higher-level
    thinking skills.
   Application is using the material in some new way

      The student selects, transfers, and uses facts, rules, procedures,
    concepts, or theories in new situations.
   Examples:

      Select the term that best describes an idea or event
      Write a paragraph using a given set of terms.
      Apply the steps of a process in a new context.

   Typical Tasks"Action Verbs“

          Apply concepts and principle to new situations
          Apply laws and theories to practical situations
          Solve mathematical problems
          Construct charts and graphs
          Demonstrate use of a method or procedureapply, build, change,
          choose, classify, collect, construct, demonstrate, discover,
          dramatize, interpret, manipulate, make, model, modify, operate,
          paint, play, perform, predict, prepare, produce, report, show,
          sketch, solve, use
   Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
     The higher levels of Bloom’s taxonomy, Analysis,
    Synthesis, and Evaluation, require critical thinking,
    creative thinking, and problem solving from the learner.

   These are commonly termed "higher level thinking
    skills." Instructional objectives written for these levels of
    the taxonomy typically require the learner confront new
    problems or situations.

They may also require the learner to apply a sequence of
  strategies or skills such as identifying and analyzing a
  problem, applying past learning, gathering new
  information, organizing and comparing data, analyzing
  elements, judging alternatives, and summarizing
  conclusions or selecting a course of action.
   Analysis – comparing and contrasting new
    categories of material
   Student distinguishes, classifies, or relates the
    assumptions, hypotheses, evidence, or structure
    of a statement or question.
      Examples
       Infer the meaning of a term from context
       Infer the connotations of a term
       Compare or contrast two processes
       Categorize the steps of a process
   Typical Tasks"Action Verbs"
           Recognize unstated assumptions
           Recognize fallacies in reasoning
           Distinguish between fact and inference
           Analyze the organizational structure of a
                     system
           Analyze the composition of a creation,
    analyze, categorize, classify, compare,
    construct, contrast, debate, defend, diagram,
    differentiate, discriminate, dissect, distinguish,
    examine, infer, investigate, point out, research,
    select, separate, sort, subdivide, survey, take
    apart
Synthesis – creating new material
    The student originates, integrates, and
     combines ideas into a product, plan or
     proposal that is new to him or her.

Examples
   Generate terms to describe elements or
    ideas
   Generate terms to define agreements
   Generate terms to define categories
   Modify an existing process
   Typical Tasks "Action Verbs“

       Write a well organized theme
       Give a well organized presentation
       Write a short story
       Propose a plan for an experiment
       Formulate a new organization for
             classifying objects, events, or ideas
       Making a piece of art
       Composing a piece of music
   create, combine, compile, compose, construct,
    design, develop, devise, draw, formulate,
    modify, generate, hypothesize, invent, organize,
    originate, plan, produce, rearrange, reorganize,
    revise, revise, role-play

   Evaluation – assessing the value of new material

        The student appraises, assesses, or
    critiques on a basis of specific standards and
    criteria.
   Examples

    Evaluate the appropriate use of a term
    Criticize the use of a term
    Justify the use of a term
    Critique the effectiveness of a process
    Evaluate the significance of a process
Typical Tasks"Action Verbs“

  Evaluate the logic of written material
  Evaluate the adequacy with which
     conclusions are supported
  Evaluate the value of a creative work
     using personal criteria or accepted
     standards
  Evaluate the ethical implications of
     actions or events appraise, assess,
     conclude, criticize, critique, judge, justify,
     recommend, solve

				
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