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									 2007 2,3,8,12 VALUE QUESTIONS
 2006 2,2,5,6,10 VALUE QUESTIONS
 Extended response question must include
  consideration of change over time and non-spartan
  sources of evidence. It is that judgment of difference
  that perpetuated the Spartan myth of a barracks
  culture and institutionalized values to produce the
  spartan fighting machine
   1         The geographical setting
   the geographical setting, natural features and resources of ancient Sparta                        ( always 2 mark questions)
   significant sites: Sparta
   2         Social structure and political organisation 2005 (10)
   the issue of Lycurgus (the Great Rhetra)
   roles and privileges of the two kings 2006 2004 2002
                                                                                                            There is a decision
   government: ephorate, gerousia, ekklesia 2001 (10)         *
                                                                                                            by the Examination
   social structure: Spartiates, perioeci, „inferiors‟, helots *                                           committee to limit
   role of the Spartan army 2007 ( 10)
   control of the helots: the military, syssitia, krypteia 2007 2005 2002
    artisans, helots
    educational system: agoge 2006 2004 ( 10) 2001
                                                                                                            predictions about
    role and status of women: land ownership, inheritance, education 2006 (10)                              questions. We
   3       The economy 2003                                                                                cannot assume just
   land ownership: agriculture, kleroi, helots 2004
   technology: weapons, armour, pottery                                                                    because it was a
    economic roles of the periokoi („dwellers around‟) and helots 2002 2001
    economic exchange: use of iron bars, trade
                                                                                                            question on last
                                                                                                            years paper that it
   4         Religion, death and burial 2003 ( 10)
   gods and goddesses: Artemis Orthia, Poseidon, Apollo                                                    won‟t be on again
                                                                                                            THE BASTARDS!!!!!!
   myths and legends: Lycurgus and the Dioscuri
   festivals: Hyakinthia, Gymnopaedia, Karneia 2007
   religious role of the kings
   funerary customs and rituals
   5         Cultural life 2005
   art: sculpture, painted vases, bone and ivory carving
   architecture: Amyklaion, Menelaion, the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia
   writing and literature: Alcman and Tyrtaeus
   Greek writers‟ views of Sparta: Herodotus, Thucydides, Xenophon, Aristotle, Pausanias, Plutarch
   6         Everyday life
   daily life and leisure activities 2003
   food and clothing
Setting               Features             Resources                Sites
•Southern part of     •Fertile soil        •Main mineral            •Spartan Acropolis
Peloponnese           •Climate suited to   resource was iron ore,   •Temple of Athena of
•Area known as        farming, warm        lead ,clay and marble    the Bronze house
                                           •Crops grown; Wheat      •Temple of Artemis
Laconia(              growing seasons
                                           barley, grapes, olives   Orthia
amalgamation of 5     and rainfall         and figs                 •, Shrine of Apollo
villages) peninsula   •River Eurotas       •Cattle, sheep, goats,   and
•Eurotas Valley       •Mt Taygetus and     pigs grown for meat,     •the Menelaion
•42 km to port of     Parnon acted as      cloth, leather           •See power point

Gytheon               natural barriers     •Honey, wax and wild
   “One-against-one, they [sc. the Spartans] are as good as
    anyone in the world. But when they fight in a body, they
    are the best of all. For though they are free men, they are
    not entirely free. They accept Law as their master. And
    they respect this master more than your subjects respect
    you. Whatever he commands, they do. And his command
    never changes: It forbids them to flee in battle, whatever
    the number of their foes. He requires them to stand firm -
    - to conquer or die”.
   MYTH Andrews; “the perpetuation of his name was one of the most
    successful frauds in history.”
   Cartledge states that;” According to Spartan myth, the laws attributed
    sometimes to the human or part –human lawgiver Lycurgus had also
    received the divine sanction of Apollo
   Tyrtaeus makes no mention of him in his poetry of the 7th century and
    claims that the Constitution came from Apollo
   Most ancient historians place him between the 9th and 7th century,
    undermining the credibility of his existence
   REFORMER Xenophon‟s biography
   Aristotle claims to have seen an inscription from Olympia, dating him to
   Plutarch, although admits that there is nothing certain then dismisses the
    uncertainty and proclaims him the son of Prytanis and brother of Eunomis
   Herodotus makes him the son of Agis 1 and guardian of Chariliaus
   Nillson;” The methodical and purposeful way in which everything has
    been made to lead towards the single goal, forces us to see here the
    intervention of a consciously shaping hand
   MORE THAN 1 Plutarch tells us that Timaeus claims that there were two
    Lycurgus‟. The elder existing at the time of Homer while the younger one
    was considerably later
   A rhetra is something that is spoken.
   "So eager was Lycurgus for the establishment of this
    form of government, that he obtained an oracle from
    Delphi about it, which they call a 'rhetra'.“
   decreed that Lycurgus should establish a sanctuary to
    "Zeus and Athena", divide the people into " tribes and
    obai", and appoint a Gerousia which comprised "30 men
    including the Kings".
   It is thought that the Rider was a later document
    introduced possibly by Theopompus allowing the
    Gerousia to withdraw legislation if the people spoke
   Sources of evidence; Tyrtaeus, Eunomia , Polybius and Xenophon
   Know thoroughly the roles and responsibilities of Kings,
    Gerousia, Ephors and Assembly
 You must make mention that the political organization changed over time,
  and that the perfect equilibrium that Polybius speaks of was generally an
  illusion. WHY? Introduction of Ephorate suggests flaws and Jones’
  Andrews and Cartledge support notion of greater power by certain kings eg
 “each power being checked by the others, no one part should turn the
  scale or decisively out-balance the others; but that, by being accurately
  adjusted and in exact equilibrium, the whole might remain long steady like
  a ship sailing close to the wind” Polybius
 Tyrtaeus’ poem Eunomia mentions “Kings, first in Heaven’s debate”, which
  suggests the powerful place of Kings in the 7th century. Ephors added later
 “Aristotle calls the Spartan kings a perpetual hereditary generalship, but in
  the hands of an able king it could be and normally was , far more.” A H
   Military. Commander of the Army, first in advance, last in
    retreat On campaign made decisions of peace and war- one
    stays at home
 Religious. Chief priests of Zeus; perform sacrifices
 Political; As members of the Gerousia, could draft
   Societal; betrothal of heiresses and adoption of orphans and
    maintenance of roads
   “In war a hundred picked men shall be their guard
    upon expeditions and they shall take as many cattle
    as they desire and take the backs and hides of all
    that are sacrificed.
   In peace it is the privilege of kings to sit down to feast
    before others and be served a double portion, which
    could be given to other guests, and the first pouring
    of libations and the hides of animals slain in sacrifice.
   At the public charge a full grown victim in the Temple
    of Apollo will be delivered and a measure of barley-
    groats and a Spartan quarter of wine,
   At the games they shall have seats of honour
    specially set apart”
   “Another defect in the Lacedaemonian constitution is seen in connection with the
    office of ephor. The ephorate independently controls much important business. Its
    five members are chosen from among all the people, with the result that very often
    men who are not at all well-off find themselves holding this office, and their lack
    of means makes them open to bribery. . . . And just because the power of the
    ephors is excessive and dictatorial, even the Spartan kings have been forced to
    curry favor with them. And this has caused further damage to the constitution;
    what was supposed to be an aristocracy has become more like a democracy. In
    itself the ephorate is not a bad thing; it certainly keeps the constitution together;
    the people like it because it gives them a share in an office of power. So whether
    this is due to the lawgiver Lycurgus or to good fortune, it suits the circumstances
    very well. . . . But while it was necessary to select ephors from among all the
    citizens, the present method of selection strikes me as childish. The ephors have
    powers of jurisdiction also, and decide cases of importance; but considering that
    anybody at all may hold the office, it would be better that they should not have
    power to give verdicts on their own, but only to decide in accordance with stated
    rules and regulations. Nor does the way in which ephors live conform to the aims
    of the constitution. They live a life of ease, while the rest have a very high standard
    of strictness in living, so high indeed that they really cannot live up to it but
    secretly get round the law and enjoy the more sensual pleasures.”
 Eunomia stood for good order and harmony
  in not only politics but society as well
 Tyrtaeus’ poem Eunomia mentions “Kings,
  first in Heaven’s debate”, which suggests the
  powerful place of Kings in the 7th century.
  Ephors added later
 “Aristotle calls the Spartan kings a perpetual
  hereditary generalship, but in the hands of
  an able king it could be and normally was ,
  far more.” A H Jones
 “The organization in the classical period of Spartan Society can
  be summarized under three headings; First a political system in
  which power and decision making were divided among the
  Kings, ephors, Elders and Assembly
 Secondly, a military and economic system according to which
  full citizenship was extended to a body of several thousand men
  who became full time hoplites supported by produce delivered
  by the helots who worked their lands
 Thirdly a social and ritual system as part of which every citizen
  was compelled, especially during upbringing to accept a
  common public way of life”        Stephen Hodkinson
 To belong to the Spartiate class the main criteria
  was ownership of a plot of public land (kleros),
 membership in a military mess, sharing of common
  meals (syssitia) and
 completion of education and military training
  requirements (agoge). This group formed military
  elite in Spartan society. They were a highly trained
  warrior class, holding all political power.
there is some historical controversy concerning an inner
nobility based either on wealth, prestige or valour.
The existence of debt and possible loss of land and
citizenship suggests that not every one was equal

 Inferiors – reasons of inferior statue is as
      Partheniai -Illegitimate offspring of
      helot mothers and Spartiate fathers
      Neodamodes - Helots – who for
      courageous acts or service to the
      Tresantes - Spartan cowards lost
      citizenship (not necessarily
      Mothoces - Sons of Helots often
      adopted as playmates of Spartan
                   INSTRUMENTS OF CONTROL

                                                        18-20 Year olds, selected as secret police
Used as light armed skirmishers and were                 , who wandered the countryside, killing
offered the chance of freedom if acted                           the strongest of helots
          bravely ( supposedly)

                                            Control of Helots

   “ It is hard to avoid the conclusion that the
 Spartans did…genuinely fear helot revolt-and                          Plutarch‟s Moralia
with reason, in the light of the actual revolt of the   “They used to make the helots drunk and exhibit
               mid 460’s Cartledge                       them to the young as a deterrent from excessive
   “ …their whole education was aimed at developing smart
    obedience, perseverance under stress and victory in battle.”

   According to Plutarch the aim of the Spartan education system was to
      › Prompt obedience to authority
      › The ability to endure pain and hardship
      › Courage and victory in battle
   “ an endless series of official measures illustrating another
    general feature of Spartan organization, namely the
    concerted effort to minimize the importance of family
    life….and to emphasize rather the cardinal and overriding
    significance of communal ties.”
   Paul Cartledge
   Kendall rejects past assessments of the Agoge and suggests
    that the Lycurgan reform was merely the institutionilized
    religious festivals where whipping ordeals and competitions
    were designed to inspire warrior traits. He claims that no
    archaeological evidence exists outside the religious
   He attributes the more traditional Agoge features to the reign
    of Cleomenes 111. The suggestion is that it is the Roman
    Agoge which adhered more to the Plutarch style of education
                                                     Stage 6 24-30
Eligible for full time military service, lived at home with family, grew hair long, forced to marry, voted in Assembly

                                                     Stage 5 20-24
              Full time front line soldier. If married still lived in barracks and ate in syssition groups

                                                  Stage 4 18-20
                           Combatant but not front line soldier. Could marry if he wished

                                            Stage 3 12 – 18 years old
           Emphasis on military skills and obedience. At 19 chosen as Eiren class to tutor younger boys

                                              Stage 2 7-12 years
        Emphasis on developing physical strength. Placed in platoon groups and trained by a Paidonomous

                                           Stage 1 Before the age of 6
                                  Lived under the care and supervision of mother.
  Military
  Operating through the Peloponnesian League the
   Spartan Army was responsible for the defence of Sparta
   and her allies from any external threat whether it be
   Greek or Persian eg Persian Wars ( Thermopylae and
 Conquerors of Messenia
 Civic
 All warriors were citizens who made decisions about war
   and peace as members of the Assembly
 Domestic
-suppression of helots
 Economic
Consumers of goods produced by periokoi and helots
 Ideological
Transmitters of military values ie heroism, unity, loyalty,
   obedience, sacrifice
   Although Plutarch, Xenophon and Aristotle‟s image of
    Spartan women were part of the general ” mirage”, it is
    significant that in no sources do Spartan women ever appear
    as passive, an unusual achievement in a predominantly male
    Greek world. Their importance to their society centred on
    their biological, economic, religious and socializing capacity
   We have already encountered three facts which
    may have caused Spartan women to be more
    assertive outside the home than those of other
    cities; their financial position, their outdoor training
    and the absence abroad of many men in the
    period of Sparta‟s Empire.”                  Anton Powell
    Life within Sparta
   Biological
   The aim of the State Spartan System of Education was to produce worthy mothers who
    would bear strong warriors
   Women underwent the servitude of maternity as did men the servitude of war” Simone De

   Economic
   Much of the management of an estate and the everyday household economy rested with
   In the absence of a male descendent, such a woman could be the means by which
    her father‟s lineage was perpetuated. She might also transmit her father‟s property
    to her son, or inherit it herself

   Social; Enforcement of military values
   “ When a woman was burying her son, a worthless old crone came up to her and said, “you
    poor woman , what a misfortune”. No by the two gods, a piece of good fortune because I
    bore him so that he might die for Sparta, and that is what has happened as I wished.”

   Religious; Pausanius describes the role of the priestess holding the image of Artemis Orthia
    during the whipping ordeal
   Traditional interpretation supported by Plutarch says that each citizen given an
    indivisible plot at birth which reverted to the state at death.
   9,000 lots to Spartiates, 30,000 to Perioikoi.Enough land to produce a return
    of 70 medimnoi of barley for a man and 12 for his wife and a proportionate
    amount of liquid produce

   Confusion; Others say that it could be passed down to eldest son. Herodotus
    suggests that a landowner could control disposition by adopting a son or
    through a daughters dowry. Aristotle says that nearly 2/5 of the land was
    owned by women

   Resolution and current scholarship by Hodkinson
   Two types of land; the ancient portion and land of a more private nature. A
    landowner was prohibited from selling the ancient portion.
 Lycurgan reform restricted currency to the
  use of iron bars. This restricted the hoarding
  of money and also limited the opportunity
  to buy imported goods since the currency
  was not acceptable outside Sparta
 Evidence of war booty, obtained by kings,
  existence of bribery and debt suggested
  increased wealth
 Perioikoi were allowed to trade in gold and
“ like asses worn out by their mighty burdens; under painful
necessity to bring their masters full half the fruit their ploughed land
produced ”
Tyrtaeus fragment 6

                                           attached to the

             When necessary
               as was in the                                           Domestic duties
               Persian Wars,                                           including child
             helots were used                                              rearing
              as light armed

                          Sons of helots                     produce to
                           adopted as                          syssition
                        playmates called                     Underpinned
                            mothaces                         citizenship of
“  Spartan foreign policy was always greatly
  affected either directly or indirectly by the
  helots. Since a helot revolt threatened the
  very existance of the Spartan state, its
  supression dominated Spartan thinking
  almost to the virtual exclusion of all other
 Terry Buckley; Aspects of Greek History
                                   villages acted
                                    as defence
                                   buffer in case
                                     of invasion
                                                               Served as
       Craftsmen of                                          heavy infantry
          Pottery                                              in battle if
      Lakonian cups                                             numbers
         popular                                              required eg

                                    Roles of
Manufacturers                       Perioikoi
 of furniture,                                                      Miners and
houses, cloth ,                                                    metalworkers
weapons and                                                           Bronzes

                    shipbuilders                    Merchants
                    who lived at                    and traders
                       port of
   Xenophon cited in Plutarch says “...a king, by virtue of
    his divine descent, should perform all the public sacrifices on the
    city’s behalf and should lead the army wherever the city
    despatches it.”
   Kings were high priests and performed sacrifices
    at major festivals . As well on the way to war
    sacrifice would be made 3 times. When?
   They were also responsible for divination which
    could be particularly useful if disinclined to engage
    in battle.
 “The power of prophecy, the sanctity of sanctuaries and festivals,
  the threat of divine punishment are all distinctive features of the
  Spartan religion. Mary Douglas has argued that the forms of social
  discipline in a society and its conceptions of divine power are
  related phenomena. The more an individual feels subject to a set of
  rules that he must obey without question, the more he is to
  understand religion too as a matter of fixed and formal observance.
 The gods were at the top of the chain of command that ran down
  through Spartan society. Thus there was a constant need to seek
  instruction through divination supervised by the humans just below
  them in the chain of command.
 Spartan religion was Spartan more on its insistence on orderliness
  and obedience than in any particular military emphasis it may have
  had.” Robert Parker
In both answers knowledge of the Karneia, Hyakinthia,
Gymnopaedia and Cult of Artemis Orthia is needed. Cults of
Menelaus and Castor and Pollux could also be mentioned
Support of archaeological evidence is essential
              Role &
                                     Characteristics of
     • Ensures fertility, both    • Competition
       human and                  • Obedience
       agricultural               • Periods of mourning
     • Ensures victory in war       and celebration
     • Reinforces social          • Blood Sacrifice
       stratification             • Ritual offerings
     • Reinforces military        • Processional
                                  • Oracular predictions
     • Provides a sense of
                                  • Divination
       control over their lives
                                  • Hero Worship
   The Karneia was a harvest festival, celebrated for nine days in August. It
    celebrated the foundation of Sparta and various military events. In the
    celebration some citizens carried model rafts to symbolise the coming of
    the Dorians. Another event was the foot-race in which a young man
    was chased by other unmarried men to determine an omen for the
    state. Modern scholars have interpreted the Karneia as a reflection of
    military training, emphasising heroic exploits.
   The Gymnopaedia was a festival held in the Spartan agora to
    commemorate the battle of Thyrea, fought against Argos in 550BC. It
    featured Choral performances. It has been interpreted as a rite of
    passage for Spartan boys.
   The Hyakinthia was held at the ancient shrine of Amyclae, at a huge
    statue of Apollo. The festival revolved around mourning for Hyakinthos
    and praising Apollo. The first stage involved rites of sorrow and
    mourning, with a ban placed on joyful songs. The second part involved
    rejoicing in honour of Apollo, with choral song and dance. The festival
    has been interpreted as a festival for the dead combined with
    thanksgiving for life.
   Ordinary Spartans had simple funerals. The only groups allowed inscribed graves were
    men who died in battle and women, in childbirth. According to Plutarch
    Lykourgos allowed mortuary temples within the city walls so that people would
    not fear death.
    main features of funerary customs:
        -death was accepted (helped in battle)
        -grave goods/offerings were not placed in a grave
        -soldiers were buried wrapped in their red cloaks with olive leaves placed
        -burials appeared to be in simple pit or tile graves
        -Warriors could be buried on the battlefield with grave markers „in war‟
    placed to identify the body. Women received names on their grave markers „in
    childbirth‟ if they died during childbirth or held religious office
   -funerary rituals were conducted by female relatives and included:
        -laying out the body
        -a funeral procession
        -a burial
   HERODOTUS‘…and after they are dead horsemen go round and announce
    that which has happened throughout the whole of the Spartan land, and in
    the city women go about and strike upon a copper kettle. Whenever this
    happens so, two free persons of each household must go into mourning, a man
    and a woman, and for those who fail to do this great penalties are
    prescribed.... a certain number of the perioiki are compelled to go to the
    funeral ceremony: and when there have been gathered together of these and of
    the helots and of the Spartans themselves many thousands in the same place,
    with their women intermingled, they beat their foreheads with a good will
    and make lamentation without stint, saying that this one who had died last
    of their kings has been killed in war, they prepare an image to represent him,
    laid upon a couch with fair coverings, and carry it out to be buried. Then
    after they have buried him, no assembly is held among them for ten days, nor
    is there any meeting for choice of magistrates, but they have mourning during
    these days.”
   Spartan culture and its associated value system
    was expressed through art and architecture,
    religious beliefs, music and poetry, mythology
    and legends, and warrior attitudes.
   Spartan history was written by men about
    events rather than culture, so what is known to
    modern society is mostly speculative and
    Over time, Sparta changed from developing a
    high culture in keeping with the rest of Greece,
    to a restrictive militaristic culture based on
    Lycurgus‟ reforms.
   This topic must draw heavily from archaeological sources
   Make statement that in the Archaic period Sparta developed along similar lines as the rest of the city states.
    At some point in the second half of the 7th century the poet Tyrtaeus composed several
    poems exhorting Spartans to service (among them, fr. 10, 11, 12 West), and from the late 7th
    century until at least the 4th century Tyrtaeus’ poetry was sung actively on the march (Lyc.
    Leoc. 107). Simmone des Bouvrie emphasizes that new cultural creations can quickly
    become traditions when society is being rapidly transformed and a need is felt for the
    establishment of cohesion, the legitimization of institutions, and socialization (Myth and
    Symbol I, 22-27). Despite its origins in the 7th century, Tyrtaeus’ poetry quickly became
    traditional literature, functioning much as any piece of folk literature might function.
   Music and poetry by Alcman, and Tyrtaeus continued through the 5th and 4th century because it reinforced and
    transmitted martial or religious values needed by the society
   I am your servant, Artemis.
    You draw your long bow at night,
    clothed in the skins of wild beasts.
    Now hear our beautiful singing.

   Either through Lycurgan reforms or loss of trading markets ( competition from Corinth), luxury atrophied. What
    remains in circulation comes largely from 6th century and relates to religious offerings
   Art; Kothon or drinking cups were highly prized according to CRITIAS.
   At least 9 sculptors were known
   Spartan bronze products were of such high quality that they were viewed as valuable diplomatic gifts
   Spartan bronzes generally depicted women, hoplites or particular heroes such as Leonidas
   Ivory disappears after 6th century and replaced by bone. Mostly combs and broaches found at Artemis ORTHIA
   Architecture; Remains of Temples
   Two inscribed bronze artefacts were excavated at the Menelaion sanctuary
    near Sparta. The first was a sacrificial meat hook dedicated „to Helen‟ the
    second was an Aryballos dated c650BC and inscribed, „to Helen, wife of
    Menelaus.‟ This attests to the fact that the alphabet reached Sparta.
   “Scholarly work on written and epigraphical evidence suggests that kings,
    commanders, Ephors, member of the Gerousia and envoys were all
    literate” –Cartledge
   they learned to read and write for purely practical reasons…All their
    education was directed towards…obedience…endurance…and victory.‟
   .” To call it a mere barracks bereft of high culture, as did certain Athenian
    propagandists, was probably going to far- but not all that much too far.”
    Paul Cartledge
   “Spartan values, both the good and the bad, produced a remarkable spirit
    of self-sacrifice for a larger cause”
Historian    View of Sparta
Herodotus    Recording great deeds ( narrative of Persian Wars) not society, but unusually
             does include reference to Spartan woman , Gorgo. Admires Spartan bravery
Thucydides   An Athenian general, wrote History of the Peloponnesian Wars. Comments that
             buildings no indication of well deserved reputation
Xenophon     Exiled Greek, lived in Sparta, openly biased towards way of life. Only
             contemporary 5th century eye witness
Aristotle    Focused on the Spartan Constitution. Negative view, some aspects childish.
             Blamed women‟s ownership of land for downfall. Best at war, not in peace
Polybius     Compares the Spartan system of government with other Greek states and finds
             it superior because the checks and balances create equilibrium
Plutarch     Biographer, wrote about vice or virtue. Lycurgus ,the latter. Admits that
             nothing is certain. Admires everything except the Krypteia
Pausanius    A travel writer, visited Laconia in 2nd century describes building, temples eg
             Agora and Temple of Apollo
   Daily life
   -different social classes would have led very different daily lives
   -helots lives centred around agriculture and labour  including their children
   -perioikoi children were better off but still worked
   -helot and perioikoi girls would have engaged in domestic duties
   -Spartan boys lives centred on agoge activities
   -Spartan men‟s lives were dominated by military training and training of the boys if not
    engaged in war
   -Spartiate women were occupied by domestic duties, managing their estates, training
    and preparing/participating in festivals
   Leisure Activities
   -hunting  „Lycurgus…established a similar system of sharing hunting dogs; those who
    need the dogs invite the owner to join the hunt and if he has not the time himself he lens
    the pack with pleasure.’ (Xenophon)
   Food and Clothing
   -banqueting  often associated with religious festivals ‘…to improve the complexion,
    physique and strength of hard workers.’ (Xenophon)
   -horse racing, chariot racing
    Kyniska bred and raced champion teams
   Marriage Customs
   -unusual
   -according to Plutarch girls were married when ‘they were ripe for it.’ –
    that is when they were physically mature
   -were expected to marry within their own social class
   -dowries were customary and significant
   -marriage by capture  man would choose a bride and carry her off 
    probably just a symbolic act
   -A.J Ball suggests that Spartan mothers had some say in whom their
    daughter‟s married
   -According to Plutarch the brides head was shaved by the „bridesmaid‟
     implied chastity and eased the male into intercourse with a female
    rather than a male (homosexuality encouraged BW soldiers – fighting
    with lover‟s = more rage and more anger)
   -ceremony was kept a secret until a child was born
   -if the wife was barren then a new marriage contract could be
 Minimum 4 booklet pages ( HSC booklet)
 Must include;
 Bias of non spartan writers
 Change over time
 Spartan mirage
 Archaeological evidence
 If you are aiming at Band 6 do not repeat
  the myth.
 CHALLENGE IT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
 Everybody equal???
 Why debt and disenfranchisement?

 Constitution in perfect equilibrium?
 Why the need for 1 king to stay at home. Why the need for later
  addition of ephors? Why ephors renowned for bribery?

 All soldiers brave?
 Presence of tresantes???

 Unbeatable fighting machine?
 Loss to Argos, Thermopylae, Leuctra

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