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									           2003 年 12 月 16—31 日




※本資訊僅供會員參考,版權歸原出刊單位所有,
 不得擅自複印、散佈或公開發表。
 ※本資訊僅供會員參考,版權歸原出刊單位所有,不得擅自複印、散佈或公開發表。


奈米粉體與應用技術聯誼會—最新資訊—
                                                                                      2003 年 12 月 16-31 日




                                                      目         錄
【國際活動】
Nano Tech 2004 - International Nanotechnology Exhibition & Conference .......... 4

Nanotech 2004: The Nanotech Conference and Trade Show ................................... 4

2004 Nano Materials for Defense Applications Symposium .................................... 4

2004 AFOSR Dip-Pen Nanolithography Workshop ................................................. 4
【台灣新聞】
標準局、聯勤合作奈米產品檢測................................................................................ 4

奈米產品 難辨真假認證標章明年底推出 ................................................................. 5

產業快遞 台灣化學科技產業協進會今成立 ............................................................. 5

奈米活性包裝技術漸成主流........................................................................................ 6

奈米材料鍍膜後市看好................................................................................................ 6

臺灣石化產業搶攻納米商機........................................................................................ 7

工研院電子所展示一年來成果.................................................................................... 8
台大綠房子今開幕                       全台第一棟省能科技房屋 ....................................................... 9

鴻海投入奈米零組件研發 自行開發奈米鋰二次電池及碳奈米管等 ..................... 9

鴻海奈米研發 跨兩岸................................................................................................ 10

鴻海奈米計劃 大陸高層重視.................................................................................... 11

【歐美新聞】
The Top Ten Nanotech Products Of 2003 ................................................................ 12
布希搧風奈米科技投資升溫...................................................................................... 16

奈米技術投資金額大增.............................................................................................. 17

Researchers Develop Nanoscale Fibers That are Thinner Than the Wavelengths
of Light They Carry ................................................................................................... 18

Improved Tandem Organic LEDs ............................................................................ 21

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Naked nanofibres stretch optical properties............................................................ 22

Nanoscale Devices Said Nearly Ready For Prime Time ......................................... 23

As nanotech gains visibility, venture capital follows............................................... 25

To see the message, just add noise ............................................................................ 29

IBM exploits self-assembly to make nanocrystal memory ..................................... 31
納米粒子陣列可以做成 T 比特磁片 ......................................................................... 32

明日之星:神奇的奈米碳管...................................................................................... 33

Nanotubes break semiconducting record ................................................................ 37
納米管破半導體導電紀錄 10 年內將取代矽電晶體 .............................................. 38

半導體納米管具有高遷移率...................................................................................... 39

Tiny nanotube antennas may yield better signals in cell phones, televisions ....... 40
美研究人員發現納米碳管超常導電能力 納米電子前景廣闊 ............................... 41

Rice 大學的工程師作出了第一個純納米管光纖 ..................................................... 42

納米新材料科技日新月異.......................................................................................... 43

強酸促進納米纖維管的生產...................................................................................... 48

Nanowires offer low-loss connection ........................................................................ 49
納米絲可提供低損耗連接.......................................................................................... 50

Argonne researchers explore confinement of light with metal nanoparticles ...... 50
納米電池在南京問世.................................................................................................. 52

Solar power research looks to nanotechnology ....................................................... 52
Nanomat 研製納米滑石和納米碳酸鈣 ..................................................................... 53

M-BENZ 創新納米微粒塗裝技術 ............................................................................ 53

Semiconducting nanotubes show high mobility ...................................................... 54

Nanotechnology sees payoff in consumer markets.................................................. 55

Through thick and thin.............................................................................................. 58

Entering the Nano-Age? ............................................................................................ 61
【亞太新聞】
HITACHI SET TO PLANT ITS OWN 'NANOSTAMP' ON THE MEDICAL
MARKET.................................................................................................................... 63


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日本宣佈將建世界最大級超高速電腦運算網 ......................................................... 65

奈米技術的最新應用研究成果.................................................................................. 66

Vietnam produces nano material .............................................................................. 66
【大陸新聞】
專家呼籲應儘快建立納米產品標準 ......................................................................... 67

金屬所三項成果獲遼寧省獎勵.................................................................................. 68

新型發光材料在漢問世 納米燈光能彎曲 ............................................................... 69

打破國外壟斷 提升空調性能 納米鋁箔首次在春蘭批量生產 ............................. 70

納米光催化劑憑什麽神奇 ----關於一種空氣淨化解毒裝置的訪談 ...................... 70

2004 年“杉杉”將生產納米服裝 ............................................................................ 74




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【國際活動】
Nano Tech 2004 - International Nanotechnology Exhibition & Conference

時間:March 17-19, 2004
地點:Tokyo, Japan
參考網址:http://www.ics-inc.co.jp/nanotech/index_e.html


Nanotech 2004: The Nanotech Conference and Trade Show

時間:March 7-11, 2004
地點:Boston, MA, USA
參考網址:http://www.nanotech2004.com/


2004 Nano Materials for Defense Applications Symposium

時間:February 19 – 26, 2004
地點:Maui, Hawaii
參考網址:http://www.usasymposium.com/nano/


2004 AFOSR Dip-Pen Nanolithography Workshop

時間:January 26-27, 2004
地點:Duck Key, Florida, USA
參考網址:http://www.nanotechnology.northwestern.edu/2004DPN.htm


【台灣新聞】
標準局、聯勤合作奈米產品檢測

2003/12/24 工商時報
    經濟部標準檢驗局於昨(二十二)日與國防部聯合後勤司令部,假台北聯勤
信義俱樂部簽訂檢校合作協定書,簽約儀式由標準檢驗局局長林能中(下圖中,
謝奇璋攝)、聯合後勤司令部中將副司令季麟連 (左)代表雙方簽署。
    季麟連表示,司令部所屬軍品鑑定測詴處除了已是國軍法定之鑑測單位
外,更納入三軍十二個品保單位成為衛星檢校體系,目前已獲 I SO 2000 年版品
質管理體系、中華民國實驗室認證體系(CNLA)化學、機械測詴領域及校正領域等
項目之認證。此次簽約在於與標準檢驗局第六組負責執行檢校技術合作,在不影
響雙方原有檢驗業務下,期以雙方資源共享理念,加強技術合作,特冸是新興之
奈米產品檢測技術合作。

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  林能中表示,該局一貫致力提升檢測技術,除已取得財團法人全國認證基
金會中華民國實驗室認證體系(CNLA)化性、電性、機械、營建工程測詴領域及校
正領域等項目認證外,另為因應高科技及新興產品的檢測工作,以擴大為民服務
範圍,乃與國防部聯合後勤司令部進行檢校合作計畫,雙方以檢測技術鑑定、教
育訓練、學術交流、研究計畫、儀器設備資源共享及技術支援等方式合作,提升
研發水準、增強專業知能,並為民眾提供更廣泛的服務。


奈米產品 難辨真假認證標章明年底推出

2003/12/18 民生報
    被譽為「第四波工業革命」的奈米科技,已陸續開發出不少相關產品,其
中不乏以假亂真的奈米產品。經濟部已與工業技術研究院合作,研訂「奈米產品
認證標章」    ,計畫明年底推出,以進一步保障消費者權益。
    為協助化工產業發展高值化學科技產業,由產、學、研合作成立的「台灣
化學科技產業協進會」已成立,並舉行「化學科技產業與奈米材料高峰論壇暨成
果發表會」;現場展出多種應用奈米科技的化學材料。
  工研院化工所所長鄭武順指出,台灣化工產業是我國第二大製造業,僅次
於電機電子產業。2003 年台灣化工產業產值因六輕持續擴建及價格攀升等因素,
已突破台幣 2 兆。而新興的兩兆雙星上游化學關鍵原材料產值需求,預期 2006
年可達 8000 億,這些都與化工產業密切相關,值得化工產業投入。
  由於坊間以    「奈米」號召的產品難辨真假,今春 SARS 疫情爆發時,部分「奈
米口罩」混充上市,而致消費者受騙上當,工研院化工所應用化學組長陳哲陽表
示,為保護消費者權益,經濟部工業局已和工研院合作研訂相關認證標準,將合
力推動「奈米產品認證標章」    ,此一標章預計明年年底推出,屆時消費者將可透
過標章認證,分冸真假,把真正的奈品產品帶回家。


產業快遞 台灣化學科技產業協進會今成立

2003.12.16 王莫昀/台北報導
    為協助國內化工產業發展高值化學科技產業,台灣化學科技產業協進會今
天將舉行成立大會,並舉辦           「化學科技產業與奈米材料高峰論壇暨成果發表會」    。
經濟部表示,現階段台灣化工產業除應重新調整產品結構外,還應重圕化工產業
的新形象,爭取更多人才與資金投入。預期未來這項產業每年將可增加五萬個就
業機會。
http://money.chinatimes.com/news/biz/m92c1628.htm




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奈米活性包裝技術漸成主流

2003/12/29 經濟日報
    食品包裝的材質與技術,隨著生技、機能性及生物活性等食品快速發展,
使包裝需求有更大的發展空間,尤其是新材質的開發與製造技術更是突破的重
點。
    開發新包裝材質必需考慮的因素很多,除了改善傳統圕膠材質的安全性
外,也需強化機能性食品的特性,和維持貯藏銷售的產品品質,甚至可藉包裝材
質提供較佳品質的功能效益。
  市面上常使用的聚乙烯 (PE)、聚丙烯 (PP)及聚苯乙烯(PS)的單層及
積層材質,均直接或間接與食品接觸,造成材質本身所殘留的末聚合體、添加物
及裂解物質,以獨立型或依賴型的模式遷移至食品,造成食品產生異味及引影響
其品質與安全性。
  這類包裝材質在高溫 50 度以上或長期貯存,均會造成大量殘留至食品
中,嚴重影響食品的品質,甚至造成食品特性的改變,尤其著重口味和口感的食
品部份,更是包裝材質及技術突破所考慮的重點。
  以生技產品而言,能夠結合奈米技術,以紙浸漬奈米級的物質,將細孔填
補後再以疏水性材質進行表面塗佈,防止包裝內部的水份滲透,另基於空氣中的
氧氣所產生的氧化反應可藉由脫氣劑的使用及添加以有效防止氧化。
  業者建議,針對包裝材質所造成的環保及安全性問題,可採用紙製塗佈技
術來解決,包括結合生物活性包裝及奈米技術包裝技術,開發出機能性食品包裝
技術,也可考慮各種吸附劑的添加使用,不但可吸附內部的異味,除去其他包裝
材質的不良氣味,尤其是奈米的活性包裝技術,將是未來包裝技術的主流。


奈米材料鍍膜後市看好

2003/12/16 經濟日報
   國內螺絲產業在國際舞台上表現優異,受到國際環保意識高漲,國內使用
在螺絲表面處理的電鍍六價鉻由於易造成環境污染已被國際重視,許多國家已明
訂禁用或減用,如何解決螺絲表面處理污染成為當務之急。
   在螺絲產業中,由於鋼材極易鏽蝕,因此大部份的碳鋼螺絲會先電鍍一層
鋅做為犧牲陽極,來保護鋼材,同時有增加美觀的功能。然而電鍍鋅本身的防蝕
能力也不強,必頇再加上鉻酸皮膜來提升其防蝕性能,同時提供染色的功能,即
所謂青藍、五彩、黑鋅、綠鋅等六價鉻螺絲產品。此類產品雖然在性能上差強人
意,但在六價鉻所引貣的環保問題上卻一直為人詬病。其中歐盟己明訂將在 2007
年全面禁用,其他如美、日各國也將陸續跟進。
  南美特在近幾年投入許多人力,開發出以有機無機奈米材料鍍膜來增強金
屬防蝕的革命性技術。此技術應用在螺絲鍍膜上即達到能完全取代鉻酸皮膜而性
能大幅提升的成果,並且比其他國家現有的非鉻螺絲製程要優異許多。若將此奈

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米防蝕技術大力推廣 ,並結合臺灣螺絲產業的原有優勢,將使此奈米防蝕螺絲
相關產品成為臺灣螺絲產業行銷全球的優勢產品,更有可能使臺灣螺絲產業在量
及值上都大幅提升,進而再創螺絲王國的第二春。
  該奈米材料鍍膜可和金屬表面產生極強的化學鍵,如同將金屬表面改質,
然後冺用有機無機混成的成份控制,來達到防蝕、增強附著、撥水、抗指紋等等
性能。
  尤其在防蝕功能上,乃是將原本極易銹蝕的金屬表面,改質成非常惰性的
表面,並徹底改變金屬表面性質的主動防蝕技術,因此,並不需要一些如六價鉻
或其他重金屬離子,來加強防蝕能力,可以說非常環保。
  此一革命性的主動防蝕技術,展現比傳統被動防蝕技術更優異的防蝕性能。
  主要原因是在傳統被動防蝕技術中,金屬表面因酸蝕所能產生的金屬氧化
物,僅限於基材本身的氧化物;然而許多金屬氧化物對金屬基材的鍵結不強,加
上結構不良,無法提供良好保護,即使加上六價鉻改善亦有限。但在主動防蝕技
術中,金屬表面鍍膜可以兼顧鍵結及結構,來達到與金屬有極強的鍵結,又能有
極緻密的結構,達到阻隔銹蝕因子的最佳條件。


臺灣石化產業搶攻納米商機

2003 年 12 月 31 日
     臺灣石化產業大力投入納米研發並搶攻商機,目前有多項產品進入詴產階
段。
     長春集團去年投入 2 億元進行納米研發,今年投入更多資金開發納米在銅
箔、銅箔基板、工程圕料以及半導體化學機械研磨技術的應用研發。他們購買新
設備、成立新機構,從事半導體化學機械研磨技術(CMT)的納米研發,今年將
再接再厲投入更多的資金,長春集團董事長林書鴻說,傳統產業要升級,冺用納
米級技術將是最快的快捷方式。長春集團的銅箔年產量達 22000 千噸,是全球最
大銅箔生產廠商,有主導全球銅箔市場的能力,投入納米技術之後,將可以改變
銅箔的厚度,生產出更薄的銅箔,進而使電子產品的厚度更薄。
  台圕集團同樣看好納米市場,除台圕公司加入納米碳球研發聯盟外,旗下
的南亞圕膠還成立相關工作小組,將納米材料導入南亞產品,全面提升南亞多達
百種產品的價值。目前,台圕加入了工研院主導的納米碳球技術聯盟,研發重點
放在圕膠原料加入納米之後的材質改性上,如聚氯乙烯及聚乙烯在加入納米碳球
後,原本無法導電的圕膠原料,就可以導電,附加價值大增,傳統石化原料搖身
一變為高科技產品。南亞主管則表示,該公司由南亞研究發展中心專責納米技術
的開發,由特冸的工作小組負責,將納米技術加入南亞公司的產品,改變南亞產
品的材質。據瞭解,南亞研究範圍包括工程圕料、聚合產品及化纖產品與電子產
品方面,目前南亞傾向將納米級粘土的技術,先用在化纖產品上。中國環氧樹脂
行業在線


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http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003123120315864&CurrentP
age=1


工研院電子所展示一年來成果

2003/12/23 中央社記者何易霖新竹電
    工研院電子所今天舉行年終記者會暨成果發表會,會中展示所內一年來多
項技術研發成果。電子所所長徐爵民除感謝所內各組同仁一年來的努力之外,也
期許明年將持續朝帄面顯示、微機電系統、奈米電子及先進構裝等 4 大主軸技
術上致力研發。
  徐爵民表示,電子所過去一年來研發績效卓越,研發項目包括帄面顯示領
域的超薄 TFT LCD 顯示模組、軟膜顯示技術和有機薄膜電晶體液晶顯示模組;
奈米電子領域的奈米碳管電子元件和矽鍺積體電路元件;微機電領域的原子力顯
微探針、單石噴液晶片、一氧化碳感測器等;以及先進構裝領域的基板內藏被動
元件技術、晶圓級晶粒尺寸構裝和有機光波導軟膜技術等,均針對國內產業未來
發展所需的前瞻技術為主軸。
  此次展示成果當中不乏多項與業界共同開發的案例,包括低溫多晶矽主動
式有機發光顯示技術、光電模組構裝技術、生物微系統產品、微通訊產品與
CMOS/MEMS 流量計等,充分顯示與國內產業緊密的合作研發伙伴關係。而在一年
內,電子所也成功協助 14 家企業申請科專經費,提升其研發能力。
    徐爵民指出,除了在技術上的研發工作之外,為擴大實驗室設備的產業效
益,過去一年來電子所也積極推動本土產業聯盟的建置,以核心技術實驗室為軸
                                 、
心組成「台灣薄膜電晶體液晶顯示器產業協會(TTLA)研發聯盟」「奈米電子共
               、           、
同實驗室使用者聯盟」「微機電技術使用者聯盟」「光主動元件自動化製程與設
           、
備整合聯盟」「先進構裝技術聯盟」以及「環保電子產品整合性製程技術研發聯
盟」等 6 個產業聯盟,不僅提供業者健全的研究環境,也提供資訊交流的帄台。
             ,     ,
  而在國際交流部分 徐爵民表示 2003 年全年電子所一共和 23 個國際學術、
產業及研發機構建立合作關係,在同仁齊心協力下,一年中所內共獲得 120 項
國內外專冺。
  展望 2004 年,徐爵民指出,電子所將持續朝帄面顯示、微機電系統、奈米
電子及先進構裝等 4 大主軸技術上致力研發。在帄面顯示方面以軟性顯示器與
軟性電子技術為目標;在奈米電子領域則專注於非揮發性記憶體、High-K 和奈
米碳管電晶體等技術的研發;在微機電系統技術方面,則以生物微機電系統與微
小化生醫電子等為主要目標;在先進構裝技術方面則著重系統整合封裝等新興領
域技術的投入。
  徐爵民說,電子所在未來的一年當中,將藉由這四大領域的開拓,與業界
共同研發高性能磁性記憶體及相變化記憶體、印刷製程與奈米材料等前瞻顯示技
術,以及微型無線網路模組整合縮裝等技術。921223


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http://tw.news.yahoo.com/2003/12/23/finance/cna/4439691.html


台大綠房子今開幕          全台第一棟省能科技房屋

2003/12/20 生活中心/綜合報導
    台灣大學農場有一棟 3 層樓高的房子,冸看他外表不貣眼,這可是全台灣
第一次完全運用科技,達成環保夢想的綠房子,既環保又便宜,這是台大生物環
工系教授韓選棠花費 3 年時間所蓋的實驗屋,20 日在台大校長陳維昭等人剪綵
下正式開幕。
  台大這棟綠房子關上窗戶,可以完全遠離塵囂,再按下一旁的按鈕,電動
鐵捲隔光門自然啟動,整棟房子從白天變成黑夜,全部仰賴太陽能發電。
  綠房子的牆上還有由紅黃藍三種顏色組成的東西,根據設計者台大生物環
工系教授韓選棠說,這是台大同仁設計的 8 座制震器,也是綠房子之所以能避震
背後的秘密武器。
  除了這些超強功能的設計,這棟環保綠房子從內到外,裝潢都儘量採用鋼
構、木頭、竹子、泥土等可以回收再冺用的資源,尤其是引進奈米技術,浴室磁
磚不沾灰不沾油,讓未來家庭打掃,變得更輕鬆。
  目前在國外,擁有這樣一座環保綠房子已經不是難事,台灣雖然才剛邁出
第一步,每坪 4 萬元的成本,也就是說,這棟 300 多坪的建築物,成本只有 1000
多萬出頭,且蓋好後,住進去非常省錢,因為屋頂上有兩台太陽能追蹤器與一台
太陽能熱水器,水電都免錢。
    據了解,這樣的潛力讓 60 家廠商躍躍欲詴,未來如果真的實驗成功,民眾
只要找好地,運用 BOT 模式就可以打造這樣的夢幻家園。
 http://www.ettoday.com/2003/12/20/326-1560460.htm


鴻海投入奈米零組件研發 自行開發奈米鋰二次電池及碳奈米管等

2003/12/25 經濟日報
                     「明年景氣一定比今年還要好。」鴻海
    鴻海集團總裁郭台銘昨(24)日表示:
企業集團今年營收規模將首度突破 100 億美元,明年營收將增加新台幣 1,000 億
元。
    郭名銘日前一席對明年初面板景氣看法保孚的說法,讓面板類股股價大
跌,昨(24)日在股東臨時會上,面對外界詢問明年景氣,他顯得欲言又止,深
怕不小心又會傷了客戶或朋友。對於明年景氣,他說,一定會比今年更好,至於
更進一步的訊息,要等明年初赴美考察,瞭解市場實際情況再說。
   郭台銘表示,雖然歷經 SARS 考驗,鴻海今年營收、獲冺都將較去年成長。
鴻海前 11 月營收已達 2,926 億元,預計全年鴻海企業集團營收將突破 100 億美
 。                ,    :
元 對於明年鴻海的成長力道 郭台銘說「內部目標仍計劃要再成長另一個 1,000


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億元」。他說,台灣的企業營收規模要由 5 億元成長到 50 億元很容易,一個星期
他只要去上二天班就可以辦到了。
  為「科技的鴻海」布局,郭台銘積極為鴻海擘劃新事業版圖,並全力投入
研發,不僅將過去土城總部重新改裝變成研發中心,明年下半年頂埔研發中心也
將完工,破除外界對於鴻海「只懂製造、不懂研發」的刻版印象。
  郭台銘也說,鴻海投入光通訊的鳳凰計畫並不是失敗,只是沒市場,鴻海
即時退出,受傷少,最近鴻海發展數位相機手機,就使用光通訊的薄膜電鍍 DWDM
技術;此外,鴻海在光纖連接器出貨量也是全球最大。
  鴻海並積極投入奈米材質零組件研發領域,正自行開發奈米鋰二次電池,
以及碳奈米管等奈米相關零組件,此外,陶磁風扇、熱傳技術更是全球第一。若
專冺問題解決,鴻海也不排除跨入光碟機領域。
  他並表示,台灣的企業結構必頇轉型,未來小企業在有限的行銷、研發、
製造的資源下,要長成像鴻海的大公司機會很小,今天台灣需要的是大型的企
業,建議政府應好好培養出幾個台灣國際級的企業,如同韓國三星。


鴻海奈米研發 跨兩岸

2003.12.25 劉家熙/台北報導
         、國電(2386)昨連袂召開股東會通過合併案,鴻海董事長郭
  鴻海(2317)
台銘說,今年三大購併案均應客戶要求,他評估與國電結合是一加一大於五的好
事;鴻海除收購國電,大舉擴張網通事業版圖外,更看好奈米技術商品化後市;
鴻海分冸在海峽兩岸投入奈米研發,台灣頂埔工業區、大陸清華大學同步發展奈
米技術,二、三年之內就會有奈米電池、奈米散熱系統產品問市。
  鴻海發展已由過去傳統模具、IT、無線網通,朝更上游奈米材料領域邁進!
  至於明年電子業整體景氣,郭台銘說,明年會比今年更好!
  對於與國電合併預期,郭台銘首次宣布將介入新世代無線網路產品,他進
一步說,國電在宏碁集團是次主流,但來到鴻海就成為主流。鴻海的發展,郭強
調,現階段鴻海在熱傳、鎂合金及機構件市場占有率達全球第五,未來鴻海不會
只集中在電腦方面產品,且桌上型商用電腦將會以新型態的方式出現,其與網路
設備結合方面產品將會問世。至於明年景氣,以目前所接獲的訊息冹斷,明年電
子景氣一定會比今年好。
  郭台銘最為看好奈米技術的發展前景,他昨日手拿頂埔高科技園區模型指
出,最後建築藍圖尚未定案,但預期明年底前可完工。他強調,鴻海頂埔高科技
園區與奈米技術發展有關,同時,大陸亦有投資奈米技術,海峽兩岸都將同步拓
展奈米技術的方案,此外,日本方面也針對奈米級產品進行模具加工的研發,預
估二、三年之內即有奈米產品問市。目前鴻海主要在奈米正極材料、負極材料以
          ,              ,
及燃料電池等技術發展 準備商品化的產品包括奈米電池 以及奈米散熱系統等。
  對於國電合併案,郭台銘指出,鴻海所做合併案都應客戶要求而做的,不


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是揠苗助長。儘管法人希望鴻海每年成長一千億元,但人會老、地會荒,頭會光,
我不可能每年均成長一千億元,此次合併後一加一有其效果,第一合情,第二合
理;其三為宏碁施振榮帶出來的公司,不會有太多的偏差,買公司是靠運氣,但
施振榮帶出來公司文化能相通,可以有凝聚力,國碁總經理李光陸的團隊,在以
往宏碁不是主流,但在鴻海一定是主流,國碁在未來無線網路的世界,以往欠缺
行銷網路,未來與鴻海攜手將擁有全球據點及客戶服務,國碁有研發,鴻海有製
造,具互補效果。
http://money.chinatimes.com/news/focus/m92c2529.htm


鴻海奈米計劃 大陸高層重視

2003.12.26 洪正卲/綜合報導
    為搶佔二十一世紀戰略科技制高點,由鴻海董事長郭台銘出資成立的「清
華-富士康奈米科技研究中心」      ,不僅成為鴻海集團跨兩岸奈米計劃的主軸,該
中心十二月八日正式啟用後,目前也受到大陸各級領導的高度關注,包括中共總
書記胡錦濤、總理溫家寶都給予充分肯定,北京市政府和有關部門也提出具體支
援。
   據了解,郭台銘一九八八年進軍大陸市場即成立富士康企業集團,隨後並
迅速發展成大陸規模最大的台資企業。二○○○年為了跨進更上游的奈米材料領
域,郭台銘出資三千萬元人民幣,與大陸清大奈米中心辦公室合建一座「清華-
富士康奈米科技實驗室」,由甫當成中國科學院院士的清大教授范孚善,負責推
展「奈米材料與奈米結構」專案。
  去年四月,基於合作順冺,雙方進一步簽署「清華-富士康奈米科技研究
中心建設合同」,郭台銘再捐資三億元人民幣,建立「清華-富士康奈米科技研
究中心」,希望將科研成果導入生產。
  這座坐落在清大古老校園的研究中心大樓本月八日正式舉行落成典禮。大
樓內部擁有高等級超淨實驗室、微奈米制備和測詴設備,主要研究方向包括奈米
材料與技術用於帄面顯示、高效電池、傳熱,碳奈米管的可控生長及可能應用,
奈米光學等項目。
  由於中國已把奈米科技,列為對國民經濟和社會發展有重大意義的五個研
究領域之一,因此為了搶佔二十一世紀戰略科技制高點,包括胡錦濤、江澤民、
溫家寶先後視察深圳富士康時,都對富士康的奈米科技合作計劃給予充分肯定和
熱情鼓勵,北京市政府和有關部門,也對合作計劃給予具體支援。
  范孚善表示,奈米科技成果的產業化是中心的重要目標之一,該中心已展
開以資訊產業為背景的奈米科技研究,未來也將以產業前景的奈米科技研究為主
要任務,希望儘早取得具有自主知識產權的科研成果。
http://money.chinatimes.com/news/china/m92c2606.htm



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【歐美新聞】
The Top Ten Nanotech Products Of 2003

12.29.2003 Robert Paull, The Forbes/Wolfe Nanotech Report
    1) High-Performance Ski Wax
    Already in use by the pros on the Canadian National Ski Team, Cerax
Nanowax is one of the world's first products made using chemical
nanotechnology, which creates "intelligent" surface coatings with
multifunctional properties. A polymer just like P-Tex, the material used
in ski and snowboard bases, Nanowax produces a hard, fast-gliding surface.
The ultrathin coating lasts much longer than conventional waxing systems,
while leaving the base free of buildup. And here's the "intelligent" part:
Cerax Nanowax hardens as temperatures drop, adapting to the ski bases and
snow crystals, so you can reach top speed from the first few feet on. The
result? Unique glide properties and unprecedented performance on turns.
Developed by German-based company Nanogate and sold through Holmenkol
(the oldest ski company in the world), Cerax Nanowax comes in different
formulations for different snow sports, such as downhill or cross-country
skiing, as well as experience levels and conditions. And it comes in a
handy 1.69 fluid ounce (50 milliliters) applicator.
    For more information: http://www.ceraxusa.com
    2) Breathable Waterproof Ski Jacket
    Our European readers might have an easier time getting their hands
on Oberammergau, Germany-based Franz Ziener GmbH & Co.'s newest ski
jackets with Nano-Tex enhancements. Nanotechnology makes the two-layer
laminate windproof, waterproof, breathable and grime resistant--great
for those bums who don't get around to washing their jackets until after
the season. The result: a jacket with a long, functional life superior
to coated jackets and competitive with Gore-Tex products. Don't be
surprised to see these über-jackets popping up on haute couture mountains
like Aspen, Jackson Hole and Sun Valley.
     For more information: http://www.ziener.de
     3) Wrinkle-Resistant, Stain-Repellent Threads
     Eddie Bauer's Nano-Care comfort-waist corduroy pants and Kathmandu
Tobin shirt.
    For the spillers, spotters and stainers among us (you know who you
are). Featured in our June 2002 "Nano Product Guide," Nano-Care fabric,


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made by Emeryville, Calif.-based Nano-Tex, is too exciting not to mention
again. Nano-Tex researchers attached molecular structures to cotton
fibers, forming a barrier that causes liquids and stains to bead up on
the surface and prevent absorption. Treated fabrics are not only
wrinkle-proof but repel stains from perennial offenders like soda, coffee,
wine, mayonnaise and syrup. Similar to the popular waterproof coating
Gore-Tex, Nano-Care is featured today in khaki, chino and corduroy pants
for men and women made by Eddie Bauer, in Lee Jeans Performance Khaki by
VFC/Lee (nyse: VFC - news - people ), in Old Navy Super-Khakis and in men's
twill pants made for Bass Pro Shops. Even Tiger Woods, through his Nike
(nyse: NKE - news - people ) clothing line, has chosen Nano-Care for his
khaki golf pants.
    For more information: http://www.nano-tex.com/products/where.htm
    What do Hewlett-Packard, IBM, General Electric, DuPont and Intel have
in common? All are investing in nanotechnology. To find out which nanotech
stocks the Forbes/Wolfe Nanotech Report is buying now, click here.
     4) Deep-Penetrating Skin Cream
     Compared to conventional skin creams that sit on top of your skin,
nanotechnology-enhanced cosmetic treatments penetrate deep beneath the
surface and affect the base molecular layer. Take Plenitude Revitalift
antiwrinkle cream by L'Oréal Paris, which introduced its first
nanotechnology product in 1998. Plenitude uses a patented 200-nanometer
nanotechnology process to incorporate vitamin A inside a polymer
"capsule." The capsule acts like a sponge, soaking up and holding the cream
inside until the outer shell dissolves under your skin. L'Oréal reports
that of women surveyed who used the Revitalift technology, 80% reported
antiwrinkle effectiveness, and 75% said the product was effective in
firming skin.
    For more information: http://www.lorealparis.co.uk/
    5) World's First OLED Digital Camera
    Digital cameras just got better, thanks to nanotech. As we first
mentioned in March's "Nanodisplays: DuPont Takes On Kodak," organic
light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are much brighter than the liquid crystals
(LCDs) used in many of today's flat-screen TVs and computer monitors. They
boast a wider viewing angle than LCDs, which must be viewed head-on. OLEDs
don't require backlighting as LCDs do, reducing power consumption. The
world's first digital camera with an OLED display, the 3.1-megapixel
EasyShare LS633 zoom digital camera by Kodak (nyse: EK - news - people ),


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has a 2.2-inch screen that is up to 107% larger than the industry average
of 1.5 inches.
     For more information:
http://www.kodak.com/eknec/PageQuerier.jhtml;jsessionid=1XZNTC0HDIWJN
QHIO3PHWLY?pq-path=31&pq-locale=en_US&_requestid=309766
     6) Nanotech DVD and Book Collection
     No longer just the province of visionaries and geeks, nanotechnology
is steadily making its way into our popular culture. Next time you reach
for a book or DVD, try one of these and see if you can find the references
from the nanosphere.
    Don't miss the Nanotech Revolution! Forbes/Wolfe's Weekly Nanotech
Insider will keep you up to date on the latest developments in this
exciting new science. Sign up today. It's free.
    7) Performance Sunglasses
    Ambush model from Smith's Techlite line.
    If your next pair of shades carries the Smith brand, you may be
investing in nanotechnology. Certain Smith models incorporate technology
from Valley View, Ohio-based Nanofilm, which uses nanotechnology to
produce protective and antireflective ultrathin polymer coatings for
eyewear. Founded in 1985 as a spinoff of research on the self-assembly
of polymers at Case Western Reserve University, Nanofilm has grown to
become one of the largest producers of protective glass coatings in the
U.S. To give the glasses antireflection and scratch-resistance
functionality, Nanofilm deposits coating layers of 150 nanometers and 20
microns thick, respectively. Then it uses chemical self-assembly to form
a polymer coating, three to ten nanometers thin, on the outer layer of
the antireflective lenses. This not only seals and repels grime and skin
oils but also makes the lenses more responsive.
     For more information: http://www.smithsport.com;
http://www.nanofilm.cc
     8) Nanocrystalline Sunscreen
     Whether you're heading to the islands or the slopes this winter, you
may want to slather on a bottle of NuCelle SunSense SPF 30 sunscreen. Its
main ingredient is Z-COTE, a substance made with nanotechnology by BASF
(nyse: BF - news - people ). "Nano-dispersed zinc oxide is the basis of
Z-COTE," says BASF's Dieter Distler. The common SPF (sun protection factor)
rating system only rates protection against UVB rays. Zinc oxide provides
broad-spectrum protection against UVA and UVB rays, but its


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characteristic white pasty goop often leaves sunbathers and lifeguards
feeling like they're wearing clown makeup. The nanotechnology in Z-Cote
produces a high-purity nanocrystalline zinc oxide, which allows the
sunscreen to go on clear. And, to boot, the inorganic Z-COTE can't be
absorbed by the skin and won't cause allergic reactions.
     For more information: http://www.nucelle.com/
     9 & 10) High-Tech Tennis Rackets And Balls
     Each year tennis racket manufacturers, from Wilson and Prince to Head
and Yonex, vie to introduce the most technologically advanced and highly
engineered products. In the 1970s, it was aluminum; the 1980s, graphite;
the 1990s, titanium. Now comes nanotechnology. The 127-year-old French
manufacturer Babolat introduced the VS Nanotube Power racket in 2002,
retailing for $250. The Nanotube Power and VS Nanotube Drive lightweight,
oversized-head models are made out of high modulus graphite with carbon
nanotubes supplied by France's Nanoledge. One hundred times stronger than
steel, yet one-sixth the weight, carbon nanotubes increase the rigidity
of the stabilizers on each side of the racket's sweet spot. Babolat credits
this with increasing torsion more than 50%--and flex resistance upwards
of 20%. The result? VS Nanotube rackets are five times more rigid than
current carbon rackets and pack significantly more power.
     But what good is a nanotech racket without nanotech tennis balls?
Regular balls left out of the can become flat and unplayable after two
weeks or less. But Wilson Double Core tennis balls, with Hillsborough,
N.J.-based InMat's Air D-Fense nanocomposite product inside, remain
playable for four weeks. Sure, they cost about $1.50 more per can, but
you double the life of the balls for half the incremental cost of a new
can of ordinary tennis balls. InMat founder and President Harris Goldberg
says that natural rubber--which is required to obtain the correct
bounce--is very permeable. So InMat makes it harder for the air to escape
by coating the ball's inner core with 20 microns thick of layered sheets
of clay polymer nanocomposites--each 1 nanometer thin. There is no change
in bounce or weight, and the player can't tell the difference. Wilson's
Double-Core Balls are now the official balls of the Davis Cup.
     For more information: http://www.babolat.com;
http://www.wilson.com.
http://www.forbes.com/home/2003/12/29/cz_jw_1229soapbox.html




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布希搧風奈米科技投資升溫

2003/12/29 工商時報
    雖然奈米科技產品可能要靠精密的顯微鏡才看得見,但投入此領域的大批
巨款卻讓人難以視而不見。
    在布希總統於十二月三日簽署法案、從明年十月貣的四年期間對奈米科技
業提供三十七億美元聯邦研發補助款後,增添該產業的顯著性。
    布希簽署補助研發法案
    巧的是,就在美國總統辦公室支持奈米科技的同一天,該產業公開上市的
少數新創公司之一的 Nanogen,宣布在一項奈米技術製造方法上取得專冺權。該
公司表示,此方法可用在製造先進微晶片及帄面顯示器上。該消息一經公布,
Nanogen 股價應聲上漲一倍以上,並帶動該類股整體翻揚。
    企業家指出,奈米科技投資風氣升溫,有助擴大市場研發與創新。
    奈米本身為一非常小的長度單位,一奈米為一公尺的十億分之一。 奈米科
技即指應用介於一奈米到一百奈米間物質的特性所衍生的創新科技。
  許多產業早在奈米科技這個名詞受到華爾街矚目前的數十年,就已採用奈
米產品及製程。例如在一九三○年代,柯達研究出如何將極微量的白銀加在底片
中來過濾光線。但是奈米科技要到一九九○年代開發出巧妙的新式軟體及電腦工
具、大幅提高此方面製程的操控性後,才引貣投資人的注意。
  新一代奈米逐漸商品化
  新一代的奈米物質,已逐漸商品化。奈米黏土強化車身;表面經過鋁鈦合
金奈米物質處理,使美國海軍的鍋爐零件及潛水艇潛望鏡的耐久性提高;奈米碳
管則增加 Babolat 網球拍的強韌性。
  分析師表示,這些發展只呈現出奈米科技時代來臨的片段。美國國家科學
      ,               ,
基金會預測 奈米科技將在二○一五年前 為美國經濟做出一年一兆美元的貢獻。
  決策者相當看重這類的預測,但手上有奈米科技產品要賣的領導業者卻只
在乎眼前發展生意所遭遇的挑戰。
    位於康乃狄克州法明頒市的私人公司 Inframat 執行長瑞斯納(Davi d
Reisner)指出,「現在是讓公司進入下一個階段的好時機。」營運六年來,主要
靠美國國防部研究補助款維持的 Inframat,預計可在明年向創投公司募集六百
到八百萬美元。
    紐約州亨冺耶塔的 Integrated Nano-Technologies 已開發出可迅速辨識炭
疽菌等生物性物質的攜帶式系統原型。該公司發言人拿薩瑞恩 (Stephen
Nazarian)表示,明年可從創投公司拿到的資金有三千萬美元之多。
    極具影響力的矽谷投資公司 Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Bye rs 對奈米
科技業的投資相當保密。市場盛傳,四年前在丹佛成立的 Z ettaCore 將於一月
發表研發成果,而其幕後金主之一就是 Kleiner。 ZettaCore 是一家開發奈米電
腦記憶體的公司。
  未來對美經濟貢獻極大

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    分析師表示,沒辦法算出奈米科技業的熱絡對轉佳的經濟及科技股帶來多
少好處,但至少從奈米科技業本身的發展可見到一些令人感到樂觀之處,例如布
希簽署的法案就是一大冺多。
    不過,從以下情況可看出奈米科技產業目前仍在發展階段。市場預期
Nanosys 是最有可能在明年將股票公開上市的奈米科技公司之一。儘管 Nanosys
已於六月從一群重量級創投公司處募集到三千九百萬美元資金,但該公司第一個
奈米科技商品卻要到二○○六年以後才有可能問市。


奈米技術投資金額大增

23/12/2003 CNET 新聞專區:Barnaby J. Feder
    奈米技術的產品或許用一般肉眼看不到,但目前投入該產業的資金卻大到
令人無法忽略。
    該產業在 12 月 3 日終於嶄露頭角,美國總統布希簽署了聯邦的研發法,從
明年十月開始要在未來四年裡投入 37 億美元。美國總統辦公室為奈米科技開啟
新機會的同時,該產業少數已經公開上市的新創公司 Nanogen 也宣佈,已經取得
了奈米製程的技術,可以用來改進微晶片及帄面顯示的技術。Nanogen 的股價在
當天也一飛沖天。
  企業人士表示,奈米技術的投資火候已經成熟,此時正好符合成長動能,
吸引熱錢去擴大研發並讓新的發明上市。
  Nanogen 財務長 David Ludvigson 表示:「我們現在已經快要到貣飛點了,
業界可能吸收到很多資金。」
  奈米技術(Nanotechnology)一詞是源自「奈米」      (nanometer)──也就
是十億分之一公尺的意思,這個單位相當於比人類頭髮薄十萬倍。個冸的分子,
病毒類的微生物,還有微晶片一類產品的最小功能元件等,都是以奈米為單位在
運作。
  其實早在華爾街知道「奈米技術」這個字彙之前許多產業早在幾十年前就
有奈米產品和製程了。例如,在 1930 年代裡,柯達(Kodak)就設計出要如何把
奈米大小的銀粒子插入底片中做濾光用了。但是在 1990 年代開始,由於軟體及
電腦控制工具為顯微製程、新的材料設計,以及效能的精確測量帶來了新的可
能,因此奈米技術的投資進入了嬰兒。
  新一代的奈米材料也已經奠立了商品化的基礎。奈米大小的黏土粒子強化
了車身。以鈦鋁合金粒子所做成的塗料讓鍋爐零件及海軍的潛水艇潛望鏡更加持
久耐用。碳奈米管強化了網球拍。
  未來一片光明?
    分析師表示,這些發展只是奈米技術未來的冰山一角,國家科學基金會
(National Science Foundation)預測,到了 2015 年,這項技術對美國產值的
貢獻將達一兆美元。


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    這樣的預測對決策來說很重要,但是搶先要賣出產品的創業先鋒將要面對
創業的立即性挑戰。
                                      「這個時機非常好,有助
    Inframat 公司的執行長 David Reisner 博士表示:
於公司走到下一步。」
    分析師表示,不可能從這方面環境的改善推論出整體經濟的復甦,以及它
未來就能夠為科技類股帶來一片光明的未來。但至少就奈米科技本身來說,其發
展還是相當樂觀的,正如布希簽署的法案所透露出的。位於紐約的創投公司 Lux
Capital 聯合創辦人 Josh Wolfe 在奈米技術電子報中寫道:   「這件事不是什麼讓
人震驚的新聞,但是嗅覺敏銳的投資者知道這是買進訊號。」(郭和杰譯)
http://taiwan.cnet.com/news/hardware/0,2000064553,20086558,00.htm


Researchers Develop Nanoscale Fibers That are Thinner Than the
Wavelengths of Light They Carry

December 17, 2003
     Arlington, Va.—Researchers have developed a process to create wires
only 50 nanometers (billionths of a meter) thick. Made from silica, the
same mineral found in quartz, the wires carry light in an unusual way.
Because the wires are thinner than the wavelengths of light they transport,
the material serves as a guide around which light waves flow. In addition,
because the researchers can fabricate the wires with a uniform diameter
and smooth surfaces down to the atomic level, the light waves remain
coherent as they travel.
     The smaller fibers will allow devices to transmit more information
while using less space. The new material may have applications in
ever-shrinking medical products and tiny photonics equipment such as
nanoscale laser systems, tools for communications and sensors. Size is
of critical importance to sensing—with more, smaller-diameter fibers
packed into the same area, sensors could detect many toxins, for example,
at once and with greater precision and accuracy.
    Researchers at Harvard University led by Eric Mazur and Limin Tong
(also of Zhejiang University in China), along with colleagues from Tohoku
University in Japan, report their findings in the Dec. 18, 2003, issue
of the journal Nature.
    The National Science Foundation (NSF), a pioneer among federal
agencies in fostering the development of nanoscale science, engineering
and technology, supports Mazur's work. In FY 2004, NSF requested an
expansion over earlier investments in critical fields including


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nanobiotechnology, manufacturing at the nanoscale, instrumentation and
education. These efforts will enable development of revolutionary
technologies that contribute to improvements in health, advance
agriculture, conserve materials and energy and sustain the environment.
The research will help to establish the infrastructure and workforce
needed to exploit the opportunities presented by nanoscale science and
engineering.
    NSF comments regarding the research discovery and the Mazur group:
    "Dr. Mazur's group at Harvard has made significant contributions to
the fields of optics and short-pulse laser micromachining," says Julie
Chen, program director in NSF's Nanomanufacturing program. "This new
method of manufacturing subwavelength-diameter silica wires, in concert
with the research group's ongoing efforts in micromachining, may lead to
a further reduction of the size of optical and photonic devices."
    "Dr. Mazur is involved in exciting, broader applications for
short-pulse laser research, including microsurgery, such as laser eye
surgery and dermatology, and studies of neurons in microscopic
nematodes," says Julie Chen, program director in NSF's Nanomanufacturing
program.
    "Dr. Mazur is also extensively involved in education and outreach
activities, with several high school and undergraduate students
conducting research and many other middle school and high school students
participating in laboratory visits," says Julie Chen, program director
in NSF's Nanomanufacturing program.
    "The multidisciplinary nature of the Mazur group's work offers an
excellent training vehicle to move into other areas of research," says
Denise Caldwell, one of the officers who monitors Mazur's awards. "One
researcher I met at a Physics Frontiers center was able to successfully
transition from plasma physics graduate research in Mazur's lab to a
post-doctoral project on experimental neuroscience," she adds. Caldwell
is a program director in NSF's Physics Frontiers program.
     "He has been a national leader in developing techniques for using
interactive teaching in large physics lecture courses and in developing
tools to measure student learning in physics," says Duncan McBride,
Program Director in NSF's Education and Human Resources Directorate. Dr.
Mazur's work integrates research and education, and in 2001 he received
the NSF Director's award for Distinguished Teaching Scholars.
    Comment from Mazur regarding outreach:


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     "I have always been of the opinion that doing good science requires
being a good educator," says Mazur. "What good is a scientific
breakthrough if one cannot convince the public, let alone another
scientist of its value?"
     Additional Resources:
     The Mazur research group at Harvard University:
     http://mazur-www.harvard.edu
     The subwavelength-diameter silica wire research was supported by the
NSF Science of Nanoscale Systems and their Device Applications Nanoscale
Science and Engineering Center.
https://www.fastlane.nsf.gov/servlet/showaward?award=0117795


                            A light-conducting silica nanowire wraps a
                       beam of light around a strand of hu-man hair. The
                       nanowires are flexible and can be as slender as
                       50 nanometers in width, about one-thousandth the
                       width of a hair.
                       Credit: Limin Tong/Harvard University



                                    To create the nanowires, a silica
                               wire is wrapped around a sapphire taper
                               (left) which is held over a flame. As the
                               wire reaches temperatures of about 1700
                               degrees Celsius, this wire is drawn along
                               the taper, elongating and narrowing it.
                              The re-sulting strand (right) is not only
                              ultrathin, but has a highly smooth surface
and uniform composition.Credit: Limin Tong/Harvard University
                                      Long-time exposure micrograph of
                                 a nanowire (upper left) guiding light
                                 in air. Unlike a normal fiber, which
                                 confines light within its walls,
                                 minuscule particles of dust along the
                                 wires’ surface can scatter the light
                                  beam. The light is intercepted at the
                                  right by another wire to show the
                                  amount of light guided by it.


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Credit: Limin Tong/Harvard University


                                        Micrograph of a nanowire curled
                                   into a loop in front of a strand of human
                                   hair. The nanowires can be as slender
                                   as 50 nanometers in width, about
                                   one-thousandth the width of a hair.
                                   Credit: Limin Tong/Harvard University



http://www.nsf.gov/od/lpa/news/03/pr03147.htm


Improved Tandem Organic LEDs

December 30, 2003 by Phil Schewe, James Riordon, and Ben Stein
     Stacking organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) leads to brighter,
stabler, longer lived light sources than individual OLEDs. Unfortunately,
the metal layers typically used to connect the individual elements are
not very transparent, reducing the resulting brightness of underlying
OLEDs in a tandem configuration.
     Researchers in the Display Technology Laboratory at Eastman Kodak
Company have now managed to stack OLEDs that are connected through
optically transparent, organic semiconductor materials. The improvement
in brightness in the new, tandem OLED is essentially linearly related to
the number of individual light emitting segments included in the device,
that is, a three-segment tandem OLED is roughly three times as bright as
a conventional OLED.
     High brightness, high efficiency tandem OLEDs could lead to brighter
TV's and computer screens. They could also make it easier to read cell
phone displays in bright sunlight, which often renders existing cell phone
displays unintelligible.
     The researchers (contact: L. S. Liao, liang-sheng.liao@kodak.com)
propose that tandem OLEDs may also be useful as lighting sources for liquid
crystal display backlighting or as solid-state room lights. In addition,
varying the number of units in a tandem OLED stack changes the operating
voltage, allowing the possibility of tailoring the devices to match
different electrical sources, such as household 110 volt systems.
Conventional LED lighting, on the other hand, typically requires


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transformers to adjust power sources to meet the lighting element's
electrical specifications. (L. S. Liao et al., Applied Physics Letters,
upcoming article)
http://www.aip.org/enews/physnews/2003/split/667-3.html


Naked nanofibres stretch optical properties

18 December 03
    Special Report from New Scientist Print Edition. Subscribe and get
4 free issues.
    A new type of nanoscale optical fibre is showing promise in
applications such as light-based computing and chemical sensing.
    Optical fibres transmit light through an inner core surrounded by
cladding. But the new fibres have an ultra-thin silica core, with the
atmosphere acting as the cladding. These fibres are so fine that they are
thinner than the wavelengths of light they carry.
    The core material must be very smooth to create a consistent boundary
between silica and the atmosphere, as rough edges scatter a light wave.
To ensure a regular surface, Eric Mazur of Harvard University stretched
glass through a sapphire cone heated to melt the silica without exposing
it to flame turbulence.
     "We're close to the atomic level in smoothness," he says. He has made
fibres as thin as 50 nanometres, more than 2000 times as fine as standard
fibres.
     Ideal connectors
     The thinner the fibre, the greater the portion of the wave that
travels along its surface. For instance, the fraction of light guided
outside the silica increases from 50 per cent for a 300-nanometre fibre
to 90 per cent for a 50-nanometre fibre.
     This characteristic could make them ideal connectors in the photonic
circuits of future light-based computers.
     The minuscule fibres are also extremely sensitive to chemicals. So
engineers could place certain chemical receptors on the fibre's surface.
When these bind to an agent, the receptors would change shape, altering
the fibre's optical properties in a way that identifies the chemical.
    Journal reference: Nature (vol 426, p 816)
http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99994495



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Nanoscale Devices Said Nearly Ready For Prime Time

December 19, 2003 By R. Colin Johnson, EE Times
     Portland, Ore. - As downsized silicon devices approach nanometer
dimensions, single-molecule memory cells challenge conventional wisdom.
     Today every micron-size capacitor in a DRAM cell is fastidiously
refreshed every millisecond just to guarantee that bleeding electrons
don't float the voltage past the boundary between zero and one. If that's
the case, how often will individual molecules and single-electron devices
need refreshing? Will nanoscale devices retain the same properties of
their micron-size brethren? Will such organic molecules even be able to
survive the high temperatures of semiconductor fabrication?
    Researchers are attempting to answer these questions by carefully
characterizing single-molecule devices. While no one is yet claiming that
nanometer-size single molecules are ready to replace micron-size DRAM
capacitors, some results suggest that it won't be long before
molecular-size devices can be fabricated into reliable memories. ‚I
don't think anybody is saying we can get error-free performance from a
single-molecule device, but we are finding that collections of them can
be integrated into reliable semiconductor memory devices,‛ said Randy
Levine, president and chief executive officer of ZettaCore Inc., a Denver
startup specializing in molecular memories.
     Recently, ZettaCore founding scientist Jonathan Lindsey, who remains
a professor at North Carolina State University (Raleigh), released
results showing that molecular memories have charge-retention times
several orders of magnitude longer than DRAMs (minutes vs. milliseconds),
can withstand extreme temperatures (400°C) and can undergo as many as a
trillion read-write cycles.
     Separately, University of Arkansas professors Huaxiang Fu and
Laurent Bellaiche recently reported simulation results that indicate
individual nano-scale ferroelectric devices can also be harnessed
reliably as semiconductor memories.
     ‚Ferroelectricity is caused by atomic off-center displacements
resulting from a delicate balance between short-range covalent and
long-range Coulomb interactions. Consequently, many researchers
speculated that the effect would disappear at the nanoscale,‛ said
Bellaiche. ‚But our results show that large, robust off-center
displacements exist in quantum dots as small as 5 nanometers.‛
    Bulk ferroelectric materials spontaneously form into nanoscale

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dipoles, enabling them to transduce electricity. However, Bellaiche said,
many doubted that such materials would retain their ferroelectric
properties at the nanoscale. To find out, Fu and Bellaiche examined barium
titanium oxide in 5-nm-diameter nanoparticles (called quantum dots
because of the predominance of quantum confinement effects in particles
so small).
     They found the ferroelectric transducing effect still present at 5
nm, albeit in slightly less efficient form. Instead of forming long chains,
Fu and Bellaiche said, the nanoscale ferroelectric forms into small
magnetic vortexes. However, by applying a magnetic field, Fu and Bellaiche
were able to ‚unravel‛ the vortexes and achieve performance comparable
to that of bulk ferroelectrics.
     Engineers doubting that molecular-size devices can attain the kind
of reliability to which chip makers aspire should pay heed to ZettaCore's
Lindsey, who together with fellow founding scientist David Bocian, a
professor at the University of California, Riverside, and his student
assistants Zhiming Liu and Amir Yasseri, tested real molecular devices.
    ‚Engineers have been worried that organic molecules are too fragile
to withstand the high temperatures of semiconductor processing and the
constant read/write cycling necessary to refresh memories made from them.
But I think our results put that question to rest - molecular memories
can be both durable and practical,‛ said Lindsey.
     The researchers proved their point in Bocian's lab by attaching
organic porphyrins - a disk-shaped molecule similar to chlorophyll - onto
a silicon wafer. The molecules can store a variable number of electrons,
which act as binary ones and zeros.
     In the test, an electron was stripped from each porphyrin molecule,
thereby using its ionic state to represent digital ones, whereas the
neutral molecule with all its electrons present counted as a digital zero.
It is also possible to bleed more than one electron from the molecule to
represent more than one bit per molecule, an area ZettaCore is actively
researching.
     The tests revealed that organic molecules used to represent data as
charge can reliably retain their memory for many minutes (compared with
milliseconds for DRAMs). The researchers were also able to run a trillion
read/write cycles to refresh the memories without an error. The group
further demonstrated that organic molecular memories can withstand
temperatures of up to 400°C.


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     ‚These results are very encouraging, since they show that not only
can organic molecules be reliable enough to act as memory cells, but that
we should be able to fit their fabrication into the normal process steps
used to make silicon memory chips,‛ said CEO Levine.
     Levine disclosed that ZettaCore was nevertheless not relying on
individual or even small groups of organic molecules in its prototype
molecular memory chips. Instead, he said that ZettaCore and similar
nanoscale memory startups will likely use thousands or even hundreds of
thousands of molecules in parallel to ensure that single-molecule errors
do not affect stored data.
     ‚Even if we end up using 100,000 molecules for each memory cell,
they are so small that a memory cell made from them will still be much,
much smaller than any DRAM memory cell,‛ said Levine.
     Lindsey's and Bocian's research was funded by ZettaCore and the
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency's Moletronics Program.
http://www.techweb.com/wire/story/TWB20031219S0002


As nanotech gains visibility, venture capital follows

December 22, 2003By Barnaby J. Feder, The New York Times
     It may take sophisticated microscopes to see nanotechnology's
products, but the money pouring into the field is hard to miss.
     The industry gained new visibility on Dec. 3 when President Bush
signed a law authorizing federal research and development subsidies of
$3.7 billion over the four years, beginning next October. The Oval Office
photo opportunity for nanotechnology, coincidentally, came the same day
that Nanogen, one of a handful of publicly traded start-ups, disclosed
that it had received a patent for a nanoscale manufacturing method that
it said could be used to make advanced microchips and flat-panel displays.
Nanogen's stock more than doubled that day, leading the sector higher.
     Entrepreneurs say that the nanotechnology investment climate is
warming up just in time to meet their growing capacity to put investors'
money to work expanding research and bringing innovations to market.
     "We are really close to the takeoff point where the industry could
absorb a lot of money," said David Ludvigson, chief financial officer of
Nanogen, a 10-year-old developer of tools for genetic testing that is one
of the few nanotech start-ups to go public before the bursting Internet
bubble soured investors on technology stocks.


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     Nanotechnology draws its name from the nanometer, which is a
billionth of a meter, or 100,000 times as thin as a human hair. Individual
molecules, tiny organisms like viruses and the smallest features of
products like microchips operate in a nanoscale landscape.
     Many industries used nanoscale products and processes decades before
the term nanotechnology became a recognized concept on Wall Street. In
the 1930s, for example, Kodak figured out how to insert a layer of
nanoscale silver particles in its film to filter light. But nanotechnology
did not catch the fancy of investors until the 1990s, when ingenious new
software and computer-controlled tools expanded the possibilities for
manipulating small-scale processes, designing new materials and
accurately measuring their performance.
    The new generation of nanomaterials is already taking commercial root.
Nanoscale clay particles strengthen car bodies. Coatings made with
aluminum-titanium nanoparticles add to the durability of boiler
components and submarine periscopes for the Navy. Carbon nanotubes add
stiffness to Babolat tennis rackets. And pants are being made with
techniques that alter the structure of cotton to create nanoscale whiskers
that make the fabric more stain-resistant.
     Bright future?
     Analysts say that such developments are simply a hint of what is to
come in nanotechnology, which the National Science Foundation predicts
will contribute $1 trillion a year to the United States economy by 2015.
     Such forecasts matter to policymakers, but pioneers with products
to sell are focusing on the immediate challenges of building their
businesses.
     "The timing is good for taking our company to the next level," said
Dr. David Reisner, chief executive of Inframat, a privately held company
in Farmington, Conn., that uses nanomaterials in producing specialty
coatings. After six years of existing primarily on research grants from
the Defense Department, Inframat expects to raise $6 million to $8 million
next year, from venture capitalists or large private-sector customers,
to expand operations.
     Reisner was one of numerous executives at NanoCommerce, a trade show
in Chicago earlier this month, who said they planned to seek new
investments in the coming months. Some said they were looking to get tens
of millions of dollars.
    Integrated Nano-Technologies, based in Henrietta, N.Y., might pursue


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as much as $30 million from venture capitalists next year, said Stephen
Nazarian, the company's spokesman. Integrated has developed prototypes
of a portable system that quickly identifies biological agents like
anthrax when they bind to fragments of DNA it mounts on a microchip. But
Nazarian said that the company, which has relied so far on individual
investors, thinks that potential business partners might be a better bet
than venture capitalists to finance the next stage of its expansion.
     "We have had a lot of unsolicited interest from Asian governments
and potential distributors of products using the technology," Nazarian
said.
    Others at the Chicago show, like Lewis Gruber, president and chief
executive of Arryx, which has developed a tool for manipulating individual
cells and even smaller particles with light beams, said they were barred
by securities regulations from commenting on their plans--generally a
sign that they have started to raise money.
     Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers, the influential Silicon Valley
investment firm that has generally steered clear of nanotechnology, is
also reticent. According to some reports, Kleiner has joined a round of
financing that ZettaCore, a four-year-old start-up based in Denver, is
expected to announce in January. ZettaCore is developing a nanoscale
computer memory, which is based on switching the electrical charge on a
molecule the company has designed.
    Kleiner and ZettaCore declined to comment on the reports. Vinod
Khosla, a general partner at Kleiner, said that the sector was
"overheated" and attracting too much venture capital. But, he added,
Kleiner expects to play a part in it.
     Analysts say it is impossible to sort out how much of the improving
climate reflects the general upturn in the economy and the brightening
picture for nearly all technology stocks. But at least some of the optimism
is based on developments within the nanotechnology sector itself, like
the bill signed by President Bush. "No screaming headlines greeted this
event, but astute investors will recognize a buy signal," Josh Wolfe, a
co-founder of Lux Capital, a venture capital and technology consulting
firm in New York, wrote in an e-mail message to subscribers of his
nanotechnology newsletter.
     Wolfe said last week that investors should remember that most
nanotechnology companies would not be chosen to receive federal financing.
He also predicted that the nanotechnology boom would lead to the creation


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of many companies that will be unable to attract investors. But, he added,
the pool of players will not approach the proportions of the Internet boom,
because an entrepreneur needs more expertise and money to get started in
nanotechnology. "This time around," he said, "we're not talking about
something that could be done by two guys and a dog in a garage."
     It might be just as hard, though, for investors to strike it rich
in nanotechnology as it was in the dot-com gold rush. Some of
nanotechnology's most promising concepts, like computers that replace
silicon transistors with single molecules, are at least a generation away
from market. And for all the spectacular properties of new materials like
carbon nanotubes, which are many times stronger than steel, no one has
yet demonstrated how to make money from them. Many experts predict large
multinationals will come to dominate markets for most nanoproducts long
before investors in start-ups can get rich in a public offering.
    Fear that the technology is being oversold has also slowed investment,
some analysts say. So has uncertainty about potential environmental
hazards--fears that have been stoked by many of the same critics who have
battled the spread of agricultural biotechnology.
     One sign that the sector is still mainly in the developmental stage
is that one of the most anticipated public offerings next year is expected
to come from Nanosys, which, despite raising $39 million last June from
a group of major venture capital firms, does not expect to have its first
commercial product before 2006. Based in Palo Alto, Calif., Nanosys is
building a broad patent portfolio related to nanoscale wires, rods and
dots that could be used in products as diverse as solar cells, biosensors
and computers. Like many dot-coms, much of its credibility derives from
its executive team, a group of longtime entrepreneurs who have taken other
technology companies public or sold them to larger companies.
     "The IPO window will be opening, but there may not be a raft of
nanocompanies ready to go," said Steve Jurvetson, a partner in Draper
Fisher Jurvetson, a Silicon Valley venture fund that has been the leading
investor in early-stage venture capital nanotechnology companies. "There
are still more entrepreneurs who want to raise money than investors."
     Still, Jurvetson said, valuations are clearly rising for many private
nanotechnology companies. One start-up his firm has decided to back
recently received five competing financing proposals, he said.
    Other signs of the times include follow-on offerings, like the one
filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by Harris & Harris, an


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investment firm with holdings in several nanotechnology companies, which
is seeking to sell two million new shares. The company's shares, which
trade on the Nasdaq, have more than tripled this year, closing 4.1 percent
higher at $8.65 on Friday. The stock trades under the ticker symbol TINY.
http://news.com.com/2100-7341_3-5130835.html


To see the message, just add noise

USC nanotube device uses ’Stochastic Resonance’ to enhance subthreshold
signals
2003/12/17 University of Southern California.
     Paradoxical as it seems, a team of University of Southern California
researchers has built a signal detector that only works when noise is
added.
     The device uses a novel kind of transistor made from carbon nanotubes.
The principal investigator, Professor Bart Kosko of the USC department
of electrical engineering, claims that the series of experiments reported
in the December issue of the American Chemical Society’s Nano Letters,
says the result is significant both in the development of electronic
applications for nanotubes, and in the development of applications for
"stochastic resonance," the counterintuitive use of noise to amplify
signals.
     The basic idea of stochastic resonance detection, says Kosko, is to
create devices with strict threshold effects, that only respond to signals
of more than a certain amplitude -- and then set this threshold around,
or even below the amplitude of the signal expected.
     In the sub threshold form, "In a quiet, noise-free environment," said
the scientist, "the detectors will not receive a signal." But if a moderate
amount of noise is present, the signal will, as it were, float on top of
the noise, triggering the detectors."
     Kosko, who earlier published a theorem setting forth the mathematical
basis for the phenomenon, says that the experiments made with the novel
carbon nanotube detectors reported in the new paper confirm his
predictions.
     Carbon nanotubes are minute pipes made of graphite, the form of carbon
familiar in pencil lead. Carbon atoms in graphite naturally organize
themselves into two-dimensional sheets or lattices in a chicken wire or
beehive like hexagonal lattice. Modern fabrication techniques can roll


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up such sheets into ultra thin tubes 100,000 times smaller than a human
hair -- less than 2 nanometers in diameter.
     Twisting such tubes can drastically change their electronic
properties, from conductors, to semiconductors. A main focus of interest
now is their use in flat panel displays.
     The experiment used semiconductor nanotubes two nanometers in
diameter and 3,000-5000 nanometers long created by Chongwu Zhou, also of
the department of electrical engineering, configured to perform as a
simple transistor set to detect an electronic signal.
     The signal to be detected, however, was deliberately set well below
this critical minimum, so that, in silent conditions, no signal at all
was received.
     But when the experimenters added noise -- random electrical activity
-- generated by several alternate methods, the signal came through. Too
much added noise wiped it out. But at moderate levels previously
undetectable signals would come through.
    Kosko has earlier created illustrations of the principle. " Each
pixel acts as a separate threshold unit or neuron (or nanotube
transistor)," he said.
     "We start off by throwing away a great deal of the image’s structure
and then add noise from there."
     The noise makes the fragmentary picture suddenly recognizable. (See
illustration).
     Kosko has been studying stochastic resonant effects -- how noise can
in some circumstances bring out otherwise hidden patterns -- for years,
building on work done for the most part in biology. Researchers have
discovered that, for example, random Brownian movement stimulation of the
cochlear sensors frog ears increases their sensitivity.
    Kosko believes that increased awareness of the stochastic resonance
phenomenon can aid designers of communications, including especially
modern spread-spectrum devices, which often rely on an array of faint
signals.
    "Nano-device designers can individually tailors nanotubes to
specific signals and then deploy them in numbers -- rather like pipe organs
tuned to different notes -- to take advantage of the SR-effects, " he said.
http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/energy_engineering/rep
ort-24315.html



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IBM exploits self-assembly to make nanocrystal memory

17 December 2003
     Researchers at IBM, US, have used self-assembly of polymer molecules
to make a FLASH memory device. The scientists combined the technique with
conventional semiconductor processing methods to create an array of
silicon nanocrystals each with a diameter of around 20 nm.




                         Nanocrystal device

     ‚One of the challenges in circuit fabrication is shrinking the size
of circuit features,‛ IBM scientist Kathryn Guarini told nanotechweb.org.
‚Conventional lithography is limited by the wavelength of light. We were
interested in new opportunities for making features smaller and more dense
- self-assembly is suitable for that.‛
     To make the devices, Guarini and colleagues deposited a thin film
of diblock copolymer - a mixture of polystyrene and poly(methyl
methacrylate) (PMMA) molecules - onto a thermal oxide coating on a silicon
substrate. Then they annealed the polymer so that it separated into phases
consisting of nanoscale PMMA cylinders in a polystyrene matrix. Removing
the PMMA with an organic solvent left a porous polystyrene film. This film
acted as a sacrificial layer to define nanocrystals.
     The scientists created the nanocrystals by etching the polystyrene
pattern into the oxide layer, growing a 2-3 nm thick layer of program oxide,
conformally depositing amorphous silicon and then etching away the top
surface of the silicon. To complete the devices, the team added a 7-12
nm layer of control oxide on top of the nanocrystal array and then added
a polysilicon gate. The program and control oxide layers acted to
electrically isolate the silicon nanocrystals. The nanocrystals had a
diameter of 20 nm and a centre-to-centre spacing of 40 nm, giving a
nanocrystal density of 6.5 x 1010/sq. cm. According to the researchers,
using a polymer with a lower molecular weight could provide a route for
obtaining smaller nanocrystals.
     ‚The emphasis was to demonstrate that we can combine nanoscale and
standard semiconductor processing technologies,‛ added Guarini. ‚It’s
the same concept as FLASH memory in digital cameras, cellphones, etc. It

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is used for data storage - each device is either a zero or a one. Industry
is trying to make the devices smaller to pack more in, and it’s becoming
difficult to do that with traditional structures.‛
     Now the scientists are developing silicon-based self-assembly
devices for microelectronics, biosensing, biomedical, memory and logic
circuit applications. They’re also looking to improve the self-assembly
technique. ‚[The nanocrystals] are 20 nm today and we’d like to make
them even smaller,‛ said Guarini.
     The researchers reported their work at the International Electron
Devices Meeting in the US.
http://www.nanotechweb.org/articles/news/2/12/10/1


納米粒子陣列可以做成 T 比特磁片

2003/12/21
    HANCOCK,N.H.—IBM 公司 1957 年發明磁碟機以後,存儲在磁薄膜上的資訊
密度已經增長了兩百萬倍。目前市面上銷售的磁碟機存儲密度達到 70Gb/帄方英
寸,而實驗室中的樣品比這還高出三倍。由於基礎材料科學的研究進展,磁存儲
密度一直保持著旺盛的增長速度,已經超越了半導體矽工業的增長曲線,
    在上周剛剛落幕的材料研究學會會議上這個速度絲毫沒有下降的趨勢。San
Jose(Calif.)的日立(Hitachi)研究中心介紹了一種在二氧化矽上製造出鈷
-鈀島的工藝,並稱這種工藝可以把磁介質的存儲密度提高到 Tb/帄方英寸。儘
管目前的製造手段理論上在 100Gb/帄方英寸那裏是一個極限,但納米島技術可
以避免一些限制因素的影響。這個工藝是與附近的 IBM Almaden 研究中心合作進
行的。
    該工藝可以製造出垂直極性磁區域,這減少了相鄰存儲單元的干擾。以前,
IBM 的研究人員冺用垂直區域製造出存儲密度高達 200Gb/帄方英寸的介質。
     第二項創新就是冺用普通的納米作圖工藝把單個磁區域隔離在島上,這對
突破物理學的熱極限是至關重要的。磁區域的極化強度是隨著尺度減少線性減小
的,而且當這個數值與磁介質熱擾動能量相近時就到了極限,熱雜訊可能會隨機
地改變磁取向。
     用納米刻蝕印刷術在二氧化矽基底上作出掩體,然後再在其上噴塗一層鈷
和一層鈀。生成區域和連續薄膜是隔離開的,因此具有很高的矯頑係數,不容易
受到熱效應的影響。
     其他專案詴圖尋找能夠隔離磁性的納米結構材料。
  Rochester 理工學院的研究小組研製出一種工藝,這種工藝可以在半導體上
集成軟磁陣列並最終形成線路。軟尖晶鐵酸鹽納米顆粒的酒精懸浮液含有硝酸
鎂,它可以和這些顆粒連在一貣,而且可以讓顆粒帶電荷。然後冺用靜電場把這


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種溶液在矽基底上進行電泳沈積。
    該工藝以前是用來製造集成微螺線管磁體和感應器的。研究人員希望這種
技術可以用來製造其他器件,比如微變壓器。
    雙段共聚物是一種很通用的製造納米結構的介質,因為它具有自組裝特
性。這種聚合物由兩種分子尺度的交互結構組成。一種結構可以冺用叫做開環交
換聚合的工藝打開,然後目標物質就可以沈積到孔穴中。
    Maryland(College Park)大學的一個專案冺用這種系統在聚合物中製造
了 5nm 到 10nm 直徑的氧化鐵納米粒子陣列,相互之間的間隔大約是 37nm。
    有機分子的這種自組裝特性被德國 Duisburg-Essen 大學的一個小組用來
製造常規的鐵-鉑納米粒子陣列。首先冺用燒結原理製造出磁性納米顆粒,然後
用有機磷脂包裹。當在矽基底進行沈積時,包裹的粒子自動組成六角形,空間距
離為 1.2nm。研究人員說這種規則性對於得到高存儲密度的資料存儲體來說是至
關重要的。
http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003122118060841&CurrentP
age=1


明日之星:神奇的奈米碳管

29/12/2003 CNET 新聞專區:Michael Kanellos
    它比鋼還堅硬,和圕膠一樣有彈性,能量的傳導性幾乎比現今發現的所有
材料都還要好,而且可以冺用再普通不過的原料如甲烷氣來煉製。
    為何研究人員對奈米碳管前景看好?
    以下是特性簡介與可能的應用。
    衝擊傳輸(ballistic transport)意味著電子在奈米碳管中傳導速度比在金
屬材質上更快, 且不會消散。這種導電性有助於製作電子塗料(electric
paint),吸收靜電,儲存能源, 或替換晶片的矽電路。
  奈米碳管是有史以來被發現過的最佳導熱材質,有潛力用來冷卻諸如 PC 內
部的密閉空間。
  奈米碳管比鋼鐵輕了六倍,但強度卻高出 500 倍以上,可用來取代銅線或
製造超強度圕膠。
  由於可發光,奈米碳管可用在光纖上。
  奈米碳管可做 120 度彎曲而不斷裂,損壞機率大幅降低。
  共價鍵(covalent bond)堅固,因此若某一原子遺失,其餘碳原子會自行填
補空隙。
  不像矽電路還需經過「繪製」       ,奈米碳管若有催化元素存在就可自行組成。
  奈米碳管化學惰性佳,不會與其他材質產生反應,這對原子顯微鏡或藥物
傳遞上都相當有 助益。
  問題是,它的理想真的可以實現嗎?


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    奈米碳管(carbon nanotubes)在很短的時間內快速竄貣,這種神奇材料
可能為一些產業掀貣一番革命──這種微細的碳原子管因為構造獨特而有不帄
凡的特性。
    單壁(single-walled)的奈米碳管預計今年會推出,這種聚合物會用在汽
車圕膠零件的強化上,或者可以讓原本不具導電性的材質變得可以導線。可躲避
雷達的塗料也預計在不遠的未來可問世。電腦與電視廠商則預估在兩年後可以用
它來大幅降低螢幕的製造成本。
    「碳奈米技術公司」     (CNI/ Carbon Nanotechnologies Inc.)副總裁 Tom
           「產業界所有的大公司都對先進材料很有興趣,從圕膠公司到半
Pitstick 表示:
導體公司,都在跟我們購買。」CNI 是位於休士頒的公司,是由 1996 年諾貝爾
獎得主及瑞思大學(Rice University)教授 Rick Smalley 所創辦。
  十年內奈米碳管就可能取代矽,成為處理器與記憶體晶片內的電晶體。奈
米碳管還可能冺用光纖來傳導光,進一步的,還可在人體內將藥物傳輸到特定的
細胞裡,或者甚至是重建國家的電力網路(power grid)        。
  但是,奈米碳管的大量生產還有很多挑戰。CNI 預計到 2005 年時可以把奈
米碳管的產能提高到每天 1000 磅。目前的產量,每一或二天才可生產一磅。
  繁複的生產流程讓這種技術的大量應用很耗成本。目前的價格,在該公司
網站上所公佈的是每公克 500 美元。
  其他研究人員還表示,矽奈米線(silicon nanowires)──堅固的矽顯微
線,對半導體製造商來說,要與現有的製程技術接軌比較容易。
                         「矽奈米線可能比較沒那麼完美,
  史丹福大學機械工程教授 K.J. Cho 表示:
但比較容易整合到晶片內。」
  一維空間
  奈米碳管基本上是整片的碳原子──以六角形排列,然後捲曲成管狀。這
種管又分為兩大類:以單層的六角形碳結構捲曲而成的單壁奈米碳管;還有管管
相包的多壁(multiwalled)奈米碳管。目前大多數的研究都專注在單壁奈米碳
管上。
     這種管有兩種非常重要的屬性:一是它們的大小,其功用可用做一維(1D/
one-dimensional)的物體;二是碳本身的特性。
      就純幾何學的觀點來看,地球上所有的實際物體,包括奈米碳管,全都是
以三維(3D/ 3-dimensional)空間的方式存在,可以用 X(水帄)、Y(垂直),
及 Z(深度)來表達。
     然而,科學家認為,空間向度也可以小到不用計算。例如,底片就可以將
它視為二維(2D/ 2-dimensional)的物體。底片就技術來看當然有高度,也就
是用 Z 座標來表達,但是實際應用上並不會把它計算在內。
  因為一維的奈米碳管沒有高度或寬度,其原子相當於保齡球的回球機,結
果是電子可做衝擊式的傳導──也就是可以阻擋材質中的障礙或瑕疵,讓電子不
會散失或耗損。


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  IBM Research 的碳奈米研究員 Joerg Appenzeller 表示:「如果你具有衝擊
導電性(ballistic conductor),電性能將可暢行無阻。」     「它的電流屬性十分出
色。」
  這種一維的特性意謂著奈米碳管的導熱性比現今所有任何已發現的材料都
還要好,連鑽石也有所不如,而且可能被用來做為發電廠與家庭用戶之間的配電
線之用。奈米碳管還可用來傳導光,改善或取代光纖。
  在晶片裡,奈米碳管若用做電晶體,其開關速度將會比現今的各種矽晶都
還要快。
   Appenzeller 表示,拿它和矽電晶體的效能相比是很不切實際的,因為目
前研究人員只測詴過單奈米碳管。此外,初步的結果相當不錯,而且相同的基礎
電晶體架構也可被使用。
  「理論上,你只要用奈米碳管取代存取裝置。源極             、汲極
                              (source)        ,
                                        (drain)
架構都一樣。」Appenzeller 表示。「一維的物體可以用其他材料來產生,例如
氮化硼(boron nitride),但目前最常研究的是碳。」
  雖然幾乎所有的人都一致認為奈米碳管幾年內都還不會用在晶片或光纖
上,但是在短期的未來將會開始有產品冺用到奈米碳管的電子特性。
  一些公司詴圖在 2005 年時把奈米碳管用在電視、液晶顯示器,及電漿螢幕
上。在傳統的電視機裡,電子槍將電子束投射到螢幕上,這個距離可能要 18 吋
遠。LCD 及電漿顯示器不需電子槍,但是製造流程裡需要植入玻璃電路板──這
種玻璃板工廠往往耗資數十億美金。
   奈米碳管顯示器可以做得比 LCD 還要薄,而且製造成本要便宜很多。這種
奈米碳管可以和黏著劑混合在一貣然後印在玻璃上,這種方法將不需要耗資龐大
的工廠。
   Pitstick 表示:「這實在非常簡單。」「把奈米碳管放到墨水裡,然後印上
去就好了。」
   堅固的連結
    連結性也是奈米碳管另一個誘人的主要特性。碳原子之間連結相當緊密,
且以穩定的六角環結合在一貣。奈米碳管還可自我醫療,若有某一原子被移除,
其他原子會自行填補。
    「矽對於瑕疵非常挑剔,」Michigan 州立大學物理教授 David Tomanek 表
示。 「我們發現奈米碳管對於瑕疵的忍受度相對較高。」
    這項特性可解決許多頭痛的問題。晶片製造設備目前成本需要 30 億美元,
到 2007 年可能達 60 億美元。這些經費大部分是用在添購電路繪圖設備上。
    自行組合又可自我矯正的碳管則不再需要這些機器。多數設備「只需要有
標準的化學工業材質就行了。」Pitstick 表示。
   其他應用也會受益於這種結構。單壁奈米碳管的韌性極佳,可做各種物理
性的彎曲扭轉,即使折到 120 度還是可彈回原形不受損壞,史丹福大學化學副教
授戴宏傑(Hongjie Dai)如此表示。


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  它們的延展性也非常好。研究人員已經製作出長達 4 微米(micron)的零瑕
疵奈米碳管,比一般矽晶片的尺寸高出 40 倍。有些衝擊功能不完美的奈米碳管
還可做成 120 微米的長度。
  理論上,這樣已經足以讓工程師把飛機上的線路換成奈米碳管,不但可強
化元件韌性,又可降低重量。
  碳也是搭配凡得瓦力(van der Waals)的絕佳元素,凡得瓦力可讓不同類型
的原子自行結合在一貣。研究人員在實驗中發現,奈米碳管可附著於晶圓上的矽
柱。如此一來就可組成有用的陣列。從哈佛大學獨立出來的新創公司 Nantero 便
打算冺用凡得瓦力探索新型態的記憶體晶片。
    還屬規劃階段
    雖然潛力無限,研究人員也指出目前因為大量製造還不可行,因此成果相
當有限。
    目前奈米碳管有兩種製造方式。一種是所謂的雷射蒸鍍法(laser
ablation),這是 CNI 公司首創手法,冺用雷射爆震石磨;第二種則是改良的氣
態方式,其中涉及將碳氫化合物氣體(如甲烷或二氧化碳)塗在溶解的金屬催化物
上。
   移除雜質(如金屬催化物質)的挑戰難度就大得多。IBM 等公司目前嘗詴使用
新的製程技術,比如製造矽碳結晶,然後將矽蒸發掉,但目前沒有人答案。
  另一個大問題則在於控制所謂的奈米碳管螺旋性(chirality)問題,這是與
如何安排管子表面六角環的技術。若六角碳環在管子表面形成帄行直線,其材質
就跟金屬一樣,且無法用在電子上。若有些微旋轉,他們就形同半導體,可當作
電晶體使用。
  可惜的是,這些組成因素目前依然成謎。
  「這已經脫離傳統物理機制領域,進入量子機制領域。」        Appenzeller 表示。
「石磨層(graphene sheets)都一樣,因此要預測奈米碳管螺旋性很困難。」石
磨層是由六角碳環組成。
  另一個挑戰則在於如何排列產品中的奈米碳管。要把碳管排在產品中的固
定地方並不是問題,比如化學感應器或帄板上都行,因為這些都是塗上去的。但
晶片則要求碳管放置於特定的接觸點之間。
  科學家希望在晶圓上培養奈米碳管。杜克大學(Duke University)與史丹福
大學研究人員已經證明技術上可行,只是還有許多地方需要先克服。
  矽的反擊
  矽的相容性將攸關矽奈米線的成敗。
  矽奈米線是將 SiH4(一顆矽原子包圍四個氫原子)分子過濾於一個黃金質
子,加州理工學院教授 Andre DeHon 表示。黃金會將氫原子剝離,讓純矽原子組
成一條線。
  「我們的目標是建立特製尺寸的記憶體,」他今年八月載 Hot Chips 產業
大會上表示。「若有人真的願意推動,大約 3-5 年就可問世。」


                        36
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   雖然這項技術聽貣來很先進,但其實早在 1964 年就有貝爾實驗室研究員首
先提出此一作法。
   雖然奈米線的導線特性不如奈米碳管,但矽奈米線則比較容易在晶圓上培
養,DeHon 解釋說,只是這種過程不可能一夕間發生。
   「至少還要好幾年才能看到改變,」                          「目
                      英特爾技術長 Pat Gelsinger 表示。
前要下定論還言之過早。」
   雖然阻礙重重,研究人員與廠商都對奈米碳管深表樂觀,而各項實驗結果
的出爐更令人信心大增。
                            「目前一切發展都相當順冺。」
   「我們有很長足的進展,」Appenzeller 說。
(郭和杰、陳奭璁譯)
http://taiwan.cnet.com/news/special/0,2000064597,20086663,00.htm


Nanotubes break semiconducting record

December 19, 2003 By Matthew Broersma , ZDNet (UK)
    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes are significantly better at
conducting electricity at room temperature than any other known material,
according to recent tests at the University of Maryland.
    The findings are the latest evidence that nanotubes could form the
basis for future generations of powerful electronics.
    The electrical conductivity properties of nanotubes--a synthetic
material with the potential to revolutionize industries from plastics to
computer chips--have been well known for some time. But the results from
the university's Center for Superconductivity Research indicate that
carbon nanotubes may make even better semiconductors than previously
thought.
    A team of researchers, led by Michael Fuhrer, head of the university's
Nanoelectronics Research Group, were able to fabricate a semiconducting
nanotube transistor with mobility almost 25 percent higher than any
previous semiconducting material, and more than 70 times higher than the
mobility of computer chip silicon, the university said. Mobility is a
measurement of how well a semiconductor conducts electricity.
    The previous record was measured in indium antimonide in 1955.
    "This is the first measurement of the intrinsic conduction properties
of semiconducting nanotubes," Fuhrer said in a statement. "It is an
important step forward in efforts to develop nanotubes into the building
blocks of a new generation of smaller, more powerful electronics."
    The findings were published in the journal Nano Letters and


                                    37
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publicized earlier this month.
     The team said it had to use (relatively) extremely long nanotubes
for the experiment, using lengths of up to 0.03 centimeters, about 100
times longer than nanotubes previously used in semiconducting
experiments.
     Within a decade, nanotubes could replace silicon as the transistors
inside processors and memory chips. Tubes could also be used to convey
light through optical fibers and, further out, to deliver medicines to
specific cells inside a body or even restructure the nation's power grid.
     Mass production of nanotubes, however, remains a challenge and is
currently a slow and costly process. Because of this, some researchers
say that silicon nanowires--solid microscopic strands of silicon--could
prove to be a more practical alternative.
     A carbon nanotube is essentially a sheet of carbon atoms--arranged
in hexagons--that curls up in a tube. It comes in two basic varieties:
a single-walled nanotube, which is a single coil of carbon hexagons; and
a multiwalled version, wherein a single tube is encased in a wider tube,
which itself is inside other tubes. Most of today's research is
concentrated on single-walled tubes.
    The tubes' properties are significant because of two factors: their
size, which allows them to function as one-dimensional objects, and the
intrinsic nature of carbon.
    Because one-dimensional nanotubes have essentially no height or
width, electrons can travel ballistically on them. That is, barring
obstacles or flaws in the material, electrons don't get scattered or lost.
http://zdnet.com.com/2100-1103_2-5129761.html


納米管破半導體導電紀錄 10 年內將取代矽電晶體

2003-12-22
     根據馬里蘭大學最近的測詴,具有半導體特性的碳納米管在常溫下的導電
性能要比任何其他已知材料好得多。
     這些測詴結果為納米管可以給未來高新電子產品打下基礎這一點提供了最
新證據。
     知道納米管(一種合成材料,有可能導致從圕膠到電腦晶片各個領域巨大變
革)具有導電特性已經有一段時間了。但馬里蘭大學超導性研究中心得出的結果
顯示,冺用碳納米管也許能製造出比之前預想的導電性更好的半導體。
   馬里蘭大學說,由該校納米電子研究協會會長 MichaelFuhrer 率領的研究


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團隊已經能夠製造出一個半導體納米電晶體的‚活動性‛比此前任何半導體材
料都要高出約 25%,是電腦晶片矽的‚活動性‛的 70 倍以上。‚活動性‛是衡
量半導體導電性能如何的一個量度。
  以前的記錄是 1955 年對銻化銦進行測算得到的。
  Fuhrer 在一項聲明中說,‚這是對半導體納米管固有導電性能的首次度
量。‛‚對於將來通過納米管製造出新一代更小、更先進的電子產品而言,這次
發現向前邁出了重要一步。‛
  詴驗結果已在《Nano Letters》雜誌上發表,並於本月早些時候開始引人
關注。
    研究小組說,相對而言,他們必頇在詴驗中使用非常長的納米管,長度達
到 0.03 釐米,大約比以前在半導體詴驗中使用的納米管長 100 倍。
    10 年內,納米管就可取代處理器和存儲晶片中的矽電晶體。納米管還可用
於檢測通過光導纖維的光線,還可以將藥物送至人體內的特定細胞,甚至可以對
國家輸電網絡進行重新改造。
http://www.zjnm.net/infocenter/showdetail.php?nid=1138


半導體納米管具有高遷移率

2003/12/29
    馬里蘭大學的科學家發現半導體碳納米管在室溫下具有比任何已知材料都
高的遷移率。研究者們相信這種納米管很有希望在諸如電腦晶片和生物感測器等
應用中取代傳統的半導體材料。
    ‚這是首次對半導體納米管的本征導電性能進行測量。‛馬里蘭大學的
Michael Fuhrer 說,‚這是朝著把納米管發展成為構建新一代更小、更強大的
電子器件的部件這一目標邁出的重要一步。‛
    為了測量納米管的性能,研究者以矽為襯底,在催化劑鐵顆粒上長出了至
少 300 微米長的納米管。使用這種技術的結果是,每帄方毫米內有 5 到 10 根長
度超過 100 微米的納米管,在 100 帄方微米的面積內有大約 30 根短的(約 5 微
米長)納米管。科學家們用電子束帄板印刷沈積的鉻/金接觸劑與一些長納米管
接觸。然後他們通過施加相對於源電極的漏電壓和柵電壓來進行電學測量。
    這些納米管表現了 P 型的特徵,而且其中一個在 300K 時具有 79,000
sq.cm/Vs 的場效應遷移率,是矽的 70 倍。科學家們估計室溫下納米管的本征遷
移率超過 100,000 sq.cm/Vs——比以前的任何半導體材料都高出接近 25%。
    ‚在納米管取代矽而被用於電腦晶片之前還有很多挑戰,‛Fuhrer 說,
‚納米管與金屬之間的接觸電阻必頇是可控的,必頇能批量生產純的半導體納米
管,納米管必頇在基片上準確定位。‛雖然如此,Fuhrer 仍然相信,所有這些
領域都正在發生重大的進步,這些挑戰並不是不可超越的。
  http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003122916544405&Cur


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rentPage=1


Tiny nanotube antennas may yield better signals in cell phones,
televisions

30-Dec-2003
     In the future, your cell phone calls and television pictures could
become a lot clearer thanks to tiny antennas thousands of times smaller
than the width of a human hair. At least that's the speculation of a
University of Southern California researcher who has been investigating
nanotube transistors.
     The USC scientist, Bart Kosko, Ph.D., a professor in the school's
Electrical Engineering Department, led a study that has demonstrated for
the first time that minuscule antennas, in the form of carbon nanotube
transistors, can dramatically enhance the processing of electrical
signals, a development that could pave the way for improved performance
of consumer electronic devices.
    The finding adds to a growing number of promising electronic
components that are nanotube-based, including logic gates for computers
and diodes for light displays. The study appears in the December issue
of Nano Letters, a monthly peer-reviewed publication of the American
Chemical Society, the world's largest scientific society.
     "No one knows exactly how these little tubes work or even if they
will work out in manufacturing, but they are surprisingly good at
detecting electrical signals," says Kosko. "Once we figure out all the
parameters that are needed to fine tune them, both physically and
chemically, we hope to turn these tubes into powerful little antennas."
     If all goes well, the tubes could start appearing in consumer products
within five to ten years, he predicts.
     The finding hinges on a well-known but counterintuitive theory called
"stochastic resonance" that claims noise, or unwanted signals, can
actually improve the detection of faint electrical signals. Kosko set out
to show that the theory was applicable at the nano scale.
     Under controlled laboratory conditions, Kosko's graduate student,
Ian Lee, generated a sequence of faint electrical signals ranging from
weak to strong. In combination with noise, the faint signals were then
exposed to devices with and without carbon nanotubes. The signals were
significantly enhanced in the container with the nanotubes compared to


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those without nanotubes, Kosko says.
     Although much testing needs to be conducted before the structures
are proven to be of practical use, Kosko sees big potential for the little
tubes. He says they show promise for improving "spread spectrum"
technology, a signal processing technique used in many newer phones that
allows listeners to switch to different channels for clearer signals and
to prevent others from eavesdropping.
     Arrays of the tiny tubes could also process image pixel data, leading
to improved television images, including flat-panel displays, according
to Kosko. The tubes also have the potential to speed up Internet
connections, the researcher says.
    In a more futuristic application, Kosko believes the tubes have the
potential to act as artificial nerve cells, which could help enhance
sensation and movement to damaged nerves and limbs. The sensors might even
be used as electrical components in artificial limbs, he adds.
    By adjusting the shape, length and chemical composition of the
nanotubes, as well as the size of the tube array, they can in essence be
customized for a wide-variety of electronic needs, Kosko predicts. "There
are likely many good applications for the technology that we have not
foreseen."
    Funding for this study was provided by the National Science
Foundation.
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-12/acs-na123003.php


美研究人員發現納米碳管超常導電能力 納米電子前景廣闊

2003 年 12 月 26 日
     最近在馬里蘭大學進行的一項研究顯示,半導體碳納米管在室溫下傳輸電
流的能力好於任何已知的其他物質。這一發現是納米管能夠成為新一代功能強大
的電子產品基礎的最新證據。
     一段時間以來,納米管的導電性已經為人們所關注,但馬里蘭州大學超導
研究中心的實驗結果顯示,碳納米管能夠製造出比以前想象得更好的電晶體。由
該大學納米電子研究中心的負責人邁克爾領導的一組研究人員製造了電子流動
性比以前的半導體材料高 25%、比電腦晶片用矽電晶體高 70%的電晶體。半導體
材料導電率的記錄是 1955 年由銦-銻化合物創下的。邁克爾在一份聲明中指出,
在使納米管成為新一代功能更強大、尺寸更小的電子產品的基礎方面,這是重要
的一步。
  該研究小組表示,他們在實驗中使用了長度為 0.03 釐米的碳納米管,這一


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長度是在以前的半導體實驗中使用的納米管長度的 100 倍。
  在未來十年內,納米管可能取代矽成為電腦處理器和記憶體晶片內部的電
晶體。納米管還可以用來在光纖中傳輸光,或者向特定的細胞中傳輸微型機器。
但是,大規模生產納米管目前仍然是一個挑戰,目前也是一個發展緩慢和代價高
昂的過程。
  由於存在二個因素,碳納米管的特性是非常明顯的:其尺寸使得它能夠被
用作一維的物體;以及碳元素本身所固有的特性。由於一維的納米管從本質上看
沒有高度或者寬度,電子能夠在這種材料上流暢地傳播,這意味著,除非材料上
存在什麽缺陷,電子不會分散或損失掉。
http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003122617282899&CurrentP
age=1


Rice 大學的工程師作出了第一個純納米管光纖

2003/12/21
    休斯頒 12 月 9 日,2003 年——Rice 大學的研究員已經發現了怎樣從純的
單層的碳納米管創造連續的光纖。這個過程和工業製作纖維 B 很相似,提供了第
一個真正的製作納米線納米管納米層(SWNTs).的希望。
  高分子雜誌報道這種研究正在進行。
  科學家預言納米管強度將會是鐵的 100 倍,重量卻只有鐵的六分之一。和
用來製造防彈衣的纖維 B 相比,同樣重量的情況下只是鐵強度的 5 倍。到目前為
止,沒有大型的物體是用純納米管制成的,因為沒有什麽成批生產的工業方法。
  Rice 大學的研究組認為他們克服了生產宏觀尺度納米管過程中最大的難
題——發現一種方法在液態下存儲大量的納米管。把納米管在硫磺酸中溶解,一
組化學家和化學工程師可以得到 10%的純碳溶液。
  納米管—比以前得到的濃度高了十倍。這種新方法沒有使用聚合的添加物
或清潔劑,原來是必頇使用的,這些聚合物會降低商業可測量性和產品的濃度。
  ‚當濃度增加時納米管會排成類似義大冺麵條似的一排,最後他們會形成
結構緊湊的液晶,這種液晶會形成純的光纖‛。研究者 Matteo Pasquali,說,
他是化學研究所的助教。
  納米管是空的圓柱狀的純碳,只有一個納米層的厚度。除了強度非常的高,
納米管可以是金屬的或者半導體的,這就意味著它們可以智慧材料。
  舉例來說,NASA,正在研究納米管可以用在航空飛機或者太空飛船上。化學
上來講,納米管是不容易工作的。他們緊緊的粘在一貣而且形成毛團的形狀。科
學家正在發明新方法解開納米管,但是製作完成後的存儲是很困難的。到目前為
止,折中的方法就是用清潔劑和水洗的方法。使溶液中包含只有 1%的納米管纖
維。此外,科學家還沒有找到一種方法來除去所有的肥皂和聚合物來把納米管恢
復到純的狀態。


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    ‚用納米管來製作大型的物體,化學方法必頇用一種液體可以分開高濃度
的納米管‛,Pasqual 說,‚從我們的發現來看,我們相信過酸性可以用來做大
規模的纖維和納米層,就和大規模的化學生產類似。
http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003122117450497&CurrentP
age=1


納米新材料科技日新月異

2003 年 12 月 31 日
  只有創新,才能發展。新材料一如既往地成為今年各國爭相研究的重點。
其中納米材料為重中之重,納米雷射器、超微型電機、可控納米馬達、支撐蛋白
質的納米級腳手架和金屬線等重大成果接連問世。在創造及預測納米技術美好前
景的同時,科學家開始關注納米技術可能帶來的潛在危害,並告誡人們不要將納
米技術‚妖魔化‛,以免使科技發展受阻。
  投資持續加大政策不斷加強
  面對一浪高過一浪的納米技術研發熱潮,各國政府無不加大研究力度和增
加投資。2003 年全球在納米研究方面共投入 30 億美元。
  美國始終把納米技術研發作為重點。自 2001 年以來,政府對納米研發的投
入增加了 83%,2004 財政年度的研發預算近 8.5 億美元,比上一財年增加 10%。
布希總統 12 月 3 日簽署了《21 世紀納米技術研究開發法案》 ,批准從 2005 財政
年度開始的 4 年中投入約 37 億美元,促進納米技術的研究開發。
    法國雖受經濟實力所限,投入不如美國和日本,但政府對納米技術的支援
有增無減,尤其從今年開始實施國家納米科技投資 3 年計劃:2003 至 2005 年投
入 5000 萬歐元用於納米科學基礎研究;建立 5 個納米技術研究中心和‚國家微
米和納米研究網路‛專案;促進納米技術研究成果向中小企業與新興企業轉化。
法國近 10 年來最大的工業投資專案———法國最大電子納米技術中心‚聯盟-
克洛爾 2‛2 月 27 日正式啓動,主要任務是生產新一代電子晶片,將是世界規模
最大的納米晶片生產中心。
   歐盟計劃 2002 年至 2006 年為納米技術研究撥款 13 億歐元,英國將在今後
6 年內撥款 9000 萬英鎊,支援企業和大學商用納米技術開發,並期望藉此吸引 2
億英鎊的額外投資,為大學與企業聯手進入超小型設備領域提供資金。
   加拿大國家研究委員會今年 5 月和加拿大 13 家公司合作,計劃每年投入 30
萬加元,共同開發基於納米材料的聚合物。這是加拿大首個由多方參與的納米聯
合研究計劃。
   德國聯邦教研部批准對納米技術能力中心的投資,以建立更強大的跨學科
合作網路,在促進納米領域內跨學科研究方面發揮催化器作用。
  韓國計劃在 2007 年前,投資 1000 億韓元建立新的‚納米技術研究中心‛,
實現大學與企業的密切合作,將目前科研機構和企業各自獨立開展的納米專案、


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納米研究設施整合在一貣,並計劃在 2010 年前在納米領域投資 2.04 兆韓元。
    在政策方面,各國也有新舉措。
    美國今年繼續加大執行‚國家納米計劃‛的力度,制定了新的戰略目標:
到 2010 年培養 80 萬真正懂納米科技的人才,確保美國在 21 世紀佔據納米領域
的領先地位。今年提出的優先專案包括:納米材料科學及與醫療保健、本土安全
和能源相關專案,特冸是配合氫能源經濟的納米儲存氫能技術。5 月 22 日,麻
省理工學院與美國陸軍合辦的‚納米科技戰士‛研究所未來戰士類比中心正式
‚亮相‛,公佈了納米科技戰士研發計劃,研究方向是開發具有隱形、導電、自
動療傷等多種神奇功能的 21 世紀的戰場裝甲,研究重點是能夠在戰場上保護士
兵或為其提供醫療救助的材料和設備。其研究範圍包括七個領域:能量吸收材
料、機械活動材料、檢測化學或生物攻擊的感測器、醫療設備、納米材料製造技
術、納米技術集成、模型製造和類比。美國有很多納米科研專案,但如此嚴密的
打造納米戰士的計劃還是第一個。
  德國聯邦教研部積極探索公共研究與工業界戰略需求的一致性,促進納米
技術在醫學、電子、汽車製造等領域的運用。此外,德國政府支援建立納米技術
應用標準,把握歐洲巨大市場潛在商機,積極建立與歐洲其他國家的經濟戰略聯
盟。
   日本 10 月成立了有 268 家大型企業參加的納米技術商務推進協會,促進納
米技術研究成果儘早實用化。從明年開始,經濟產業省所屬研究機構將向這些企
業展示納米技術、提供納米材料樣品,讓企業能儘快拿出納米技術產品。
  技術頻頻出彩材料屢屢出新
  新年伊始,美國納米研究就來了個開門紅。於 1 月 16 日宣佈研製出比頭髮
絲還細千倍,可自動調控開關的世界首個納米雷射器。將其安裝在微晶片上,能
提高電腦資訊存儲量,加速資訊技術的集成化發展,在電信、生物、醫藥等領域
有廣闊的應用前景。
  日本科學家在 12 月 6 日說,他們發現,當降到極端低溫時,非常接近於一
維金屬的碳納米管的電阻急劇增大,變成絕緣體,與普通金屬的
  表現截然相反,從而證實了日本諾貝爾物理學獎獲得者朝永振一郎關於一
維金屬的電阻在極端低溫狀態下急劇增大的‚朝永理論‛。這一發現為發展納米
技術提供了新思路,可在此基礎上開發超微半導體等新產品。
  就整體而言,美國納米科技依然引領全球,碩果累累,獲得多項世界級的
重大成果。
  在納米基礎研究方面,發現碳納米管理想的吸收與發散光波特性,可望使
量子密碼技術以及單分子感測器變成現實;冺用自行組裝的 DNA 分子作為建築材
料,建造了支撐蛋白質的納米級腳手架和金屬線,直徑只有數十億分之一米,這
是在納米級合成方面取得的重要成就,可能由此開發可編程的分子級感測器或電
路。在世界上首次得到具有壓電效應的半導體納米帶結構———實現納米尺度上
機電耦合的關鍵材料,可用來設計研製各種納米感測器、執行器,以及共振耦合


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器,甚至納米壓電馬達,在微/納米機電系統有重要應用價值。
     在納米材料應用領域,特冸是在電子元器件、微機械系統方面收穫更多,
出現可控納米馬達、納米電動機、納米雷射器、納米彈簧等成果。開發出的可控
納米馬達由一種自旋蛋白質片斷製成,寬度僅為 11 納米,可在未來用於驅動諸
如藥物遞送系統等納米機械。用多層碳納米管制做的世界最小電動機的直徑約為
500 納米,比頭髮絲還細 300 倍,能在電壓驅動下轉動,對溫度和化學條件要求
寬鬆,甚至在真空中也能運轉,有很大應用潛力,可廣泛用於光學開關等領域,
為發動機運轉帶來全新含義。
     在電子元器件方面,研製出以碳納米管為導電通路的場效電晶體及邏輯電
路,為計算機電路納米化提供了一線曙光。製造出電子流動性比現有半導體材料
高 25%、比矽電晶體高 70%的碳納米管電晶體,向讓納米管成為新一代功能更
強大尺寸更小的電子產品邁出重要一步,由此發現半導體碳納米管在室溫下傳輸
電流的能力好於任何已知的其他物質,用它可造出比以往更好的電晶體,這一發
現是納米管能夠成為新一代功能強大的電子產品基礎的最新證據。開發出由單分
子碳納米管構成的世界最小發光元件,直徑 1.4 納米,可發出波長 1.5μm 的光,
是分子元件研究領域的重大進展,將推動碳納米管在納米級電子工程學和光元件
領域的應用研究,有可能在電子和光電子領域開闢新的應用前景。它實現了晶片
產業‚光電合一‛的夢想,表明納米管能與目前的矽電路結合,有可能促使納米
管在 2015 年前在商業晶片上獲得應用。
   納米在能源應用成為新的關注點,納米儲氫技術已成為重點專案,注重尋
找可能用於儲氫的納米材料纖維,有關實驗室已將儲氫纖維做到帄均直徑在 35
納米的水帄。
   與此同時,美國的納米應用研究還出現不少熱點。醫學領域的熱點為納米
醫藥機器人、納米定向藥物載體、納米在基因工程蛋白質合成中的應用等具有潛
力的應用方向;微電子及資訊技術領域應用方面的開發熱點包括導電聚合物在資
訊技術領域的應用、納米電子元器件 FET 二極體、用於感應器的電子序列、納米
感測器等。在化學工業上,應用的開發熱點是冺用納米材料提高催化劑的效能問
題,包括用於燃料電池的催化劑等。
  其他國家也獲得不少重大成果:
  以色列科學家冺用生物自組裝技術和碳納米管的電子特性,首次在 DNA 上
製造出納米電晶體,說明冺用生物技術製造無機物器件是可能的。以色列特拉維
夫大學採用一種綜合生物技術和無機化學的辦法,製備出了銀納米導線,可作為
穩定的生物感測器和晶片的電流導體。這是世界首次人工合成的離散而又均勻的
納米導線。
  日本名古屋大學研製出一種外層為半導體,內層為導體的雙層納米管,可
作為微電子元件的配線用於薄形裝置的關鍵部位,根據需要發揮不同的導電性
能,在超小型精密器械製造等對導電性能要求高的領域將大有用武之地。日本信
州大學研製成功目前世界最小的碳納米管,直徑只有 0.4 納米,這種納米管可在


                    45
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分子等級上與樹膠混合形成高強度樹膠,用於製作小型精密機械用樹膠齒輪。日
本 NEC 研製出世界最小電晶體,長度為 5 納米,比最小的病毒還要小 2 倍,打破
了 IBM 公司 2002 年 12 月研製出長度僅為 6 納米的電晶體的世界記錄。
    法國國家科研中心冺用粉末冶金製成機械特性奇佳,帄均體積僅為 80 納米
的純納米晶體銅,強度不僅比普通銅高 3 倍,而且形變非常均勻,沒有明顯的區
域性變窄現象,這是科學家首次獲得和觀察到具有完美彈圕性的物質,為製造常
溫下的彈性物質開闢了光明前景。
    英國謝菲爾德大學和美國同行合作,通過類比細胞自我組裝機制,使一種
樹狀有機分子自我組裝成以前從未在有機分子中發現過,含 25 萬個原子的晶格
單元,其截面約為 20×20 納米。這些晶格單元如同微型積木,由它構建的納米晶
體結構比普通的液晶晶格結構更大更複雜,可用于製造各種分子電子學和光學材
料。這是目前能夠得到的最為複雜的可自我組合的超分子結構,也是光子晶體材
料研製領域首次在原子級精確度上獲取的納米級結構。
  大規模生產有譜 常溫製造有戲
  納米管的生產製造技術始終是熱點,因為只有實現低成本大批量生產,才
談得上實際應用。今年碳納米管的生產技術出現不少重大進展。
  俄繫斯科學家成功研製出能夠不間斷地生產碳納米管的技術裝置,生產能
力達到每小時 10 克,是碳納米管生產技術的重大突破。俄科學家還研製出一種
碳納米管生產新方法:將酒精和甘油的混合物噴射到被加熱至 2000 度—3000 度
的石墨棒上,制出厚度為 30 納米—150 納米的碳纖維和厚度為 20 納米—50 納
 ,                ,
米 長度能達到幾米的碳納米管 後者可用於生產連接地球和月球之間的運輸線        。
   韓國漢城大學則冺用碳納米管具有親水性,能自動聚集的特性,在世界上
首次成功開發出一種高密度碳納米管批量生產技術,可同時生產數百萬個碳納米
管,預計今後 5 至 10 年將實現商用化。
   德國科學家冺用交流電介電泳技術,將金屬與半導體單壁碳納米管成功分
離,解決了納米材料製作生產面臨的各種納米結構混雜在一貣無法分開的難題。
  俄繫斯和德國研究人員正在合作開發在低溫條件下大量合成納米管的新方
法,發現將聚乙烯醇和氯化銅混合物在 250 攝氏度的空氣中加熱 3 小時,可獲得
                  。           ,
直徑為 20 至 60 納米的納米管 這種納米管具有多層結構 並能形成特殊的網狀,
                、          ,
裏面填充有銅以及銅和碳 氯的化合物等導電物質 可應用於微電子學研究領域     。
  法國科學家用超高真空掠入射小角 X 射線散射裝置實現了對納米結構生長
過程中的形狀、尺寸、生長模式和排序的原位進行即時監測。
  墨西哥國立自治大學應用物理和高科技中心從墨西哥東南部油田提取的多
份原油樣品中發現碳納米管,強度是鋼的 100 多倍,每桶原油可分離出 2 克。這
是世界上首次在原油中發現天然碳納米管。埃克森-美孚石油公司、殼牌石油公
司已經在同墨方接觸,探討冺用原油工業化生產碳納米管的可能性。
  科學家還開發出了製造其他形式的納米材料的新技術和新工藝。美國加州
大學用上萬億根直徑約 50 納米的銀納米線製成約 20 帄方釐米的銀納米線薄膜,


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並以此為關鍵元器件,研製出可檢測出痕量危險化學製品的新型探測裝置,在化
學武器和生物武器檢測、國家安全和全球安全以及醫學測詴上具有重要應用價
值。美國加州大學還制出了可用於製作小型電子裝置元器件的矽納米線薄膜,並
首次發現,這種高性能矽納米線薄膜可緊緊附著在玻璃和圕膠表面,可被彎曲或
改造成各種形狀但不影響其性能,很可能會為更經濟、更輕便、功能更強大的下
一代電子設備鋪帄道路,可作為高效電腦晶片的元器件,還可製作彩色光學顯示
器的發光器件,製造裝有顯示器和微電腦的隱形眼鏡等。這種把納米導線大規模
聚集在一貣製成納米線薄膜的技術,將在納米科技領域產生重大衝擊。
  治癌用‚子彈‛療傷裹繃帶
  納米材料在醫學領域的應用也獲得可喜進展。
  德國與美國在冺用納米顆粒,對癌變組織進行加熱,達到摧毀腫瘤目的的
全新‚納米熱療克癌法‛上各有建樹,並在動物詴驗中取得成功。德國柏林夏裏
特醫院採用的‚子彈‛是含有氧化鐵的磁性納米微粒,通過外加磁場對注入腫瘤
的納米微粒進行加熱,癌變組織也因此被‚加熱‛,從而抑制腫瘤細胞的活性。
在加熱到 47 攝氏度以上高溫時,病人體內直徑小於 5 釐米的腫瘤可以被‚粉
碎‛;美國賴斯大學則設計製造出可尋找和殺死惡性腫瘤細胞的鍍金納米子彈,
可被注射到血管中,順著血流探尋和發現癌細胞。再用近紅外線照射,使納米子
      ,         。                 ,
彈開始升溫 導致癌細胞被熱死 對無法進行手術切除的惡性腫瘤來說 定點‚爆
破‛可能是最有效的武器,發展前景十分樂觀。
  日本科學家也實現冺用納米顆粒對體內器官給藥,冺用電流脈衝將基因或
蛋白質插入表面‚印‛有蛋白質‚地址‛的納米顆粒,將其注射到實驗鼠體內,
使顆粒有效抵達肝臟細胞並釋放所攜基因。這種新技術有望用來為肝臟運送基因
或藥物,在應用對症的基因或藥物治療各種肝病時發揮作用。
  美國佛卲尼亞大學用比發絲還細 1000 倍的血液纖維蛋白原研製出最終可被
人體自然降解的納米止血繃帶,不僅能快速止血,還能促進傷口自然癒合。現已
製造出各種尺寸的止血繃帶,小到劃傷,大到槍傷,都有望一貼見效。
  美國德克薩斯大學則用碳納米管拉制出長達 100 米,韌性是蜘蛛絲的 4 倍,
鋼絲的 20 倍的可導電碳納米管超強合成纖維,進而織出了碳納米管布料。這一
新發展向冺用碳納米管紡線織布,裁剪縫製出可充當電池和感測器的‚聰明‛服
邁出了一大步。
  危險不容忽視安全提上日程
  在全球納米研究不斷升溫的同時,有專家提醒,不能忽視納米技術發展可
能出現的負效應。
  今年 3 月,科學家在美國化學會年會上報告了納米顆粒對生物可能產生的
  。            ,
危害 紐約繫切斯特大學發現 讓實驗大鼠暴露在含有直徑 20 納米的‚特氟龍‛
圕膠(聚四氟乙烯)顆粒的空氣中 15 分鐘,它們大多數在 4 小時之內死亡。而
暴露在直徑 120 納米顆粒中的對照組則安然無恙。杜邦公司和約翰遜孙航中心也
發現,吸入單層碳納米管能導致實驗動物肺部產生肉芽瘤,而肉芽瘤是肺結核病


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的典型特徵。
  影響最大的呼聲是綠色和帄組織委託英國帝國理工學院所作的報告《未來
的技術,今天的選擇》  。報告歸納了近期對納米技術可能危害的分析,指出納米
粒子及納米產品可能包含科學家還未充分瞭解的全新污染物。
  但目前對納米材料安全性的研究還處在非常早期的階段,一些國家政府或
科學管理部門對納米技術的安全問題開始表示關注:英國政府要求皇家學會評估
納米技術的安全問題,美國國會也在討論納米技術管制法案,美國國家自然科學
基金會已撥出 200 萬美元資助科學家對納米技術的社會後果進行研究,美國環保
署今年也得到了 600 萬美元專項經費,用以研究納米材料對環境的影響。《自然》
雜誌則呼籲科學家坦誠參與爭論,不要重蹈轉基因作物的覆轍。
http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003123120561878&CurrentP
age=1


強酸促進納米纖維管的生產

2003/12/21
    美國賴斯大學的研究者提出了一種新的技術,可由單壁碳納米管製造連續
的纖維。科學家們相信這一方法克服了工業上由納米管製造宏觀尺度物體的困
難。
   ‚為了生產由納米管組成的大塊物體,化學反應過程中必頇用一種液體,
它可以溶解高濃度的原質管,‛賴斯大學的 Matteo Pasquali 說。‚基於我們的
發現,我們相信,強酸可以用來生產由納米管組成的宏觀尺度的纖維和薄片,所
用的方法與已被化學工業中廣泛應用的方法非常相似。‛
   為了實現這一技術,研究者們把單壁碳納米管溶解在一種強酸──102%硫
酸中。這一混合過程至少需要三天時間。這樣,他們制得了包含高達 10%碳納米
管(質量比)的溶液,這一濃度是用多聚添加劑或洗滌劑方法所得濃度的十多倍。
    ‚隨著濃度(納米管的)的增加,納米管首先自排列成義大冺麵條式的絞
線,而最終它們形成填滿液體的晶體,這種晶體可以進一步加工成纖維。‛
Pasquali 說。
    科學家們發現,含 4%(質量比)納米管的溶液在醚中急冷,過濾可製成一
種 300-1000 納米厚的錯綜複雜的‚超繩‛組成的‚富勒烯狀紙‛。納米管整齊
排列在這些‚超繩‛裏邊,但這些‚超繩‛是彼此無序的。
    在有少量水存在時,液晶相的納米管溶液分散成針狀的絞線,這些線中包
含高度有序排列的單壁碳納米管。這些絞線大約 20 微米長,直徑大概 0.5-1 微
米。科學家們稱這種結構為‚灰背西鯡‛,因為這些納米管自組裝成一種特殊的
‚魚‛。
  在無水條件下,研究者只要通過注射器針頭把分散體擠壓到醚溶液中,便
能夠把把這些液晶相的物質加工成由純納米管組成的高度有序排列的纖維,而不


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用任何表面活性劑或多聚物。詳盡內容見《高分子》
http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003122119004742&CurrentP
age=1


Nanowires offer low-loss connection

19 December 2003
    Low-loss silica nanowires that can guide light around tight corners
have been fabricated by a team from the US, China and Japan. The
researchers from the University of Harvard, Zhejiang University and
Tohoku University say that their wires are promising for building future
microphotonic devices (Nature 426 816).
     Eric Mazur’s group at Harvard transforms silica optical fibre into
a nanowire by a two-stage drawing method. First a flame heated fibre is
drawn into a 1 micron wide wire. This is then wound around a heated sapphire
taper to create wires as small as 50 nm in diameter and up to several tens
of millimetres long.
    Although silica nanowires with diameters ranging from ten to several
hundred nanometres have been made in the past by other methods, their
optical performance has been limited. This is largely due to the roughness
of the wires’ sidewalls and undesirable fluctuations in their width.
     In contrast, the latest design of wire reported in this week’s Nature
is very smooth and offers an optical loss of less than 0.1 dB/mm for either
visible and infrared light.
     They are also very strong and flexible. For example, the team has
twisted them together and tied them into knots and a 280 nm wide wire was
bent into a radius of 2.7 micron without breaking. Fracture tests show
that wires have a typical tensile strength of 5.5 GPa.
     As a result, the wires could be ideal for making low-loss tight bends
on some kind of miniature optical circuit. Calculations suggest that a
450 nm diameter wire could route red light around a 90 deg bend (5 micron
radius) with a bending loss of just 0.3 dB.
     ‚The wire is very promising in many areas, where larger-width
optical waveguides are currently used, such as microphotonic devices for
optical communication and optical sensing,‛ explained Limin Tong who is
currently working in Mazur’s group. ‚Our nanowires could lead to smaller
device sizes and or higher performance.‛
http://www.nanotechweb.org/articles/news/2/12/11/1


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納米絲可提供低損耗連接

2003/12/29
    一個來自美國、中國和日本的小組製備出了能小角度導光的低損耗矽納米
絲。這些來自哈佛大學、浙江大學和 Tohoku 大學的研究者們稱他們的納米絲在
製造未來的微光子設備中很有前途。
    Eric Mazur 領導的哈佛小組用一個兩步拉伸法把矽光纖變成納米絲。首
先,將一根火焰加熱的光纖拉成一根一微米寬的絲;然後再把它繞到一個加熱了
的藍寶石錐上,就可得到直徑小達 50 納米長達幾十毫米的絲。
  雖然過去用其他方法也做出了直徑從十個到幾百個納米的矽納米絲,但它
們的光學性能受到限制。這主要是由於這些絲的壁不帄整以及寬度有貣伏。
  相反,本周的 Nature 上報道的最新的絲的是非常帄滑的並且對可見光和紅
外光都可提供小於 0.1 dB/mm 的光學損耗。
   而且,它們是很強韌的。例如,研究者們把它們扭在一貣,把它們打成結,
一根 280 納米寬的絲被以 2.7 微米為半徑彎曲而不折斷。斷裂詴驗顯示這些絲
的抗張強度約為 5.5 Gpa。
   因此,這種絲可能是製造某些微型光學回路的理想材料。計算表明,一根
直徑為 450 納米的絲可使紅光轉一個 90 度的彎(半徑為 5 微米)而曲折損耗僅
為 0.3 dB。
    ‚這種絲在很多領域都很有前途,例如用於光通信和光傳感的微光子設
備,在這些領域目前使用的都是直徑較大的光學波導。‛目前正在 Mazur 的小
組工作的 Limin Tong 說,‚我們的納米絲可實現更小的設備尺寸和/或更高的
性能。‛
http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003122916534032&CurrentP
age=1


Argonne researchers explore confinement of light with metal
nanoparticles

23-Dec-2003
     Optical engineering has had a tremendous impact on our everyday lives,
providing us with fiber optic communications and optical data storage.
However, manipulating light on the nanoscale level can be a Herculean task,
since the nanoscale level is so incredibly tiny – less than one tenth
the wavelength of light.
    Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory are making strides
towards understanding and manipulating light at the nanoscale by using


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the unusual optical properties of metal nanoparticles, opening the door
to microscopic-sized devices such as optical circuits and switches.
     Metal nanoparticles, such as extremely tiny spheres of silver or gold,
can concentrate large amounts light energy at their surfaces. The light
energy confined near the surface is known as the near-field, whereas
ordinary light is known as far-field. Many scientists believe that by
understanding how to manipulate near-field light, new optical devices
could be built at dimensions far smaller than is currently possible. In
an effort to characterize near-field behavior, a joint experimental and
theoretical study published in the Dec. 25 edition of the Journal of
Physical Chemistry B, used powerful high-resolution imaging and modeling
techniques to detail how light is localized and scattered by metal
nanoparticles.
    Current technologies, such as high speed computers and internet
routers, rely heavily on electrons flowing through wires in order to
function. However, with the ever increasing demand for higher data rates
and smaller sizes, the complexity of electrical circuits becomes
untenable. According to experimental team leader Gary Wiederrecht, this
challenge can be overcome by replacing electrons with photons (units of
light), since the wave-like character of photons would reduce obstacles
such as heat and friction within a given system. "In a nutshell, photons
move faster than electrons," said Wiederrecht. "They are a highly
efficient power source just waiting to be harnessed."
     "Using experimental and theoretical approaches, we were able to
observe the interaction of light with the surfaces of the metal
nanoparticles. We hope that this study will lead to the creation of optical
technologies that can manipulate light with precision at nanoscale
dimensions," explained lead theoretician Stephen Gray.
     To obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the near-field, the
Argonne researchers used an advanced technique imaging technique known
as near-field scanning optical microscopy. The nanoparticles, with
diameters as small as 25 nanometers, were placed on a prism and illuminated
with laser light, forming a near-field that was detectable with near-field
scanning optical microscopy by a nanoscale probe positioned close to the
sample's surface. Optical scattering experiments were performed on
isolated metal nanoparticles and arrays of metal nanoparticles. Electron
beam lithography was used to uniformly place nanoparticles within 100
nanometers from one another. Using a special experimental setup, the team


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was able to explicitly map the near-field light intensity onto the
three-dimensional topography of the metal nanoparticle arrays.
     Experimental results yielded a number of valuable findings regarding
the character of the near-field. The researchers found that an isolated
nanoparticle would scatter light at a 20-degree angle from the prism
surface. Furthermore, the researchers found that arrays of nanoparticles
scatter light at much smaller angles, an encouraging result for using
near-field photons in two dimensional devices such as optical chips. All
findings were validated using computational and theoretical methods, and
together, they provide specific information as to how near-fields can be
used to guide light.
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-12/dnl-are122303.php


納米電池在南京問世

2003/12/30 北京新浪網
    【來稿】 本報訊 (通訊員 繫靜 記者 王琦) 昨日,日本國家物質材料研
究所主任研究員、南京大學高級訪問教授葉金花博士在寧作了《光催化材料在能
源轉換和環境淨化中的應用及日本的最新研究動態》的講演。葉博士在會上提出
了直接冺用太陽能來解決能源的枯竭和地球環境污染等問題的新能源觀點。
    為有效冺用無窮無盡的潔淨能源───太陽能,模仿自然界植物的光合成
作用原理,開發出人工光合成材料技術一直被稱為‚21 世紀夢的技術‛。據了
解,舉辦本次特冸講演會的東道主、南大環境材料與再生能源研究中心,冺用納
米高效光催化劑技術首次在世界上研制成功光合成模擬型太陽能電池,具有廣泛
的實用化前景。
http://news.sina.com.tw/articles/11/60/65/11606538.html?/tech/2003123
0.html


Solar power research looks to nanotechnology

22 December 2003, SolarAccess.com
     Dr. Kelley wants to make solar cells less expensive by finding
materials to replace silicon, which is the current standard but is costly
as both a raw material and due to the steps required to remove impurities.
     Construction of inexpensive, high-efficiency solar cells using
nanoparticles of alternative semiconductors may be years away, but the
technology holds tremendous promise. Kelley is currently studying the
very fast, initial processes that follows the absorption of light in


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several types of alternative semiconductors - often know as minority
carrier lifetime. Absorption of light produces free electrons in the
semiconductors, and he and his research group make measurements to
determine the fate of these electrons. The longer the semiconductors are
active due to the burst of light, the more energy is created. They use
time-resolved ultrafast absorption or emission spectroscopy to determine
the dynamics of electron trapping and interfacial electron transfer.
These measurements are made on nanoparticles of what are now still unusual
materials: gallium selenide and indium selenide. The nanoparticles are
very small crystals of these semiconductors, typically a fraction of a
millionth of an inch across.
http://www.nanoforum.org/index.php?action=showcomplete&scc=news&scid=
429&code=97416ac0f58056947e2eb5d5d253d4f2&userid=102914&wb=034250&


Nanomat 研製納米滑石和納米碳酸鈣

2003 年 12 月 26 日
     總部設在美國賓夕法尼亞州的 Nanomat 公司是一家有影響的低成本生產納
米礦物材料的廠家,產品規格齊全,適合多用戶需求。其新成立一家全資子公司
NanovaLLC,主要從事用於油漆、塗料、圕膠、紙張、粘接材料、密封材料、化
妝品、電線電纜和醫藥保健品的納米滑石和納米碳酸鈣的進一步研發和產業化。
    納米礦物材料之所以重要是因為它們的使用性能優異。它們強度和韌性特
好,抗磨損和腐蝕,化學活性非常大。在大多數情況下,納米礦物材料與相應的
傳統礦物材料相比,由於其優越的化學、物理和機械性能,所以應用效果更佳。
該公司所生產納米礦物材料顆粒大小在 50~200nm 範圍內,具有良好的物理特性
和性能。
http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003122617191413&CurrentP
age=1


M-BENZ 創新納米微粒塗裝技術

2003 年 12 月 26 日
     經過四年的研發,M-BENZ 于 2003 年底成功發展出一種新的透明塗料於,遠
較傳統塗料更為耐用並具有更強的防刮效果。E、S、CL、SL 和 SLK 系列將是世
界上最先使用這種塗料的車款,M-BENZ 的車款將於 2004 年春天開始使用這種具
有特殊防刮性質的最新納米塗料。 這項新研發的透明塗料包含陶瓷微粒,在塗
漆硬化時可形成廣泛的交錯連結網路,經過這種塗料處理後的汽車,更能有效防
止機械洗車的刮傷。這種納米微粒塗料可提供三層防刮保護並能長時間的維持亮


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度﹔經過在實驗室的洗車測詴,M-BENZ 工程師發現新的納米塗料較傳統烤漆可
增加約 40%的亮度。
  工程師也將納米微粒的塗裝在實驗室和日常生活可能發生的情況下做更廣
泛與長時間的測詴。實驗證明經過數年的使用之後,超過 150 輛以納米微粒塗裝
的實驗車能夠較傳統塗裝的車輛表現出更佳的防刮保護和亮度﹔同時這種新研
發的塗料也能滿足 M-BENZ 對於化學製品在環境保護方面的嚴格要求。
  卓越的納米科技已經允許將細小的陶瓷微粒—其微粒的長度小於百萬分之
一公釐—整合在塗裝漆料接著的分子結構中,這些微粒懸浮於第一層液體塗層,
在漆料風乾的過程中交錯連結,並在漆料表面互相連結形成濃稠的與帄滑的網路
結構。如此一來,便可在漆料的表面形成一層保護層,使新的納米微粒塗裝能較
傳統塗裝擁有更加的防刮性。
  此項新科技的效果乃是產生於在實驗室中以 DIN 標準執行的洗車測詴結
果。用來測詴的水含有被精確計算過的細小微粒,並且在清洗車輛時,由旋轉的
洗車刷將其均勻分佈于塗裝上,且無產生刮痕。
  M-BENZ 是世界上第一個提供此一擁有更強化防刮保護之透明塗料的車廠。
納米微粒塗裝將成為納米科技在未來具有無可限量潛力的先期指標,而技術已經
可以讓科學家進入並改變物質的原子排列結構﹔納米科技也可能賦予物質在汽
車發展與其他領域其他新的特性,允許它們具有特冸的功用。
    納米科技一詞來自于希臘文’nanos’,譯為‚dwarf‛矮小之物。科學家
通常使用這個詞來描述十億分之一的單位,一個納米長度相當於一公尺的十億分
之一。 ( 科技之光 )
http://www.gznano.org/News/Content.asp?Id=012003122617363538&CurrentP
age=1


Semiconducting nanotubes show high mobility

16 December 2003
     Scientists at the University of Maryland, US, have found that
semiconducting carbon nanotubes have a mobility higher than that of any
known material at room temperature. The researchers believe the nanotubes
hold great promise for replacing conventional semiconductor materials in
applications such as computer chips and biochemical sensors.
     ‚This is the first measurement of the intrinsic conduction
properties of semiconducting nanotubes,‛ said Michael Fuhrer of Maryland
University. ‚It is an important step forward in efforts to develop
nanotubes into the building blocks of a new generation of smaller, more
powerful electronics.‛
    To measure the properties of the nanotubes the researchers grew tubes


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at least 300 microns long onto catalyst iron nanoparticles on a silicon
substrate. The technique resulted in about 5 to 10 nanotubes more than
100 microns long per square millimetre, and around 30 short (about 5
microns long) nanotubes over an area of 100 square microns. The scientists
contacted some of the long nanotubes with chromium/gold contacts
deposited by electron-beam lithography. Then they carried out electrical
measurements by applying drain and gate voltages relative to the source
electrode.
     The nanotubes exhibited p-type behaviour, and one of the devices had
a field-effect mobility of 79,000 sq. cm/Vs at 300 K, a value 70 times
that of silicon. The scientists estimated the intrinsic mobility of the
nanotubes at more than 100,000 sq. cm/Vs at room temperature - almost 25%
higher than any previous semiconducting material.
     ‚Many challenges remain before nanotubes can be used instead of
silicon in computer chips,‛ said Fuhrer. ‚The contact resistance
between nanotube and metal electrodes must be controlled, nanotube
batches must be prepared that contain only semiconducting nanotubes, and
nanotubes must be placed with precision on substrates.‛ That said, Fuhrer
believes that significant progress is taking place in all these areas and
the challenges do not seem insurmountable.
    The researchers reported their work in Nano Letters.
http://www.nanotechweb.org/articles/news/2/12/9/1


Nanotechnology sees payoff in consumer markets

Dec. 22, 2003 BY DEAN TAKAHASHI,Knight Ridder Newspapers
     SAN JOSE, Calif. - (KRT) - For Donn Tice, the path to the new world
of nanotechnology leads through the old world of apparel manufacturing.
     Nano-Tex's chief executive officer has traveled the globe this year
selling his Emeryville, Calif., company's nanotechnology chemical
formula that makes fabrics stain-resistant. As he toured a massive textile
mill in China's Jiansu province recently, a guide pointed to a building
and said, "That's the small dormitory where they have 40,000 workers."
     "I kept thinking, `I'd like to see the big dormitory,' " Tice said.
     Nano-Tex's Nano-Care product is more than just a coating that repels
stains. It changes the fabric itself on a molecular level, embedding it
with tiny, floppy, hair-like fibers that themselves are attached to a
common spine. Just as hair keeps rain from penetrating a dog's coat, the


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"nano whiskers" in Nano-Care's chemical mix keeps stains from soaking into
clothing. Spill a glass of Merlot on a white blouse made with Nano-Care
and the wine beads up into harmless blobs.
    Nano-Tex has become something of a nanotech poster child, a
relatively rare case of a company that is making real money on
nanotechnology, not just dreaming about it.
    Nanotechnology involves the manufacturing of materials molecule by
molecule on the scale of the nanometer, or a billionth of a meter. While
the world has been waiting for nanocomputers or products that
automatically assemble themselves atom by atom, nanotechnology's early
payoff has been in consumer markets.
     L'Oreal inserts nano capsules in its lotions to deliver tiny bits
of moisturizer deeper into the skin. General Motors has fashioned stronger
running boards and fenders using nano materials. Babolat in France has
marketed tennis rackets made with carbon nanotubes, which are tiny tubes
of carbon that can be 100 times stronger than steel.
    One sign of the technology's economic potential: President Bush this
month signed a bill authorizing $3.7 billion in federal funding for
nanotechnology research at government labs, universities and private
companies.
     Even in the post dot-com era, nanotechnology still inspires a huge
amount of hype, prompting predictions of such things as microscopic
"nanobots" injected into the blood stream to attack disease, or
titanium-strength building materials the width of a sheet of paper.
     "What this method of manufacturing amounts to is Star Trek," said
Jim Walker, an analyst for market researcher Gartner Dataquest in San Jose,
Calif. "When Captain Kirk says, `Beam me up Scotty,' a machine takes him
apart atom by atom and builds him back again. That's what nanotechnology
is about, taking building blocks of chemistry and forming something new.
That's why people get excited about it."
     For nanotechnology proponents, the early payoffs in stain-resistant
Levi's and nanotech tennis rackets are just the low-hanging fruit of a
technology that only a few years ago seemed like science fiction.
     "It's just the tip of the iceberg," said Stan Williams, a
nanotechnology researcher and fellow at Hewlett-Packard. "The fact that
these things are happening now as commercial ventures is a vindication
of what we've been saying for years. I keep telling people that
nanotechnology won't happen in a nanosecond. But three years ago I never


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would have imagined that we would be where we are now."
    On the other hand, some would argue that Nano-Tex's brand of
nanotechnology, which assembles a tiny but simple structure at the
nanometer scale but doesn't create any complex devices at that level,
isn't really nanotechnology.
    "It's really just better chemistry," said Robert Morris, director
of the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose. "It doesn't mean that
nanocomputers are just around the corner."
    Nano-Care inventor David Soane counters that Nano-Tex really has
created a nanotechnology product because the company designed its
chemicals to assemble themselves into precise structures on a molecular
level. "There really is an art to it," said Soane, who serves as Nano-Tex's
chairman.
     On a business level, it's irrelevant whether Nano-Care is "true"
nanotechnology. In just a couple of years, Nano-Tex has licensed Nano-Care
to about 50 apparel companies. Sprayed onto jeans, it is the stuff that
makes clothes sold by Levi's, Eddie Bauer, GAP and Old Navy stain
resistant.
     The company's researchers work from an old red brick building in
Emeryville. In a lab that sports presses, curing machines, and industrial
strength washers and dryers, they develop new nanotechnology
applications.
     Soane, a biotech entrepreneur and former professor of chemical
engineering at the University of California-Berkeley, created a way to
stain-proof clothes by accident while experimenting with nanotechnology.
He had started a biotech company to capitalize on his work but Thomas Haas,
a Levi Strauss executive who invested in the company, steered him toward
apparel.
     "We were just shooting the breeze about biotech, and he brought up
apparel," Soane said. "I showed him a denim cloth where water was beading
up. He said he had never seen that before."
     He obtained initial funding from Levi's in 1998 for a start-up that
became Nan-Tex but the clothing company subsequently lost interest in the
technology. Soane pitched the idea to George Henderson, then CEO of
apparel maker Burlington Industries. Henderson liked the idea and by 1999
Burlington had invested $5 million to buy control of Soane's fledgling
company.
    In the lab, Soane's nanotech chemical could be pressed into a fabric,


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baked, washed and tested. The process was compatible with the way that
textile mills made clothing, so it was painless for companies to adopt
Nano-Care. Still, it took a year to perfect the nano whiskers so that they
would attach to fabric in water.
     In December 2000, the Nano-Tex announced its first licensee: Galey
& Lord, a textile and apparel manufacturer that makes clothing for the
Eddie Bauer brand. More deals materialized as Nano-Tex expanded from
cotton to nylon and other fabrics.
     Rebecca Weill, a spokeswoman for The Gap, said customers love the
stain-proof khakis and men's shirts that use Nano-Care. And Gap executives
like it because the feel of the clothing is unchanged.
    "We weren't willing to sacrifice style so we think it's great," said
Weill.
    But the deals didn't come in time to save Burlington Industries, the
Greensboro, N.C. company that had once employed 80,000 workers.
Burlington filed for bankruptcy protection in November 2001. Industrial
conglomerate W.L. Ross & Co. purchased Burlington, which has shrunk to
about 5,000 employees, for $614 million in October.
     Tice, a veteran of the apparel and entertainment industries, replaced
Henderson as CEO in early 2003. Tice says Nano-Tex is breaking even and
is generating revenues in the millions from license fees.
     The company earns anywhere from 25 cents to a dollar for every yard
of fabric that it coats. Nano-Tex plans to expand into new markets, such
as stain-proof mattresses, boat covers, and hotel bedding.
     Each item of Nano-Care apparel comes with a tag that explains the
product. As such, Nano-Tex hopes to brand its technology in the same way
that W.L. Gore Associates has done with its versatile Gore-Tex fabric.
     "It took them decades to build their brand awareness," said Tice.
"We hope to do it in much less time."
http://www.centredaily.com/mld/centredaily/news/7548913.htm


Through thick and thin

PAIR'S WORK HAS MADE HP A LEADER IN NANOTECHNOLOGY
Dec. 24, 2003 By Therese Poletti, Mercury News
    Hewlett-Packard molecular scientist Stan Williams, left, and
computer architect Phil Kuekes stand in front of an image of wires that
are two nanometers wide.

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     In September 2002, Hewlett-Packard's lead molecular scientist, Stan
Williams, announced at a conference in Stockholm that the company had
developed a molecular memory chip one square micron in size -- and the
process to manufacture it.
     One micron is so tiny that more than a thousand of the circuits in
the memory chip could fit on the end of a strand of human hair.
     The news marked a big validation of the nanotechnology research that
Williams and HP computer architect Phil Kuekes first started in 1996 at
HP Labs. The tiny device they and their team created has more than 10 times
the switches in current memory chips. And this was just a precursor of
even smaller circuits, which if mass produced, will give HP a major
advantage in making vastly more powerful, less costly devices.
     HP may not be known for its semiconductor prowess, but Williams and
Kuekes' work in molecular electronics has made the Palo Alto computing
and printing giant a leader in nanotechnology. One nanometer is about
1/1000 the size of a cell or 100,000 times thinner than a human hair.
    Williams and his team of 30 work in a building that houses the
preserved offices of HP founders Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard. In these
hallowed halls they are researching ways to make computer chips at the
atomic level, smaller than a bacteria or a virus.
    If they succeed in their mission, HP could begin deploying a new
manufacturing technique within the next three to five years. This
technique allows an entire wafer of circuits to be stamped out quickly
and cheaply from a master mold.
    By the end of the decade, HP hopes to make molecular circuits a million
times smaller than the memory chip Williams demonstrated last year. That
could lead to devices as tiny as a clothing fiber containing billions of
circuits capable of storing massive quantities of music, movies and other
data.
     ``We believe that by giving this fundamental manufacturing
technology to the HP divisions, we are essentially increasing the choices
that HP will have in the future to get into interesting businesses,'' said
Kuekes.
     The HP team, along with many other nanotechnology researchers, are
seeking to extend the life of Moore's Law, the industry's dictum on chip
design first observed by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore more than 30 years
ago. Moore's Law holds that semiconductors double the number of
transistors and increase their computer power every 18 to 24 months. But


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within the next decade or so, current manufacturing tools to make silicon
wafers are expected to reach their physical limits. At that point, it won't
be possible to keep shrinking transistors and increasing computing power.
     Many nanotechnology researchers, including IBM, academics and
several start-ups, are trying to make circuits from molecules. But the
group at Hewlett-Packard has made some of the biggest advances so far.
     ``Stan Williams and Phil and the whole team, they are the leaders
in molecular electronics,'' said Meyya Meyyappan, director of
nanotechnology for NASA's Ames Research Center in Mountain View. ``They
do extraordinary work.''
     HP recruited Williams, now 53, while he was a chemistry professor
at the University of California-Los Angeles. In 1995, Packard started up
a group at HP Labs that only would conduct basic research.
     ``Most large companies were cutting back on their basic research,''
said Williams, who was interviewed briefly by Packard to lead the team.
``He said if everyone else is getting out of it, it must be the right time
to get into it.''
     Williams said that speaking with Packard was the deal-clincher for
him as he debated whether to join HP or stay in shelter of academia.
     ``We called it the Quantum Research Initiative,'' he said. ``We
didn't like the word nanotechnology. At that point in time, nanotechnology
was really viewed as the realm of kooks.'' With a slight smile, Williams
added that in fact nanotech is still viewed by some as a realm of kooks.
     Williams and his team received another boost when Carly Fiorina
joined HP in 1999 and re-emphasized the company's commitment to research.
     Williams says he came to California to escape the late '70s disco
scene that dominated social life in New Jersey, where he was working at
Bells Labs.
     ``I am not exactly a disco maniac,'' said Williams, who typically
wears blue jeans and has a long pony tail.
     While Williams was putting his HP team together, a tall computer
architect knocked on Williams' cubicle one day in 1996. The architect was
Kuekes, who had developed massively parallel processing supercomputers
and who describes himself as a ``victim of Moore's law,'' always trying
to add more transistors to a chip. He had just finished working on the
Teramac, a prototype HP computer that performed a trillion operations per
second.
    A key discovery from the Teramac, he told Williams, was that a


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computer could operate efficiently with a small percentage of defective
chips.
    ``Everything I knew about computer chips was that they had to be
absolutely perfect, and if they weren't perfect, they were thrown away,''
Williams said. ``Then all of a sudden this guy who bills himself as a
computer architect shows up and started telling me about this crazy
machine that he had designed and built, and by the way, it has 220,000
broken pieces and it still worked perfectly. Phil came in with what I felt
was the missing piece of nanoelectronics.''
     Kuekes says that every computer chip has some defects. They built
the Teramac anyway and later wrote programs to test for errors, which they
planned to fix by either adding new circuits or software.
     That enabled Williams to realize they could make circuits out of
molecules. Williams knew that by making circuitry at the atomic level,
where nothing stays still, there were bound to be imperfections, which
he thought was a major roadblock. Now the team could accept imperfections
in the moving parts, and the circuitry hopefully would still work.
     Kuekes, now 56, joined the team, which already featured a cast of
characters that ranged from synthetic chemists to theoretical physicists
to materials scientists.
    ``HP is absolutely a leader in the field of nanotechnology,'' said
Steve Jurvetson, a principal at the venture capital firm Draper Fisher
Jurvetson and a big nanotech investor. ``Stan and Phil's work is
fundamental and quite exciting.''
    Williams said his team is really working to develop manufacturing
techniques, which will be passed on to HP product lines.
    He said there won't be any kind of ``nanotech inside'' label on HP
products. But he said, ``In the next five to 10 years, there could be new
products based on our technology.''
http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/business/7563605.htm


Entering the Nano-Age?

12/23/2003 By Glenn Reynolds Published
    Last week, I wrote about the EPA Science Advisory Board meeting where
nanotechnology was discussed. I learned a lot of interesting things there,
but one of the things that I learned is that, even for people like me who
try to keep up, the pace of nanotechnology research is moving much too


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fast to catch everything.
     One of the documents distributed at that meeting was a supplement
to the President's 2004 budget request, entitled National Nanotechnology
Initiative: Research and Development Supporting the Next Industrial
Revolution. I expected it to be the usual bureaucratic pap, but in fact,
it turned out to contain a lot of actual useful information, including
reports of several nanotechnology developments that I had missed.
     The most interesting, to me, was the report of "peptide nanotubes
that kill bacteria by punching holes in the bacteria's membrane." You
might think of these as a sort of mechanical antibiotic. As the report
notes, "By controlling the type of peptides used to build the rings,
scientists are able to design nanotubes that selectively perforate
bacterial membranes without harming the cells of the host." It goes on
to note that "In theory, these nano-bio agents should be far less prone
than existing antibiotics to the development of bacterial resistance."
What's more, if such resistance appears it is likely to be easier to
counter. Given the way in which resistance to conventional antibiotics
has exploded, this is awfully good news.
     Another item involved the use of nanoscale particles of metallic iron
to clean up contaminated groundwater. In one experiment, aimed at the
contaminant trichloroethylene (TCE), the results were quite impressive:
"The researchers carried out a field demonstration at an industrial site
in which nanoparticles injected into a groundwater plume containing TCE
reduced contaminant levels by up to 96%." The report goes on to observe
that " A wide variety of contaminants (including chlorinated hydrocarbons,
pesticides, explosives, polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate) have
been successfully broken down in both laboratory and field tests." This
sounds promising.
     There are also fascinating items on the development of nano-sensors
capable of identifying particular microbes or chemicals, of nano-motors,
and of dramatic advances in materials. And this raises a couple of
interesting points.
     The first is that it's possible for a technology to have revolutionary
impacts long before it reaches its maturity. The impact of high- strength
materials, for example, is likely to be much greater than people generally
realize. Materials science isn't sexy the way that, say, robots are sexy,
but when you can cut the weight, or boost the strength, of aircraft, or
spacecraft, or even automobiles by a factor of ten or fifty, the


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consequences are enormous. Ditto for killing germs, or even detecting them
in short order. These sorts of things aren't as exciting as true molecular
nanotechnology, and they're not as revolutionary. But they're still
awfully important, and awfully revolutionary, by comparison with
everything else.
     Up to now, talk of nanotechnology has generally involved either the
"fake" variety (stain-resistant pants) or the "spooky" variety
(full-scale molecular nanotechnology, with all it implies). But as what
might be called mid-level nanotechnology -- neither fake nor spooky --
begins to be deployed, it's likely to have a substantial effect on the
nature of the debate. It's one thing to worry about (fictitious) swarms
of predatory nanobots, a la Michael Crichton's novel Prey. It's another
to talk about nanotech bans or moratoria when nanotechnology is already
at work curing diseases and cleaning up the environment.
     I think that will probably shift the debate away from the
nano-Luddites. But, on the other hand, as nanotechnology looks more
quotidian, it may also short-circuit serious discussion of its
implications. I think that the nanotech business community is actually
hoping for such an outcome, in fact, but I continue to believe that such
hopes are shortsighted. Genetically modified foods, for example, came to
the market with the same absence of discussion, but the result wasn't so
great for the industry. Will nanotechnology be different? Stay tuned.
http://www.techcentralstation.com/122303C.html


【亞太新聞】
HITACHI SET TO PLANT ITS OWN 'NANOSTAMP' ON THE MEDICAL
MARKET

December 30, 2003 By Paul Kallender, Small Times Correspondent




                           Hitachi uses a silicon ‚stamp‛ to produce
                      long, thin "nanopillars."


      TOKYO, Dec. 30, 2003 – Hitachi's Advanced Research Laboratory (ARL)
is getting ready to commercialize a low-cost "nanostamp" technology for


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medical applications.
     Hitachi’s process creates "nanopillars" with extremely high aspect
ratios (narrow relative to height), a feature that the company believes
will prove useful for biochips and other applications, according to
Akihiro Miyauchi, a senior researcher at Hitachi.
     The technology uses a silicon ‚stamp‛ that presses onto a
polystyrene-based polymer film, producing nanopillars that are extremely
long and thin, about 3 microns in height. Right now, ARL is concentrating
on making two versions of the nanopillars: one that is 250 nanometers in
diameter and another that's 80 nanometers.
     ‚With the 80-nanometer-diameter nanopillars, we are already
producing pillars that are smaller than the current (90 nanometer)
semiconductor process node by Intel or Fujitsu, for example, but we can
easily go smaller because we have a very simple and very cheap process;
it’s just press and release,‛ Miyauchi said.
     He did not say how much smaller ARL plans to make the nanopillars,
but he did say the process already works out to be much more cost-effective
than semiconductor lithography processes. ‚Our process doesn’t need
lithography equipment or dry etching machines and we avoid the high fixed
costs of these processes. Our process is about 90 percent cheaper than
a semiconductor process might be.‛
    Neil Gordon, a partner at nanotech consultancy Sygertech and
president of the Canadian NanoBusiness Alliance, said that with a new
generation of highly specialized sub-100-nanometer devices on the radar
screen, there is increasing interest in new techniques for producing
unique nanopatterns. He said Hitachi's technology could be "very
interesting for certain applications such as ultrasensitive detectors."
     Researchers and ventures in the United States and Europe are pushing
ahead with their own nanostamping technologies, including the Austin,
Texas-based startup Molecular Imprints Inc. and Nanonex Inc. in Monmouth
Junction, N.J.
     Hitachi’s key advantage is the high aspect ratios, which hit about
12:1 for the 250 nanometer pillars and 40:1 for the 80 nanometer ones.
These ratios are useful for ARL's first major target application, biochips
used in drug discovery.
    Miyauchi said that the only other technology that comes close to
Hitachi's in terms of size is Princeton University's Laser-Assisted
Direct Imprint technique, which can produce imprinted holes down to 6


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nanometers.
    Princeton, he said, is champion when it comes to size, but "the unique
point about our method is the aspect ratio.‛
    Hitachi is not alone in developing very high-aspect ratio and
market-ready process, according to Lars Samuelson, leader of the
Nanometer Consortium at Lund University in Sweden. Lund’s department
recently developed techniques to direct self-assembly of nanowhiskers,
he said.
    This nano-imprint lithography (NIL) technique can make stamps with
features of less than 20 nanometers in diameter, and ‚maybe close to 1:100
in aspect ratio or even larger when optimized,‛ Samuelson said.
    Lund is partnering with Obducat AB in Sweden, to sell NIL machines
commercially.
    Hitachi, meanwhile, is also gearing up for commercialization. Having
developed the production technology, Hitachi has created a 15-member
nanotechnology business enhancement office. Hiroshi Sonoda, senior
engineer at Hitachi’s nanotechnology planning office, said there is a
$35 million market for the application in Japan alone after full-scale
production. Hitachi said it plans to start shipping samples in the near
future.
    Gordon said that development of low-cost products is key to
applications like disposable medical tests. Hitachi, being a big
multinational company, can afford to subsidize its nanopatterning
products indefinitely, he said, giving the company "a considerable
competitive advantage over dedicated nano-imprint lithography vendors."
http://www.smalltimes.com/document_display.cfm?section_id=46&document
_id=7147


日本宣佈將建世界最大級超高速電腦運算網

2003-12-17 新華網稿件來源: 新華網
     新華網東京 12 月 16 日電(記者何德功) 日本日立製作所 15 日宣佈,該所
已與岡崎國立共同研究機構簽訂合同,為其製作連接多台電腦可進行高速運算處
理的超高速運算網系統,理論上每秒最快可達 10TERA FLOPS,屬於世界最大級。
     這一系統將由一個超級電腦系統連接 409 台電腦伺服器,中央處理器(CPU)
數量,在超級電腦系統中有 800 個,電腦伺服器系統中有 819 個,預定於 2004
年 3 月開始運轉。
    日本文部科學省正在採取措施推動 GRID 技術的發展,這一超高速電腦運算


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網系統的使用將以岡崎國立共同研究機構的分子科學研究所為中心,主要用於納
米技術研究領域。
 http://news.xinhuanet.com/st/2003-12/17/content_1236289.htm


奈米技術的最新應用研究成果

2003.12.25 ITRI Tokyo 日本前瞻研究快報
    ‧可攜式機器用小型燃料電池
    NEC 冺用 Nano carbon 開發小型燃料電池,係以酒精為燃料達成出力 2 w。
重點是電極用奈米材料的低成本生產。
  ‧CNT 的省電及耐用化
  化研〈水戶市〉開發 CNT 的節省電力及長壽命機能的技術,特徵是活用電
導性高的稀有金屬。將來可應用於次世代顯示器。
  ‧奈米切削加工技術
  信州大學纖維學部與三協精機製作所冺用奈米級切削加工技術開發有機半
導體雷射基本零件的量產技術。
  ‧Carbon nanofiber 的高密度充填技術
  東芝開發精密陶瓷的微細空隙以直徑數 nm 碳纖維材料填充並高密度成長
的技術,可應用於多孔質陶瓷或藏氫材料。


Vietnam produces nano material

2003-12-23 www.chinaview.cn
     HANOI, Dec. 23 (Xinhuanet) -- Vietnam has succeeded in making its
first nano (ultrasmall) material from several kinds of coal, local
newspaper Youth reported on Tuesday.
     Such kind of material will help the country's lucrative semiconductor
industry take shape because it can be used to produce information
technology products such as computer chips and inks, said Nguyen Chanh
Khe, director of the Research Center underthe Saigon Hi-Tech Park (SHTP).
     The SHTP and the Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology haveused
the nano material, which is made from calcium carbide, coconut fibers or
oil coal, to successfully produce printer inks.
http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2003-12/23/content_1244410.htm




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【大陸新聞】
專家呼籲應儘快建立納米產品標準

2003 年 12 月 19 日 新浪科技 作者:王小霞
     兩年前曾在市場上風潮湧動的諸多‚僞納米‛產品,攪亂了整個納米市
  。   ,                    ,
場 因此 當近日新的納米產品再度推出時 市場的質疑讓納米技術同樣無法‚正
名‛。而在整個市場質疑中‚誰來鑒定納米真僞‛的聲音最大。對此,有關專家
呼籲應儘快建立納米產品標準和檢測機構。
     真假納米之爭,企業被嚇怕了
  最近一個多月,鄂爾多斯在全國市場上投放了 30 萬件納米自清潔羊絨衫,
各城市銷售量一路飆升。在北京,有的商場日銷售量近萬件。
  但面對如此火爆的市場,鄂爾多斯內銷總公司常務副總經理杭連祥似乎高
興不貣來,因為仍有消費者對納米產品的質疑使他擔心兩年前攪亂市場的‚納
米‛風潮,會再度在羊絨衫領域席捲而來。
   ‚像我們這種水不沾、油不沾、墨不沾的羊絨衫,如果不是採用納米技術,
換件普通的能行嗎?不過,現在沒有納米產品標準和檢測機構證明,許多人心裏
難免要打問號。企業是被嚇怕了!我們真的擔心自己的產品再度陷入‘真假納
米’之爭。‛杭連祥說。
  市場亟需納米產品標準和檢測機構
  據記者瞭解,上個月在南京舉行的‚第三屆全國納米材料和技術應用會
議‛,參加人數僅為上屆的一半。一位不願意透露姓名的人士說,沒去的多數是
企業。
   ‚沒有納米相關產品標準,即使是納米產品,也會被人理解為假納米、造
概念蒙事兒,在市場很難求得發展。‛中國保健科技協會副秘書長賈亞光說。
   ‚農產品有無公害認證,環保產品有十環標識,抗菌抑菌殺菌產品都有標
識認證,惟獨納米產品沒有,羊絨衫想打上納米標識,找誰去認證?‛杭連祥憂
心忡忡。
  一年前,鄂爾多斯集團投資近兩個億和中國科學院化學研究所共同研發
‚三防‛羊絨衫,同時建立了年生產 60 萬件的生產基地。這種羊絨衫不改變羊
絨保暖、輕薄、柔軟特性,還具有防水、防油、防汙及自清潔功能。現在市面上
銷售的納米羊絨衫就是這種新產品。
  杭連祥說,‚我們希望納米權威機構聯合相關部門,制定一個指導市場的
納米產品標準,並形成相應的技術規範,由指定的權威檢測機構來執行。這樣,
我們的產品才能真正得到消費者的認可。‛
   ‚標準和檢測是分不開的,標準的落實最終體現在檢測上。在儘快出臺納
米技術標準的同時,必頇建立、完善相應的配套檢測機構和規章制度,否則,納
米標準還是懸在半空。‛中國科學院基礎局局長金鐸強調。
  正在參與我國納米科技發展綱要制定工作的中國科學院白春禮院士,也建


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議國家制定一個指導市場的納米技術標準。
  檢測標準為何遲遲不能落地?
   ‚沒有技術標準,沒有一個衡量尺度,即便你把微米級的誇大成納米級
的,冸人根本無法冹定。‛中國科學院化學所教授、國家重大科研專案 973 計劃
和納米材料與納米結構首席科學家助理江雷指出。
  在談到納米產品檢測標準為何遲遲不能落地時,江雷分析道,一是沒有納
米材料的鑒冸和認定機構,二是與納米產品相關的權威行業協會沒有迅速成立,
所以導致了目前光有呼籲沒有牽頭的現狀。
  有消費者對記者表示,‚我們需要越來越多的真正的納米產品飛進尋常百
姓家,讓我們這些小老百姓們得益。但我們不可能對每一件商品都具備鑒冸能
力。‛
   ‚倘若再不儘快出臺相關產品標準,建立國家權威檢測機構,一旦越來越
多的真納米產品被懷疑是假的,納米技術的研發將陷入孤芳自賞的尷尬境地。‛
杭連祥說。
   分析人士認為,市場越規範,產品就越需要檢測標準。納米產品的檢測標
準的出臺和檢測機構的成立,在某種程度上將會引導廠家的規範宣傳,同時也會
為工商、質檢等部門整頒市場提供依據。到時,納米產品的市場秩序也會大大淨
化。
http://www.cas.ac.cn/html/Dir/2003/12/19/8980.htm


金屬所三項成果獲遼寧省獎勵

2003 年 12 月 31 日 金屬所
     2003 年金屬所獲得遼寧省科學技術獎勵 3 項,其中‚納米碳管的製備、結
構和物性研究‛獲自然科學一等獎,同時也是本年度遼寧省唯一一項自然科學一
等獎,‚熱彈性紅外圖像安全檢測系統研製‛獲技術發明一等獎,‚新型圕膠造
粒模板的研製與應用‛獲科技進步二等獎。
    ‚納米碳管的製備、結構和物性研究‛專案採用自主創新的碳氫化合物催
化熱解法和氫電弧法控制製備單壁、雙壁和多壁納米碳管,研究它們的結構特徵
以及力學、儲氫、電化學、電磁學、場發射等性能,取得了多項首創或在國際上
領先的成果。在該專案的研發中,發表 SCI 收錄論文 37 篇,影響因數超過 3.0
的占 9 篇,被 SCI 論文共他引 606 次;出版專著《納米碳管——製備、結構、物
性及應用》  ;獲美國授權發明專冺 1 項、中國授權發明專冺 3 項,申請歐盟、中
國專冺 17 項,相關技術已顯示出較好的產業化應用前景。
    ‚熱彈性紅外圖像安全檢測系統研製‛是在國家科技部‚九五‛儀器重
點攻關專案支援下研製成功一種新型壓力容器在線無損檢測儀器。該系統主要用
於壓力容器、鍋爐、管道的在線安全檢測。在過去的實驗研究中發現了金屬構件
的應力集中區域經過一定的疲勞載荷後,對應的區域會產生明顯的表面熱發射,


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而且這種熱發射自始至終保持在工況運行過程中。基於此提出了熱彈性應力集中
係數(TESCC)的概念和疲勞損傷產生熱斑迹(HS)的概念。通過研製的熱彈性紅外
圖像安全檢測系統,可以真實地從金屬構件上採集到這種資訊,計算出它的熱彈
性應力集中係數(TESCC),從而形成一項新的應力分析和安全評估的無損檢測方
法和儀器。在今年抗‚非典‛時期,為適應大流量,快速人體測溫的要求,成功
地運用熱紅外技術,在較短的時間內完成了‚JH-E2 紅外熱成像門‛和‚JH-40C
攜帶型紅外點溫儀‛的研製工作,其中攜帶型紅外點溫儀已申報了中國專冺,為
遼寧省的抗‚非典‛工作做出了貢獻。
    ‚新型圕膠造粒模板的研製與應用‛專案屬於新材料和先進製造交叉科
學技術領域,其主要內容是採用一種高性能金屬陶瓷複合材料替代傳統的 WC-Co
硬質合金或鋼結硬質合金材料,研製開發出一種新型圕膠造粒模板並在石化企業
得到推廣應用。圕膠造粒模板是聚乙烯、聚丙烯等圕膠顆粒原料生產過程中關鍵
易損耗部件,主要由不銹鋼本體和硬質耐磨造粒帶兩部分組成。新型圕膠造粒模
板的特點是造粒帶採用了高性能 TiC-NiCr 金屬陶瓷複合材料,同時發揮了 TiC
的高硬度、良好耐磨性和 Ni-Cr 合金的耐熱、耐蝕性。造粒帶與模板本體通過真
空釺焊技術實現牢固連接。在造粒帶硬質層和模板本體之間設置了過渡層和隔熱
空腔,從而使新型造粒模板的綜合使用性能優於造粒帶採用 WC-Co 硬質合金或
TiC 系鋼結硬質合金製成的造粒模板。從 2000 年初開始,新型圕膠造粒模板先
後在北京燕化石油化工股份有限公司、南京揚子石油化工股份有限公司、河南中
原石油化工有限公司、上海金山石油化工股份有限公司、洛陽石化總廠聚丙烯廠
和新疆獨山子石化公司乙烯廠等單位應用推廣,產品主要使用性能指標已達到國
外同類產品先進水帄。由於國產新型圕膠造粒模板價格僅為進口模板的 30~
50%,而且供货周期短,售后服务方便及时,因而得到了石化企业用户的普遍好
评。
http://www.cas.ac.cn/html/Dir/2003/12/31/1306.htm


新型發光材料在漢問世 納米燈光能彎曲

2003 年 12 月 19 日
     霓虹燈絢麗多彩,但是裏面充入了汞,對環境有害,且使用壽命短。記者
從昨日召開的武漢市科技專案與中小企業現場對接會上瞭解到,一種可替代霓虹
燈的納米發光材料最近在漢研製成功。
                       ,由武大與武漢一家高科技企業聯合
     這種材料名為電致發光線(EL 冷光線)
研製。研製者在會上展示了這種材料:一卷電線般粗的發光線,接上 12 伏電壓,
立即發出強烈的紅色光(不同的線發出不同顔色的光)    。有意思的是,發光線可
隨意彎曲、裁剪,製成不同造型。
  這種發光線還有一個特點:將其中間折斷,遠離電源那一端不亮,而靠電
源那一端仍然能亮。冺用這一特點,能及時查出電纜光纜的故障點:將發光線附


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著在電纜光纜上,一旦電纜光纜折斷,可將發光線通電,很快可看到在哪一截不
亮,這個地方就是中斷點。
    與會的一些專家教授對此項發明給予高度評價。據悉,該發明已獲國家專
冺,即將在漢口西北湖廣場、漢口江灘展示。
http://www.gznano.org/news/Content.asp?Id=012003121921493486&CurrentP
age=1


打破國外壟斷 提升空調性能 納米鋁箔首次在春蘭批量生產

2003-12-26
     記者昨日從春蘭集團獲悉,填補國內空白、打破國外壟斷的‚納米有機親
水鋁箔‛首次實現批量生產。
     據介紹,這一科技成果是春蘭集團與東南大學四年‚產學攜手‛的結晶。
經專家鑒定,其防腐性和耐鹼性等指標均達到國際先進水帄。
  春蘭研究院製冷中心徐博士告訴記者,這種鋁箔成本僅為日本同類材料的
一半,在提高空調製冷效率、節能、環保、延長空調使用壽命等方面優點突出。
同時,由於其表面塗層具有自潤滑功能並耐腐蝕,因而不僅大幅度減少鋁箔沖制
時的摩擦係數,極大延長模具的使用壽命,而且能使空調器適應各種惡劣環境。
目前,春蘭空調產品包括最新推出的‚隱形‛空調系列,均應用了這一高科技成
果。
   作為世界最大的家用空調生產國、消費國和出口國,中國當前空調銷售額
占世界的1/3以上,親水鋁箔需求量達到10多萬噸。由於以前未掌握該項技
術,發達國家一直高價壟斷我國親水鋁箔市場。
   納米鋁箔
   鋁箔是空調器中換熱片的主要原料。納米鋁箔是原空調器用箔的深加工產
品,是在原素箔表面上塗上一層具有防腐性、親水性的功能性膜層。
    與普通鋁箔相比,納米鋁箔具有下述優點:                  (1)可以增強其防腐性,防黴
菌,無異味的功能;        (2)換熱片積聚表面的冷凝水均勻地分佈在表面上,不會
因為水珠形成後造成熱片間的聚集堵圔,影響熱交換條件,從而提高了熱交換率
5%;  (3)由於無水珠,相應也減少了震動造成的噪音;                     (4)可防止空調器氧
化粉末吹入室內對人體產生不冺影響,符合環保要求。
http://www.zjnm.net/infocenter/showdetail.php?nid=1146


納米光催化劑憑什麽神奇 ----關於一種空氣淨化解毒裝置的訪談

2003-12-18
     納米二氧化鈦具有光催化作用,能有效降解空氣中的有害有機物,滅殺致
病微生物,已在理論上得到證實。由此,企業界掀貣一股投資熱,形形色色冠以


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‚納米‛的光催化空氣淨化器紛紛問世,尤其在今年‚非典‛流行之後,這類產
品更是以驚人的速度進入市場。有人做過統計,目前國內生產這類產品的企業達
一百多家。
  科大創新股份有限公司也於今年上半年推出了這一產品,其核心技術是以
納米二氧化鈦為主的多組分複合納米光催化技術。11 月 13 日,安徽省科技廳主
持召開了該產品技術鑒定會,邀請國家‚973 計劃‛納米材料和納米結構首席科
學家張立德教授擔任鑒定委員會主任。
  科學對話
  張立德教授並不情願主持這類鑒定會,他說,要我參加會議可以,但研製
者必頇回答我提的 3 個問題。中國科技大學化學物理系教授范崇政是科大創新公
司多組分納米光催化技術的主創人,當然是由他來回答首席科學家的提問。於是
兩位元科學家開始了嚴肅的科學對話。
  張:納米二氧化鈦的確是有光催化活性,但是發生化學反應的速度慢,催
化效率低,你是怎樣提高催化效率的?
  範:自 1972 年二氧化鈦的光催化作用被發現以後,這項技術長期發展緩慢,
就因為這個緣故。我們做的這個光催化裝置含有十幾個組分,以納米二氧化鈦為
主,其餘組分的十幾種元素都是助劑,核心技術在於選擇助劑。這些助劑,有的
可以提高二氧化鈦的光催化活性,有的可以擴展其應用範圍,廣譜性很強。我們
在實驗室對 30 多種有機物做了降解實驗,取得滿意的效果,文獻上說可降解的
物質達 500 多種。但是,關鍵要看降解的速度。我們選擇的助劑有十幾個組分,
配比十分重要,如同中藥方劑的配伍,有‚君臣佐使‛,即每個組分的含量不盡
相同。還有工藝問題,這些組分並不是一次加進,像一鍋粥,而是分層次,一步
一步,有先有後。這樣,催化劑活性就好,反應速度也快。當然,這要有權威部
門的跟蹤檢測,最終拿出資料來說話。
  張:你們的裝置(載體合金網)安裝在空調機的出風口,那麽是用什麽方
法將納米粉體固定在合金網上的?如果固定不牢,風一吹不都給吹掉了?
   範:肯定不能用粘合劑,任何粘合劑都會使納米結構遭到破壞。我們用化
學法將納米粉體負載在一根根直徑約 100 微米的合金絲上,再用這些合金絲製作
網片。合金絲也是多組分的,不同的組分有不同的作用。將粉體載入到合金絲上,
就好比插秧,‚秧苗‛的根紮在合金絲裏面,非常牢固,不可能被風吹掉。要證
明合金絲的確變成了納米粉體的載體,必頇取得實證。我們截取一小段經過負載
納米粉體的金屬絲,用掃描電子顯微鏡(SEM)進行了長達一個月的觀察,每個
樣品掃描 600 次,確認在載體合金網表面形成了均勻分佈的納米級二氧化鈦層及
其他組分,並攝下了彩色圖像。
   張:據我所知,光催化劑通常只在紫外光下貣作用,在可見光下一般不貣
作用。
    範:是的,這要看催化劑是什麽樣的晶型。從晶相上說,二氧化鈦催化劑
有 3 種晶態,其中只有銳鈦礦型具有催化作用,而純金紅石型就沒有催化作用。


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我們用 X 光衍射檢測技術(XRD)檢測二氧化鈦粉末,證明它確是銳鈦礦。但從
理論上講,混晶催化劑的活性比單純的銳鈦礦催化劑更好,我們製備的催化劑實
際是混晶催化劑,因為其中含有一定比例的其他晶態,應該說活性是比較好的。
二氧化鈦催化劑在可見光下有沒有催化作用,還要看粉體是否達到了納米級,而
更重要的是前面講到的多組分助劑,我們創造並採用特殊的摻雜處理工藝,形成
多組分負載型複合納米催化劑配方,使啟動納米二氧化鈦催化劑的光波長從紫外
區(386 納米)紅移至可見光區(≥400 納米),從而大大提高了光催化速度和效
率,使這項技術更具有實用價值。
   范崇政教授的解答,令張立德教授感到滿意。而范教授對張的提問也深表
折服,‚他的三個問題都點到了‘穴位’。‛張立德教授特冸讚賞范教授將納米
粉體負載到合金載體上的技術,他認為用‚納米嵌鑲‛一詞命名這項工藝技術更
為恰當。鑒定委員會對科大創新公司的光催化高效淨化解毒技術作了如下評價:
  配方設計採用了前沿的納米複合、組合和摻雜技術,製備了高活性納米二
氧化鈦光催化劑;採用納米嵌鑲技術,實現了高活性納米二氧化鈦光催化劑與合
金載體的牢固結合,解決了淨化解毒器的關鍵技術問題;該項光催化技術能在紫
外和可見光廣譜範圍進行光催化,在製備技術上做到了對納米二氧化鈦的能隙調
製。上述在製備技術上的創新,使納米光催化空氣淨化解毒技術與國內同類技術
相比,有明顯優越性。
  實踐檢驗
  科大創新公司的納米光催化空氣淨化解毒技術及其裝置,經歷了 4 年多的
研究過程,直到今年下半年才審慎地公佈了研究結果。作為一名學者和這項技術
的主創人,幾十年來范崇政教授在他的研究工作中總是警示自己:千萬不能一種
傾向掩蓋另外一種傾向,不能把‚誤動作‛當成‚正結果‛。因為治學嚴謹,他
慶倖曾避免了一次重大失誤。
  1992 年,範崇政在做常溫常壓下催化分解水的實驗研究,終於有一天似乎
出現了令人振奮的結果。消息迅速傳開,校領導和幾位老科學家走進他的實驗
室,連國家科委的有關負責人也來了,許多同志讓他趕快發表文章,當時已有刊
物為這一‚重大發現‛撰寫了專稿,並就何時發表徵求範崇政的意見。這時,他
卻格外地冷靜。他說:‚我考慮了好幾天,最後決定不發表。我一定要找到合理
的解釋,不能只看現象。‛後來的研究證明,那確實是一種假像。‚幸虧沒發表,
否則傳遞錯誤資訊將遺害於人。‛范教授說。儘管那是一次不成功的實驗,但並
非沒有意義,它派生出了另一個研究課題———納米催化劑催化葉綠素和血紅素
加氫反應研究,這個專案得到了國家科技部的資助,並被列為中科院重點專案,
對後來的納米光催化空氣淨化解毒研究也很有益處。
  多組分納米二氧化鈦光催化技術,對空氣的淨化解毒作用究竟怎樣,需要
在使用前後對空氣質量進行對比檢測,取得客觀資料,方能給出準確評價。為克
服人為造成的檢測偏差,從 2001 年貣,科大創新公司就將裝有核心部件的空氣
淨化解毒樣機先後送到合肥、浙江和國家衛生防疫等部門,交由他們在預先設定


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的環境中進行詴驗、檢測。
   記者認真查閱了 3 家衛生部門出具的 4 份檢測報告———
   報告一動態條件下,樣機工作 100 分鐘後,有害氣體消除率:甲醛 39%苯
89%甲苯 90%二甲苯 97%檢測物件:科大創新研製樣機檢測地點:安徽省電視
臺宿舍 3 棟 402 室(新裝修)檢測房間:10×2.7 立方米檢測單位:合肥市衛生
防疫站時間:2002 年 1 月 15 日
   報告二動態條件下,樣機工作 24 小時後,甲醛消除率 80%苯消除率 92%
甲苯消除率 93%二甲苯消除率 88%細菌菌落總數減少 98%檢測物件:科大創新
研製‚KL330‛型納米光催化空氣淨化器檢測房間:15×3 立方米檢測單位:合肥
市衛生防疫站時間:2003 年 10 月 27 日
   報告三靜態條件下,樣機工作 120 分鐘後,有害氣體消除率:甲醛 68%苯
90%甲苯 92%二甲苯 92%氨 90%檢測物件:浙江省疾病預防控制中心實驗室檢
測單位:浙江省疾病預防控制中心時間:2003 年 3 月 28 日
   報告四靜態條件下,樣機工作 180 分鐘後,細菌總量殺滅率:62.8%檢測
  :                  :            :
物件 中國疾病預防控制中心實驗室檢測單位 中國疾病預防控制中心時間 2003
年6月1日
  今年 8 月,記者隨安徽省疾病預防控制中心主任徐伏牛研究員,到科大創
新公司考察納米光催化空氣淨化技術。在聽取了研製人員介紹和詳細閱讀資料
後,徐伏牛說,這可能是空氣淨化裝置的一次‚革命‛。
  目前,科大創新公司有關多組分負載型納米光催化技術產品的企業標準已
報安徽省質量技術監督局批准備案,標準號 Q/CXH004-2003,核心部件及中央
空調淨化裝置產業化專案已被安徽省發展計劃委員會計高技【2003】864 號文批
准正式立項。
  細說原理
  多組分納米二氧化鈦光催化劑何以能夠消除空氣中的有害有機物,滅殺病
原微生物?科大創新公司的技術專家向記者詳細解說了其中化學反應的原理。
   銳鈦礦型的納米二氧化鈦是一種無毒的半導體,一經光波照射,會變得很
活躍,可激發電子,產生電子流和空穴流,在此狀態下能催化多種氧化還原反應。
納米二氧化鈦本身具有這種特性,再摻雜十幾種元素作為助劑,其光催化活性變
得更強,可以催化甲醛、苯、二甲苯、氨、酚、丙酮等幾十種常見的有毒有害物
質發生氧化還原反應,使它們最終變成無毒無害的二氧化碳和水。而構成病原微
生物的基本物質蛋白質,也會在光催化作用下發生凝固而致死亡。
   光催化劑滅殺病原微生物的作用機理同臭氧大致相同,但高濃度臭氧對人
體也有傷害,而且臭氧不能降解有害有機物。市場上出售的氧負離子空氣清新器
不能消除有害物質;而活性碳空氣淨化劑雖然對淨化空氣有一定的作用,但作用
短暫、有限,屬於物理吸附,不能從根本上消除有害有機物對居室環境的污染,
不能滅殺病原微生物。科大創新公司負責人說,只有從科學上講清上述原理,這
才是求真、求實和對社會負責的態度。


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http://www.zjnm.net/infocenter/showdetail.php?nid=1135


2004 年“杉杉”將生產納米服裝

2003-12-23
     2003 年 12 月 23 日,中國著名的服裝企業——寧波杉杉公司,宣佈與中科
院‚納米技術工程中心‛簽約,全面引進二元協同納米介面雙疏處理技術。這項
協定的簽署,標誌著杉杉正式擁有了生產新型納米材料服裝產品的能力,該公司
預計將在 2004 年 1 月份正式推出納米材料服裝。圖為杉杉公司服裝生產車間。
    據專家介紹,所謂雙疏性,就是超疏水性和超疏油性,它表明自然下落的
水滴或小粒動植物油滴、果汁、墨水等基本無法與服裝表面接觸。
http://www.cnsphoto.com/NewsPhoto/ShowNewsDetail.asp?ID=111589&Flag=W
N




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