Bacteria Fungi Ecosystem Worksheet by pbk15456

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									                       ECOSYSTEM WORKSHEET

I.     VOCABULARY

       a.   Abiotic                                  j.   Tertiary consumers
       b.   Biotic                                   k.   Omnivores
       c.   Ecosystem                                l.   Decomposers
       d.   Trophic levels                           m.   Detritus
       e.   Primary producer                         n.   Food Chain
       f.   Primary consumer                         o.   Food web
       g.   Herbivores                               p.   Biomass
       h.   Secondary consumers                      q.   Energy pyramid
       i.   Carnivores                               r.   Numbers pyramid
                                                     s.   Biomass pyramids


II.    Organisms interact with organisms they eat
               1. Describe some ways organisms interact with other organisms
               2. Describe some ways organisms interact with nonliving portions of their
                   environment.
               3. How are organisms interrelated?
               4. What is the most important interaction between organisms?
               5. How do green plants get their energy?
               6. How do all other organisms get their energy?
               7. What might happen to the balance of the food web if:
                 a. An organism in the ecosystem went extinct
                 b. If the number of one type of organism increased
                 c. If the number of one type of organism decreased

III.   Energy Flow and nutrient cycling are two major processes of ecosystems
               1. What are the two key processes in all ecosystems?
               2. How does energy enter an ecosystem?
               3. What group of organisms captures sunlight and converts it into chemical
                   energy?
               4. What process converts light energy into chemical energy?
               5. How do decomposers obtain their energy?
               6. Every time an organism uses energy, is it 100% efficient use or is some
                   lost? Explain.
               7. Is energy recyclable?
               8. Are chemicals (nutrients) recyclable in an ecosystem?
               9. Nutrients are recycled between what two parts of the ecosystem?
               10. How do plants, algae, and some bacteria obtain their nutrients?
               11. How do all other organisms obtain their nutrients?
               12. How are nutrients returned to the abiotic environment?
               13. Why are ecosystems dependent upon a continual supply of energy?




                                                                                 1
   IV.     Ecosystems are structured by who eats whom
           1. The series in which a large fish eats a small fish that has eaten algae is a _______
           ___________
           2. What two types of organisms are the major decomposers?
           3. Which group of organisms is always found at the base of a food chain or food web?
           4. Distinguish between herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers, and
           detritivores.
           5. The first organism of any food chain must be what?
           6. Draw a food web that includes each of the organisms in the left hand column.

            ORGANISM                 Potential Energy Sources
            Brown Bear               Fruit, fish, honey, insects, rodents (field mice)
            Fungi                    Dead plants and animals, animal waste
            Fish                     Insects, spiders
            Grasshopper              Grass, leaves
            Wild strawberries        photosynthesis

            7. A hypothetical grassland community has the following five trophic levels:
(1) grasses and other plants; (2) herbivores, such as aphids, rodents, and
antelope; (3) carnivores, such as ladybugs and weasels, that feed mainly on
herbivores; (4) carnivores, such as wolves and hawks, that feed on level 3
carnivores as well as on herbivores; and (5) detritivores, such as vultures,               fungi,
and bacteria. If a drought occurred, which of the consumer levels          would be affected
FIRST? (Assume that adequate drinking water remains                  available).

                       a. 2   b. 3    c. 4    d. 5      e. 3 and 4

          8. A hypothetical grassland community has the following five trophic levels:
(1) grasses and other plants; (2) herbivores, such as aphids, rodents, and
antelope; (3) carnivores, such as ladybugs and weasels, that feed mainly on
herbivores; (4) carnivores, such as wolves and hawks, that feed on level 3
carnivores as well as on herbivores; and (5) detritivores, such as vultures,              fungi,
and bacteria. If a drought occurred, which of the consumer levels          would be the LAST to
show adverse effects? (Assume that adequate                          drinking water remains
available).

                       a. 2 b. 3     c. 4    d. 3 and 4    e. 4 and 5


 9. In the following food chain, identify the trophic levels: Owl eats a mouse that
eats berries

10. QUESTIONS a-p use the diagram below.



                                                                                          2
        Grass  beetle  bird  cat  wolf

   a.   What do we call the above model?
   b.   Name the primary producer.
   c.   Name the primary consumer.
   d.   Name the secondary consumer.
   e.   Name all the autotrophs.
   f.   Name all the heterotrophs.
   g.   Name all the consumers.
   h.   Name the fist order consumer.
   i.   Name the second order consumer.
   j.   Name the herbivore.
   k.   Name the carnivore.
   l.   Name the organism in the second trophic level.
   m.   Name the organism in the first trophic level.
   n.   Which trophic level has the most energy?
   o.   Which trophic level has the most biomass?
   p.   What group is missing from the model?

11. For each answer given below, write an appropriate question.

        a. Organisms that use energy from the sun to make their own food.

        b. Animals that consume autotrophs for their food and energy.

        c. Heterotrophs that consume only plants.

        d. Heterotrophs that kill and consume other animals.

        e. Heterotrophs that consume both plants and animals.

        f. Heterotrophs that feed on dead animals and garbage.

       g. Organisms that break down and absorb nutrients from the decay of dead plants
and animals.




12. Complete the table below by writing each label in its correct space in the table.
Caterpillar   Heterotrophs     Third order consumers Second trophic level
Oak tree      Bobcat            Third trophic level       second order consumers
Producers      Bacteria and fungi



                                                                                         3
Autotrophs                            List heterotrophs below        Identify as herbivore, carnivore,
                                                                                 omnivore




        Autotrophs                                  17.




        8.                 First order consumers    9.                     10.               Decomposer




        First trophic      11.                      12.
        level                                                              Fourth trophic
                                                                           level


        13.                14.                      Blue jay               15.               16.




        13. Use the diagram to complete the table below. Classify each member of the food web as
        autotroph or heterotroph and identify the heterotrophs as herbivores, carnivores, or omnivores.




                                                                                                   4
1.                           4.                                11.


2.                           5.                                12.


3.                           6.                                13.


                             7.                                14.


                             8.                                15.


                             9.                                16


                             10.                               17



     What Trophic level does the marmot belong to?
     What trophic level is missing?

        V. All organisms must acquire matter and energy to live
                   1. Food chains and food webs depend on the flow of _________ and _________
                   from one organism to __________________
                   2. Energy required for all activity comes from _____________
                   3. In what form is energy stored in food?
                   4. What process releases energy within your cells for use?
                   5. What process supplies food energy?
                   6. Describe the different destinations of energy (stored, lost, utilized etc)
                   7. Who are the major decomposers?
                   8. What is the source of chemical energy for most ecosystems?
                   9. Explain the basics of photosynthesis
                   10. What are the two main purposes of food?
                   11. What two processes are involved in the recycling of matter? Describe
                   12. Stacey makes the comment that people are really “solar powered.” While this
                   is not literally correct, explain why Stacey made this statement.



        VI. Energy supply limits the length of food chains
                      1. What percent of visible light is captured by autotrophs and converted to
                           chemical energy?
                      2. How much organic material is produced in a year?


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                    3. The amount of energy available to the next trophic level is _____
                        percent.
                    4. Describe what happens to food eaten by an organism. (How is it utilized
                        and what is left over for next trophic level?
                    5. Describe what limits a food chain
                    6. Describe the three types of ecological pyramids
                    7. The country of Avorare has many starving people. Should you
                        encourage the people to crow crops such as vegetables, wheat, and corn,
                        or is it better to encourage them to use the land to raise cattle for beef?
                    8. Draw an energy pyramid for a five-step food chain. If 100 percent of the
                        energy is available at the first trophic level, what percentage of the total
                        energy is available at each trophic level?
                    9. The total mass of living tissue at each trophic level can b shown in a
                        ____________ _________________
                    10. Explain why a numbers pyramid can be inverted but not an energy
                        pyramid
                    11. A biology teacher takes fish, algae, pondweed, invertebrates,           and
                        bottom muck from a local pond and establishes them in an aquarium.
                        When the system is stable, the teacher seals it into a large, airtight, glass
                        box and leaves the box in a sunny location. After three months, the
                        organisms in the aquarium appear alive and healthy. Which of the
                        following statements about the experiment is incorrect?
                               a. No energy has entered or left the glass box during the 3
              months
                               b. Some of the energy in the system has moved from one
              organism to another during the 3 months
                               c. Some atoms from water molecules have become parts of
              organic molecules
                               d. The air in the glass contains carbon dioxide
                               e. During the 3 months, the biomass of plant life was
              greater than the biomass of animal life.

VII. Chemical elements are recycled between organic matter and the abiotic
              1. What is the major difference between the flow of energy and chemical
                 nutrients through an ecosystem?
              2. Describe the basic pattern of chemical cycling
              3. Describe the carbon and oxygen cycle
              4. Describe the nitrogen cycle
              5. Describe the water cycle
              6. Why do living organisms need nutrients?
              7. Based on the carbon-oxygen cycle, what do you think might happen if vast
                 areas of forests are cleared?
              8. What is the role of nitrogen fixing bacteria?
              9. In the general ecologic cycle (H20 + CO2)  (1)X (2) (H2O + CO2), what
                 are processes (1) and (2) and component X?
                     a. 1= photosynthesis; 2 = cell respiration; X= sugars + O2



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                        b. 1= photosynthesis; 2 = cell respiration; X= CO2 + H2O
                        c. 1 = cell respiration; 2 = photosynthesis; X = sugars + O2
                        d. 1 = cell respiration; 2 = photosynthesis; X = CO2 + H2O
                        e. 1 = cell respiration; 2 = photosynthesis; X = CO2 + O2
                10. Given that CO2 is produced by cell respiration, why does the amount
            of CO2 in the atmosphere remain relatively constant? (When answering
this question, exclude the impact of human activities on atmospheric
CO2.)
                               a. CO2 is converted in photosynthesis to sugar
                               b. CO2 is split apart during photosynthesis
                               c. CO2 mostly forms carbonate rock
                               d. CO2 is trapped in dead organisms bodies
                               e. CO2 is a buffer
                11. Describe three roles that bacteria play in the nitrogen cycle
                12. Follow a raindrop through several possible paths through the water
             cycle, ending as water vapor in atmosphere.

                               13. Nitrogen cycle-concept map


                                                                            C.
                                   Free nitrogen in air




                               Nitrites        Nitrates                                   D.
       A.
                                                                 Plants

                                          B.

                                                                                          Remains
                                                                      remains


                                          Ammonia                     E.




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