Balance Score Card Format Project Management Samuel by akm27275

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 173

More Info
									               Project Management

                    Samuel BASSETTO, W37-07



                      samuel.bassetto@inpg.fr


Thanks to Khaled HADJI HAMOU
                                                1
     BIG projects,           small   projects


• Examples?
  – Facility planning
  – Personnal insurance management method
    implementation
  – Change of work
  – Redesign a building
  – New product development
  – Commercial introduction of a new product
  – Research partnership development for an
    European Project

                                                2
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on Project’s planning
  –   Focus on Project’s Quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            3
      Historic Milestones

• Pyramids…
• Vauban (measure of construction times)
…
• 1900 : Taylor/Fayol/Ford
• 1915 : Gantt
• 1950 : PERT (Program Evaluation and
  Review Technic)
• 1989 : Project management methods

                                           4
     Normative corporations

• AFITEP
  – Association Francophone de Management de Projet.


• IPMA
  – International Project Management Association


• PMI
  – Project Management Institute
     • Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)

                                                       5
       Nowadays context



• Why a management based on projects ?
  – End date
  – Easy overview
  – Due date & delivrables => goal achievement (not
    insured but facilitated)




                                                  6
       Project : a definition


• 1st definition
   – The project is a response at challenging
     constraints (innovation, deadlines, cost…) that
     enterprises are facing in their global competition
   – The project structures a precise idea, and require
     human skills and means for its unique
     concretization, limited in the time

   [Berry 96]



                                                          7
     Project : some definitions


• PMBOK Definition
  – Efforts employed on a defined period for a service
    or product creation


• AFITEP Definition
  – Important realization, with an end, time limited,
    with a precise goal, requiring various ressources




                                                         8
          Project some definitions

• Notions extracted from these
  definitions
  –   The notion of goal
  –   The notion of time
  –   The notion of organization
  –   The notion of ressources
  –   The notion of structure (?)




                                     9
       Project : the ASQIMC definition


• Finally :
   – A way of working                       which
   –   Structures progressively an object   driven by
   –   Quantitatives goals                  it
   –   Identified clearly requirements      and involves
   –   Multiples skills                     which are under
   –   Constraints




                                                              10
                Typologies of projects


(A)                                         (B)




                    Characteristics ? Examples ?




(C)                                          (D)




      Entrerprise
      Project                                      11
      The project management

• AFITEP Definition
  – The project management includes the
    Plannification, Organization, Progression
    Follow up and the master of all aspects of project
    in a continuous process for goals achievement.
• PMI definition
  – Knowledge application, skills, tools and methods
    employed by activities for achieving successfully
    goals of each projects.



                                                         12
     Management


• Project « dash board »
  – Global overview
  – Project organization
  – Project status
  – Finance indicators
  – Main milestones
  – Delivrables
  – Risks
                           13
     The project managment roots

•   W : Who ?
•   W : What
•   W : Where ?
•   W : When ?
•   H : How ?
•   H : How many ?
•   W : WHY ?

                                   14
      Project management


• Answer questions:
  – Origins of the project :
      WHY ?
         – MANDATORY for troops motivation
  – Factor of success :
     WHAT ?
         – Identify what is inside the project
      WHO?
         – Who leads the project

      WHAT, WHO, WHEN, HOW ?
         – Structure and plannify and guide the project



                                                          15
       Project Management


– Functional
  management        Tools and
                    technics




– Institution       Human Factors
  management



                                    16
           Managing the project…


                             Dreamed state

                                              Final State

                Ideal Path



                                   Followed
                                     path


Initial State


                                                            17
           In order to avoid


                           Dreamed stated




                Designed
                  path
                                            Followed
                                              path




Initial state                                          Final state


                                                               18
Project structure… & follow up




                                 19
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on project’s planning
  –   Focus on project’s quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            20
                         Project steering comity / final
                         eval

        • Steering comity – 5’ review per project & session
             – One review per project
             – Strenghts and weakness, blocking point
        • Final eval
             – Presentation 20’ + 10’ questions & product presentation
             – Prof ranking
             – Peer ranking

                         Grid / 200 pts                               Nom :                       Prénom :

                                               Presentation (/80)                                 Support (/60)
                                                        is it clear? Personal       Appropriate ? Understanda Final     result
             Team        Time (/20)       Outline (/20) (/20)        attitude (/20) (/20)         ble ? (/20)   (/20)            P

              Prénom :                                                                    Team

              Support (/60)
Appropriate ? Understanda Final           result                                          Answers
 /20)         ble ? (/20)   (/20)                  Project management (/40)               (/20)          Total (/200)


                                                                                                                          21
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on project’s planning
  –   Focus on project’s quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            22
        Project structure

• Several structures:
  – Temporal structure : phases
     • Industrial projects
     • Information system projects


  – Operational structure : activities
     • Businesses involved
     • Suppliers


  – Organisational structure
     • Project leader (project manager ?), project director,
       sponsor(s), project team
                                                               23
         Why a temporal structure

• Underline critical activities

• Better focus on qualifications during each phase

• Measure and insure quality of each phase

• Better project overview

• Step by step plannification & follow up


                                                     24
         Each phase has to …

• Have precise inputs

• Have a final end

• Have explicit and acceptable goals

• Identify available ressources

• Must be plannified separately

                                       25
      Example of a project phase


• 1- Enterprise discussion about research
  opportunities (R&D Project)
• 2- Draft contract
• 3- R phase (more exploratory)
• 4- D Phase (more centered on indutrial
  development)
• 5- Thesis write & presentation



                                            26
« Product
Project »
decomposition




Gestion de projet, Ed WEKA

                             27
       Project phase and uncertainty


            Thesis ≠ Building a wall !
In one side: well defined activities and phases
In the other side: not structured activities,
prospective project.




                                                  28
     Project phasing


• Several approaches
  – Cascading management
  – In V
  – In spiral




                           29
Cascade cycle


Requirement book


             Requirement
             engineering

                     System design


                                Building blocs


                                                  Modules
                                                 integration

                                                         System validation



                                                                        Payment




                                                                                  30
   V Cycle


Requirement book                                                             Payment




            System requirement                                System validation
                engineering




                        System design                  Module
                                                     intergration




                                        Building blocs




                                                                                       31
                    Spiral Cycle

                           Requirement and       Risk analyhsis
                           plannnification

                                                          Initial risk analysis
           Initial requirements


           Requirements revision
                                                          Risk analysis revision




                                                                       Initial prototype

                                                                       prototype
Requirment book
                                  Tests

                                                                       Final system

 Customer
 satisfaction
                           Customer evaluation    Development




                                                                                           32
         Project organization ?


                           Contracting Owner   Maîtrise d’ouvrage (fr)



                               Project         Maîtrise d’œuvre (fr)
                             Management
partenaire


        Sub Contractor 0         Supplier 1       Supplier2


  Supplier 0-1    Supplier 0-2                   Supplier 2-1

                                                fournisseur

                                                                         33
      Contracting Owner

• High level requirements & needs definitions

• Finance

• Choose the project manager

• Agreement on strategic choices and milestone
  validation

• Strategic choices

                                                 34
      Project Management

• Requirement Engineering & General design

• Action plan Management

• Work management & coordination

• Cost control & evolutions

• Review with Contracting owner

                                             35
       Several actors (repetition S3)


• Contracting ower
   – Customer

• Project Manager
   – Project direction
   – Project Manager / leader
   – Project Team

• Suppliers

• Project Board
   – Board Contracting Owner & PM
   – Project Leader


                                        36
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on project’s planning
  –   Focus on project’s quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            37
     Project and organizations


• Functional organization
• Orgnization by Processus (ISO/ QS…)
• Matricial organization
   – Functions X processus
   – Function X Project
   – Processus X Project
• Project Based organization

The project is a tool for change management: a
  « cubic » organization:
Function x Processus x Project


                                                 38
        Project structure

• Why is it necessary to structure ?
• Problems of complex project

  – During the project design
     • Identify the purpose of the project
     • Identify its development
     • Prepare an adapted organization

  – During the project operations
     • Establish and follow the project plan (cost –quality- deadlines)



                                                                          39
     Goals


• Project structure :
  – Is a shared referential
  – Allows an analytical analysis of the project
    (prevision & realization)
  – Introduces a shared integrated codification
    @ the enterprise ERP




                                                   40
        Structure project answers
        …the breakdown structures

• What ?  product: PBS

• What to do ?  action: WBS

• Who is responsible of what ?  responsability: OBS

• Who do ? With What  ressource: RBS

• What is the cost ?  cost: CBS



                                                       41
       OBS


Project organization




                       42
       Several actors

• Contracting ower
   – Customer

• Project Manager
   – Project direction
   – Project Manager / leader
   – Project Team

• Suppliers

• Project Board
   – Board Contracting Owner & PM
   – Project Leader


                                    43
        Organization


 100u         Direction Steering Comity   Month/BiMonth.


10u            Project Steering Comity     Week/Month



  u              Project Management        Day/Week




Cont.                                       Continuous/
                       Technical Team
                                            Day
        Project Team
                                                        44
      A member is


• A key person !

• Role

• Skills and abilities



                         45
            The project member: an key
            operating link
                         Project Manager




To adapt to project                              Interface with
methods                                          others group
                         Project Member          members



           Cost              Quality       Delay
           Constraints     constraints     constraints

                                                                  46
              Role of project member
                        Participate at project
                               meeting




 Animate project                                       Share information
 methods by using                                      with other project
 them                    Project member                members &
                                                       collaborate



Be focused on quality      Follows his/her       Achieve its
concerns                      planning           budget
                                                 objective
                                                                       47
     Abilities of project member:
     HR profile

• To know how to effect a constraint task
  (cost, quality, delay) => need to cope
  with pression and stress
• Able to evolve in a coordinated
  environment
• Keen to Team Working



                                            48
      Project Manager


• An interface actor

• Role

• Ability and skills

• Constraints
                        49
           The project manager is a
           interface actor
                      Project Team
          Customer                    Quality Structure




                      Project
Functional Board                          Board of direction
                      Manager




          Chief                      Other Teams
          executive
          staff
                       Services
                                                          50
            Role of the Project Manager

      Study and                   Find sponsors in the
     understand                       organization
 requirements and
satistfy the customer


   Plan and             Project          Drive and
   express              Manager          control the
  achievable                            progression
    goals


   To be efficient                 LET DO by the
                                   team, Improve
                                     ressource
                                    employment
                                                       51
     Role of project manager


• Be creative and Charismatic during the
  1st phase

• Be respectfull of the plan


• Honnest & review rapidly at the end
                                   [Midler]


                                              52
     Skills and abilities of a project
     manager

• Master methodologies
• Knowledge of technics involved during
  the project
• Understanding and create an adhesion
  atmosphere in the team




                                          53
       Project Manager constraints

                                    Environment
  Technologies




Standards               Project          Economic
                        Manager           aspect




            Political               Limited
                                  ressources
                                                    54
          The project Director (if
          necessary)

   Agree project                           Hire the project
     strategic                            manager / leader.
    directions                            Gives his authority


                           Project
Find internal                                     Help for
                           Director
  sponsor                                         financial
                                                  aspects



      Is involved during         Follow several projects
        crisis situation           and advice each of
                                          them                  55
       The project board

Valide strategic                     Involved in strategic
 orientations                           decisions and
                                      operation reviews


                     Project             Valid milestones
Finance
                     Board




   Release blocked             Strategic view of
      situations                   projects
                                                         56
            PBS
Product BreakDown Structure




                              57
         PBS- Product BreakDown
         Structure
• A descriptive arborescence of the product

   1.   level 1 : system
   2.   level 2 : subsystem
   3.   level 3 : Submodule
   4.   level 4 : components
   5.   …

• The PBS is a configuration and
  documentation management support
                                              58
             Exemple


                             Rafale air craft
                             Système Rafale
                                 System


 Logistic
Logistique                           Plane
                                     Avion             Arming
                                                      Armement



 Cockpit
Carlingue     Ailes
              Wings   Motorisation
                       Motoring              Navigation          Pilotage
                                                                 Steering    Gear
                                                                            Trains




                                                                                     59
          WBS
Work BreakDown Structure




                           60
     Definition


• WBS : The project skeleton
  – Project structure
  – Operational activities definition
  – Cost follow up
  – Deadlines Definitions & Reviews
  – Risk Management
  – Operation management


                                        61
   The WBS allows to


– Define precisely each delivrables

– Precise definition of each action

– Deep understanding of each member
  intervention

– Agreement and recognition of every
  involved (and / or) impacted services


                                          62
     WBS concepts

– A structured decomposition of the project
– Create every task and subtask necessary for
  goals achievement
– Each phase is fully decomposed without
  temporal relations (for the moment)
– The work requires to be
  • Complete
  • Exhaustive
  • Coherent


                                                63
     How structuring the work


• Identify phases and major actions

• For each work lot, describe in a file
  each work unit

• Don’t forget non technical activities


                                          64
                     A task file
PROJECT : ..................................................... N° W.O. : ..................... EDITION FROM : ..............................
RESPONSIBLE : .................................... LABEL : ..............................................................................
DESCRIPTION : ...........................................................................................................................................


MAIN ACTIVITIES : .................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................................................
INPUT (material, doc,...) : .......................................................................................................
OUTPUT (fournitures, doc,...) :....................................................................................................
EXCLUDED TASK : ..................................................................................................................................


BEGINING DATE : ................... FINAL DATE : .................... DURATION : ......................
MILESTONES : ...........................................................................................................


WORK ALLOCATION: : ............................................... BUDGET : ....................................................

V
I   Project Manager : ..................Local Manager: ........................ Task Resp. : ........................
S
A    Date : ....................................... Date : .......................................                    Date : .....................................
S


                                                                                                                                                                     65
       Component of a WBS


•   Project
•   Sub-project
•   Phase
•   Work Batch
•   Task
•   Milestone
•   Delivrable
                            66
     A task


• Has a beginning and an end

• Consume ressources, which cost and
  are in limited quantity

• Is linked at other tasks by an anteriority
  (or precedence) relation (choose one)


                                               67
     Milestone


• Review or decision task
  – Is modelled by :
    • Has no duration (even if in reality has one)
    • Do not consume ressources (facing the project
      ressource consumption)
    • Is typed :
       – A contractual milestone = Payment
       – Technical Milestone = intermediate event
       – Interface Milestone = intermediate event when all
         project’s actors meet


                                                             68
     Finally the WBS is


• A Top down and Bottom up tool

• Must not be frozen => need revision
  during the project.




                                        69
         Unit « building » principles

• Aggregation criterias
   –   Same project phase
   –   Same Speciality
   –   Same responsability
   –   Same Market

• Decomposition Criterias
   –   Functional
   –   Product
   –   Activity typology
   –   Business type
   –   Geography
                                        70
      Work description


• Each work lot have to be separated from
  others
• Interfaced with others
• Compatible with enterprise organization
• Describe completely
  – Input
  – ouput
• With an unique responsible
• With limited size, cost, duration and work
  load.

                                               71
     Decomposition main issue


Find the balance between

• A too wide mesh

• A too small mesh




                                72
                Example 1 (in french)


                                              Projet info :
                                           Logiciel version 2.0

Management         Spécification          Conception                                       Intégration
                                                                  Réalisation
  projet             produit               détaillée                                         et tests


        Planification          Logiciel                Logiciel                 Logiciel                 Logiciel

                               Manuel                 Manuel                 Manuel                   Manuel
         Réunions
                             d’utilisateur          d’utilisateur          d’utilisateur            d’utilisateur

                             Documents             Documents               Documents                Documents
             Gestion
                             de formation          de formation            de formation             de formation




                                                                                                                    73
             Exemple 2 (in french)

                                      Système Rafale

Logistique                                Avion          Armement

Carlingue     Ailes          Motorisation         Navigation    Pilotage   Trains

                      Spécification


                      Conception


                      Fabrication


                      Assemblage




                                                                                    74
           PBS and WBS linkage

Project
          Subproject
                                                              PBS

               System

                       subsystem

          Phase                                               WBS

                                        COHERENCY:
               Work Batch          →Tasks must realize
                                          subsystem
                          Task     ←Subsystem must be built
                                          by tasks
                                                                75
     PBS-WBS / OBS

                                       Flux
  Need               Involved agency



 System              Steering comity



Sub System               Office



 Product                  Team



   Task                  People



                                              76
     PBS-WBS / OBS – a « big »
     project
                                 Flux
  Need



 System



Sub System



 Product



   Task



                                        77
PBS-WBS / OBS – a « small »
project
                                Flux
              Involved agency



              Steering comity



                  Office



                   Team



                  People



                                       78
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on project’s planning
  –   Focus on project’s quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            79
     Planning


• A project is constraint by:
  – A beginning date
  – An End Date (Due Date)
  – Deadlines & delivrables
• The planning is the art of prevision and
  follw-up of project’s operational goals:
  time, cost, quality…

                                             80
       Project Planning

• A 10 Steps planning method
  1. Analyse the project
  2. Identify tasks
  3. Identify tasks linkage
  4. Plot the task network
  5. Evaluate each task duration
  6. Calculate dates
  7. Calculate Margins – PERT
  8. Adjust time constraints
  9. Draw GANTT
  10.Allocate ressources
                                   81
      Main issue
          Planning
      (Idea of the reality)



                                  Real realization




• The art of project manager is
  – Measure, Decide and Act so as reaching goals
    despite of contingency
  – New planning – planning update


                                                     82
              Level of planning

                             Steering comity road map (Milestones)


        Due dates               Macro planning – Batch of Work
                                  Work BreakDown Structure



                                          Task & Activites
                                           Time planning
 Chaining
constraints
                                            Task & Operations
                                            Workload planning




                                                                 83
           1- Analyze the project
                             Project



Studies      Furniture    Facility layout   Tooling        Acceptance


 Layout                       Machining
              Machining                                     Acceptance
 Studies                     substructur     Machining
               Supplies                                        tests
                                  e         installation




                              Assembly
              Assembly                       Assembly
                             substructur
              Supplies                      installation
                                  e


                                               Ganty
                                               crane
                                            installation

                                                                         84
           1- Analyze the project
                             Project



Studies      Furniture    Facility layout   Tooling        Acceptance


   C              A              D               E              I
 Layout                       Machining                     Acceptance
              Machining                      Machining
 Studies                     substructur                       tests
               Supplies                     installation
                                  e


                 B               F              G
                              Assembly
              Assembly                       Assembly
                             substructur
              Supplies                      installation
                                  e

                                                 H
                                               Ganty
                                               crane
                                            installation

                                                                         85
      Identify tasks


N°          Label


Deb         Start
A           Purchase & receipt of machining tools
B           Purchase & receipt of assembly tool
C           Study the facility layout
D           Execute the facility layout for machining
E           Install machining tools
F           Execute the facility layout for assembly
G           install assembly tools
H           Install the gantry crane
I           Perform acceptance tests
Fin         End



                                                        86
      Identify tasks

N°          Label                                           Anterior
                                                            tasks

Deb         Start                                       NIL
A           Purchase & receipt of machining tools       Deb
B           Purchase & receipt of assembly tool         Deb
C           Study the facility layout                   Deb
D           Execute the facility layout for machining   C
E           Install machining tools                     A,D
F           Execute the facility layout for assembly    C
G           install assembly tools                      B,F
H           Install the gantry crane                    C
I           Perform acceptance tests                    E,G,H
Fin         End                                         I



                                                                       87
        4- Drawn the network


         A             E




               D




         C            H        I

 0


               F
Start                              End


         B             G




                                     88
       Rank calculus

• Problème : which order to choose ?

                 task
                   3


                 task
       Start                Task 5     En d
                   1


                 task
                            Task 4
                   2



                                              89
                             Rank calculus
       •                                                         Preceding tasks
Tâches Antécédents   Durée   Tâches Antécédents   Durée

  A          /        3        G        E-F        9

  B         A         1        H         /         5

  C         A         5        I         H         8
                                                                            Number of
  D         B         6        J         H         2                         cross =
  E         B         4        K         I         3                        Nomber of
  F        C-I-D      2        L        K-J        7                        preceding
                                                          Task                tasks




                                                                                        90
        Draw the network

• Then (follow eg §91)
                     B

            A            D

                     C
                             F

            H            E       G

                     I
                             L

                         K
                     J

                                     91
              5-Estimate duration

N°                 Label                          Anterior     Duration
                                                  tasks

Deb   Start                                            /         0
A     Purchase & receipt of machining tools            Deb       7
B     Purchase & receipt of assembly tool              Deb       3
C     Study the facility layout                        Deb       5
D     Execute the facility layout for machining        C         5
E     Install machining tools                          A,D       5
F     Execute the facility layout for assembly         C         3
G     Install assembly tools                           B,F       3
H     Install the gantry crane                         C         7
I     Perform acceptance tests                         E,G,H     1
Fin   End                                              I         0



                                                                          92
       To estimate duration


•   Personal experience
•   Ask experts

    (Employ a significative & homogen time unit)




                                                   93
        6- Calculate dates

         A   7                                E       5




                       D       5




         C   5                               H        7              I      1

  0


                       F       3
Start                                                                                  End
                                                    Duration


         B   3                                G       3


                      ESD                                                LED
                 Earliest Start Date
                                       EED                LSD       Latest End Date

                                Earliest End Date    Latest Start Date


                                                                                         94
    7- Margin calculus

• Free margin
  – Duration From which a task can be delayed or
    relaxed without affecting another task of the
    project

• Total margin
  – Duration from which a task can be relaxed or
    delayed without affecting the end of the entire
    project.


                                                      95
      Critical path & tasks

• Critical path
  – Every path which goes from the begining to
    the end of the project with the longuest
    duration.
  – Its lenght will define the duration minimum of
    the project
• Critical path
  – A task with margin = 0

                                                     96
      Calculate margins

           A               7                                         E         5


       0       7       3       10                                10 15 10 15
                                        D               5                 0
                   3

                                    5       10 5            10
           C               5                                         H         7         I       1
                                                0
0 0                                                                                                   16 16
       0       5       0       5                                 5 12 8            15   15 16 15 16
                                        F               3
                   0                                                      3                  0

                                    5       8       9       12
           B           3                        4                    G         3


       0       3       9       12                                8       11 12 15
                   9                                                       4


                                                                                                              97
PERT Algorithm (in french)
Algorithme du chemin critique

Données : Digraphe G = (V, E), sans circuits, des activités avec leur durée d ik.
Résultat :



               début au plus tôt des activités correspondant aux arcs (i, k) partant de i,
                i


               fin au plus tard des activités correspondant aux arcs (k, i) arrivant à i,
                    i

              durée du chemin critique.


Début
 I. Calcul des dates de début au plus tôt (récurrence en avançant dans le projet)

       1                                              :=                                        0

     Pour k := 2 à n faire               k         
                                             := max{ j + djk | j           P(k)}
  II. Calcul des dates de fin au plus tard (récurrence en reculant dans le projet)

          n                                           :=                                        n


       Pour     k       :=   n-1   à   1   faire      k    :=      
                                                                 min{   j   -   dkj   |   j   S(k)}
Fin.


Notations:
P(i) = {k   V | (k, i)    E}: c'est l'ensemble des sommets prédécesseurs de i.
S(i) = {k V | (i, k) E}: c'est l'ensemble des sommets successeurs de i.


                                                                                                      98
       8- Adjust durations &
       constraints

•   Analyse constraints
•   Review (negociate) goals
•   Analyse taks (redefine)
•   Review the technical solution ?
•   Externalize ?
•   Increase the ressources number?



                                      99
9- Draw Gantt diagram


        Week 1                          Week 2

M   T      T     W      F     M   T     T        W   F


        Task 1
                     Task 2
                                      Task 3




                                                         100
      Arrowed Gantt


• Graphical & temporal acitivity sucession

                             Time (in days)
            1        2   3      4     5        6    7


                TA



                               TB



                                              T C




                                                        101
     Tasks chaining logics

Precedent                                      precedent


              Next                             Next

End – Start Relation (ES)                End-End Relation (EE)




                            Precedent


                            Next

                     Start – Start Relation (SS)

                                                                 102
     Tasks chaining logics

Precedent                                                   +d
                                              precedent

            +d   Next                                Next

End – Start Relation (ES)               End-End Relation (EE)




                        precendent


                        +d      Next

                    Start – Start Relation (SS)

                                                                 103
         Un exemple ML-MT

Task 1                     17 w
                          7w
Task 2          5w        2w
                                        5w
Task 3                         5w
Task 4             7w          5w
Task 5 (end milestone)



                         Total margin
                         Free Margin
                                             104
     10- Ressources allocations


• Definition
  – Human, material, energetic, informational,
    geographic or temporal means allocation
    for a task operation




                                                 105
     Ressources allocation


• Elaborate an allocation table

• Estimate ressources required

• Allocate ressources



                                  106
     Ressources allocation


• THe charge planning is establish
  considering ressources availbility
• If overload are discovered, the project
  manager must deploy corrective
  actions:
  – Grading (Slip the end of the project)
  – Smoothind (reorganize so as the end of
    date)
  – Restructure the project
                                             107
  Loads




Loads = duration * mobilization rate




                                       108
       Load plan

                                 Undercapacity
load    Ressources in
        ‘idle mode’                  Ressources available

Max


                 Ressources raised



                                                       t

                                                            109
   Project planning


Set of tools and methods for creating
  – Indicators
  – Operational Balanced Scorecard

For managing the project




                                        110
     Indicators

• Measure a phenomenon
• They have to be :
  – Easy to understand and appropriated
  – Usefull
• Two type of indicators
  – Results
  – Process
• Examples ?

                                          111
        Balance score card

•   Management tool
•   Underline the past performance
•   Give information about futur steps
•   Strong and Weak Points
•   Gap analysis toward targets
•   Each gap need an action plan
•   Designed during the project first phase


                                              112
           Manage with BSC

The quality of a BSC:
• It is focused                 = Design for customers

• It is usefull                 = Fullfill requirements

• It is reliable                = regulary reviewed

• It help for the action plan   = concrete

• It is complete                = Is operational Q, C, D

• It is understandable          = visual

                                                           113
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on project’s planning
  –   Focus on project’s quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            114
            Définitions

• Do we master indicators ?
• Can we measure ?
• Do we have control limits
• How mastering OOC?
• How is the indicator distribution ? (normal, bi modal…)
• Which are Cp - Cpk of are key indicators ? (do we
  master them)
• Audit: Key parameters to an analyse
    –   Indicators vs relevance
    –   Deployement of a systematic indicator review and gap analysis
    –   Follow-up of indicator in team problem solving
    –   How is the management with indicators
                                                                        115
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on project’s planning
  –   Focus on project’s quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            116
       Risks and projects

Some definitions:
• Potentiality that a project doesn’t follow its
  plan.

• Virutal Gaps, unacceptable regarding goal

• NO projects without risks

                                                   117
        Risks and projects

Definition in this lesson:

A risk is the triptych:
  – Unwanted event
  – Frequency
  – Gravity




                             118
         Risks and project

•      The fundation of risk analysis: the
    context of the analysis

                                         RISK
                       Context
                                     •Fearsome
                                     event
                      Fearsome
                        event        •Frequency
                                     •Gravity

                                                  119
         Risk and projects

Risks caracteristics
   – Nature of the risks
      • financial, human, Law, Commercial, technical
   – Risk origin
      • Customer, Supplier, subcontractor, internal
   – Consequences,
   – Detectability
   – Gravity
      • From no consequence to disaster
   – Probabiliy of occurence
      • Quantitative ? Qualitative (rare, improbable, most likely,
        common)

                                                                     120
                Risks and projects

Risks Management
•   Why implement a risk management?

    − Prevent Malfunction

    − Prevent firefighting during the project

− In other words

    − Contribute to a RELEVANT definition of operational goals (cost, due dates, required perf)

    − Having robust goals regarding disturbing events




                                                                                            121
       Risks and projects

Risks management
•   Constitute a « crisis » group or Problem
    Solving Team

•   For the management: employ
    KNOWLEDGEABLE & reliable people


                                               122
       Risks and projects

Management of risks during a project / 6 STEPS

 1. Risk identification            Risks ANALYSIS
                                   process -
 2. Risk ranking                   Dysfunctional
 3. Risks classification           analysis



 4. Risk « curring » : mitigation Risk MANAGEMENT
                                   Process
 5. Follow-up and control of risks
 6. Capitalization and risks update


                                                    123
         Risks and projects

1. Risk identification
•   Individual or team analysis => listing of
    every potential impacting element:
    – Have a look at a previous projects’ post
      mortem analyses, project databases
    – Review a risk checklist
    – Look at a risk database in the organization
    – Ask experts involved in previous projects
    – …
                                                    124
             Risks and projects

1. Risk identification
•       Tools for the explicitation:
    –      FMEA

    –      Failure/Fault Tree Analysis

    –      Causes Tree

    –      Bow Ties




                                         125
          Risks and projects


2. Risks ranking
•   Affect, for each risk, a value:
    – Gravity, Occurrence probability, Probability of
      non detection


FMEA formalism => RPN = Sev * Occ * Det



                                                        126
        Risks and projects

3. Risk classification
• Each risk, identified and estimated, must be
  classified and prioritized regarding other
  risks

• The project management evaluate each risk,
  determine if it is acceptable or not
  depending on PRECISE rules, given by the
  project steering commity
                                                 127
     Risks and project

3. Risk classification
Levels of risk
Probability can bve replace (in often case) by a
  qualitative estimation
         very weak    1
         weak         2
         median       3
         high         4
         very high    5               C = I x P
• The criticality is the product: occurance probability
  * impact

                                                          128
            Risks and project

  4. Risk mitigation
                               PROBABILITy
Area I   : Acceptable risks
                                5

Area II : disturbing risks      4            III           IV

                                3
Area III : risks to treat
                                                  II
                                2                          III
Area IV : unacceptable risks
                                1      I

                                       1      2        3    4    5
     Mitigation path                                             IMPACT
                                                                      129
          Risks and projects

4. Risk mitigation
• The declination
=>Decline the project

• The cure
=> Suppress the root cause of the risk
   – Are solution appropriate?
   – Are goals & constraints negociable?


• The mitigation
=> Diminution of the probability of occurrence &/or impact

                                                             130
          Risks and projects

4. Risks Mitigation
•   The countermeasure
    – Accept the risk and take technical, communicational,
      organizational, insurances
       • Preventative actions; decrease its occurrence probability
       • Emergency measures: If the event occurs, prevent the
         propagation of the impact


•   The transfer
    – Which is the best organization for the risk?
       • Internal services
       • Subcontractor?
       • Customer?
                                                                     131
             Risks and projects

5. Risks control and follow-up
•   Action plan
    −   Evaluation of final impact of actions
    −   Tracability of action: ACTION PLAN:
         •   Responsible
         •   When
         •   The forecast risk rank after treatment




                                                      132
     Risks and projects


6. Risks & actions capitalization
  − A documentary system
     • Trace of event & action plan
     • One risk catalog
        • Help the identification of risks for new projects
        • Standardize risk management
     • Constitue risks check-lists
     • Store debriefing analyses



                                                              133
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on project’s planning
  –   Focus on project’s quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            134
      The Cost control

• Ressource planning

• Cost forecast

• Budgeting

• Cost control




                         135
       The cost control


• To have a target
   – The Budget at date
• Compare its position
   – The previsional cost
• Obtain by
   Sum of what has been guaranty & done (done or in the pipe)
   +
   Sum of what is still required (to be payed)
• GAP analysis
   – Gap, drift, trends
• Taking in account
   – Project modifications & inflation


                                                                136
     Technical provisions


• Technical provision are used to
  cover technical risks due to :
  – Lack of knowledge during cost
    estimation
  – Project plan review
    • skeleton review
    • Planning review
• Often * 2 !
                                    137
       Initial Budget

• Task organization must be coherent with budget line

• Each subensembly is decomposed of budget line &
  technical provision

• The sum of all budget line (for all submodule)correspond
  to the technical cost of the project. There is also the
  gross margin
   – General provision for the project
   – Overhead charges
   – Profit margin



                                                         138
       Budget Initial
Sub module       Sub module               Sub module


   Budget           Budget                    Budget
    line             line                      line




             •General provision
             for the project
             •Overhead            Gross Margin
             charges
             •Profit margin


                         Initial
                        BUDGET                         139
        BCWP Curve

• The BCWP Curve (CBTP in French)
  – Budgeted Cost of Work Planned BCWP
• Official, reference curve which translate
  previsional cumulated cost respecting the
  project planning
              Cost




                                         BCWP




                                          Time
                                                 140
              The BDWD curve
• The BCWD curve (CBTE in french)
    – Budgeted Cost of the Work Done – Earned Value
• Translate the evolution of real evolution of
  budgeted cost for executed works at a particular
  date
                     Cost



                                              Planning   BCWP
              Aquired,                         delay
           planned value                        BDWD
                                      Delay
                                                           Time
A curve depending of the planning &
         the work progress.
                                                                  141
         Planning Gap

Relative Planning Gap :

    Gap Planning
=
    Incur budget


    BCWP – BDWD
=
        BCWP



                          142
                  The RCWD

     • The RCWD Curve ( CRTE in French)
          – Real cost of Work Done
     • At a particular date, is the cumulated curve of
       what has been really spend
                  Cost
                           RCWD
         Real cost                                       BCWP

                                           Planning   Project Control
           Aquired,                         delay        variance
        planned value
                                               BDWD
urve depending of the planning &
                                   Delay
      the work progress.                                   Time

                                                                        143
        Cost Gap

Performance gap

= BCWP - RCWD

If < 0  More expensive than planned
If > 0  Less expensive than planned

Cost Variation :

    Cost Gap           BCWP – RCWS
=                  =
      BCWP               BCWP

                                       144
     Measures analysis (date
     review)

• Cost realized < Planned cost
   Not necessarly a good sign
• Cost realized > Planned cost
   not necessarly a bad sign
• Need a new measure :
  – Work Done (Physical status)



                                  145
    Measure of work


• Planned workload
• Used Planned Workload
• Real Workload employed




                           146
       Management with delivrable


Planned dates
(or workload)                     Rencontre des prévisions
                                  avec la réalité
          Delivrable 2

                          Delivrable 1

                    D1 delayed

                                                    Real date
      Date of CR review

                                                                147
         Management tool

Planned charges
                      Chronical drift of the project


                         Earlier pb analysis
                      Pb discovered late in the planning
                  Ideal project; date real = date planned



                                         Real dates


                                                            148
        Status meeting


•   Gap ANALYSIS
    − Difficulties to plan
       • Planning = intellectual effort
       • No standard for duration evaluation
    − Ressources
       •   Ressource availability
       •   Several qualifications
       •   Learning time
       •   Ressources are focused on their favorite activities
    − Modifications
       • From the customer
       • Product improvement
    − Failures

                                                                 149
         Outline

• Introduction & concepts

• Concurrent to your project:
  –   General project structure
  –   Detailed project structure
  –   Focus on project’s planning
  –   Focus on project’s quality
  –   Risks management during the project
  –   Cost analysis
  –   The project follow-up
• Bonus Slides

                                            150
         Meeting Point
• Who
   – The project team
• Duration
   – 1 Hour
• When
   – Regularly and repetitive
• What
   – Based on FACTs
• Format
   – Status Report
• Tracking
   – Balance Score Card

                                151
     Follow-up goals


• Help the project manager to take the
  right decision, so that goals could be
  achieved the closest possible to the
  planning.

• Mean: the information system



                                           152
            Graphical tools
• Milestones planning
    – Status for each milestons

    Δt= Realized - planned
    Late
            2
            1
  In time
            1
            2
In avance
                t0   t1      t2   t3   t4   Real Time

                                                        153
       Graphical tools for the follow-
       up
• Milestone follow-up
  – Extension for all milestones

        t + (Δt= time realized – planned time)


                             late
   M2        t3
                                     advance
             t2
   M1                                Passed
             t1                      milestone

             t0
                  t0    t1          t2    t3     t4   Real time

                                                                  154
       Status

• Time Status

• Workload Status

• Physical Status




                    155
          Status Follow-up
              1   2       3   4   5   6    7   8       9   10 11 12 13 14

         t0                       t0 + 5



Case 1                    5                4

Case 2                    5                                  9


Case 3            3                                6


Case 4                4                    4
                                  8

     Total Lenght = Real lenght + rest lenght
     Time status (%) = Real lenght / Overall lenght                         156
       Suivis : example
• Insert 1000 post along a road
  – Forcasting lenght : 100 days
  – Mean : 10 men
• Follow-up:
  – Meeting 1 : t0+10d
     • 100 post inserted, Ressource employed : 100 days
  – Meeting 2 : t0+20d
     • 50 post removed & reinsert
     • 50 insert
     • 10 people more have been affected
                                                          157
   Status measures
1- Declared status                                60 %

2- Calculated statuds
   Cost                        100                60 %
      forecast           60
                               100                50 %
   Cost forecast         60           60
   Stay to be
      spend
3- Recognized status                              40 %
   Done                  20 objetcs
   Still to do                     30 objects

4- Milestones status
                                                  40 %
                   10%        40%   60%    100%


5- Percentage statuts
                                                  100 %
                                                    0%
                                                    0%
                                                          158
     Follow the status
Example of an order
                        Physical status

         Tentative            0
     requirements book              Send consultation
                              10                               Milestones
        Benchmark
                                    Supplier choice
                              30
      Final requirement
             book                   Order slip
                              50


                                    Expediting at reception
        Delivery slip         80

                                   Final customer expedition
                              95
          Receipt
                                     Billing
                             100
                                                                      159
             Status follow-up
  Order example
Physical follow-up - Month 0 to 3

Month             event                Physical    Hours    H. dep. / H Tot      R.A.F.
                                       status   Spend      Phy. advan  planned

    0                  -                 0%          0        -          200      200

    1        Envoi des consultations     10%        25       250         200      175

    2        Choix du fournisseur        30%        72       240         200      128

    3        Emission de la commande 50%           122       244         240      118




                                                                                          160
     Operational procedures


• Regular review (weekly, monthly,
  quaterly…)

• Data loading
  – By activity
  – By ressources



                                     161
       Data collection

• Informal manner
  – Status meeting
  – Interviews


• Structured manner
  – Elapsed time spread sheet – systematically
    filled
  – Directly in a tool

                                                 162
Merci pour votre attention


  Thank you for your audience




                                163
Of quality in lessons…




                         164
             A little participation

Votre impression




Points positifs    Lesson on: www.g-scop.fr\~bassetts




Points
d’amélioration




                                                        165
            Summary – Project Management


• Several project type
• A management idea: W5H2
• « Dicton » (Failing to, plan is planning to fail)
    – PWS / WBS / OBS / CBS / RBS




• Uncertainty management => Risks analysis

• Project management: temporal review of a project, gap analysis,
  a REGULAR REVISION



                                                                    166
             Subject N°1: GAZPRAM & EXXOUN

• In a global shrinking market place of fossil energy, GAZPRAM &
  EXXOUN joined their efforts for new prospection and development
  actions. This new alliance, named G&E produced a first collaboration
  project:the implemantation of the SIN pipline : from Singapore to
  Nepal through the state of Myanmar.

• Following with interest your abilities about project management, the
  Human Ressources Direction of G&E has decided to promote you as
  Project Manager of this ambitious project.

• You have to do the feseability study of this project in putting a strong
  emphasis on a meticulus risks analysis.

• Your goal is to present to the sterring comity of G&E the validity of this
  project. From your results, the alliance can be renegociated.



                                                                               167
                 Subject N°2: HILTSTARS
                 Resorts & Travel Agencies
•   Following its development strategy, in accordance with Dalaï Lama, Chinese
    government plan to develop touristic aspects of LHASA. «LHASA will become the
    kingdom of meditation and skying». The high altitude will insure a confortable level of
    snow and secure this lucrative activity. In order to supply the lack of hostels
    infrastructure at an international level, Chineese government had launched a worldwide
    contract offer of 1B$ for the construction of a 6 buildings, 1500 beds each from 4 to 6
    stars quality. The HILTSARS Compangy has won the competition. « HILTSTARS
    resorts & Spa» are a well reknowned brand of luxe and quality. It have been choosen for
    their knowledge about holidays an luxe facilities.

•   Following your remarked ability in team and project management, the HR direction of
    HILSTARS will entrust you to this ambitious project.

•   Your participation will start by the preliminary study of this project. You will be
    responsible of the general planning for the entire facility layout.

•   Your goal is to present to HILSTARS steering comity your forcast planning & the
    smoothing associated.




                                                                                              168
             Subject 3: National lotery & the kitche

• You are a lucky guy/women! You won to the national lotery ! It is not
  the first price, however, you have enough money to buy you a flat in
  South of France. You can realize finally your dream. Your own loft is a
  820ft^2 to renovate entirely.

• Hopefully, you are a « do-it yourself » person and you plan to start with
  the kitchen. Several layout works need to be planned : gaz, painting,
  walls…

• Aware of the good job, you want to do a good job and preserve your
  nest egg. You decide to plan, buy and install a kitchen from IKEO.
  They did a super software of cost estimation and kitchen planning.

• Now it’s your turn to play




                                                                              169
        Subject 3: Practice Lesson – Lean
        manufacturing with LEGO

• You have to imagine a pratical lesson of
  lean manufacturing.
  – 8 pers. 1 project leader




                                             170
        Subject 5: Building a oenologic progra

• You have to imagine a pratical lesson of
  oenology.
  – 8 pers. 1 project leader




                                             171
        Subject 6: sensibilisation of about risk
        management

• You have to imagine a advertising message
  to sensibilize to middle and small managers
  to operational risk management
  – 8 pers. 1 project leader




                                                172
        Subject 7: World roots travel

• You have to imagine a travel around India
  and Nepal.
  – 8 pers. 1 project leader




                                              173

								
To top