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					                                         The English Renaissance                            1485-1660 CE/ 15th-17th Centuries
Time Span             Period                          Sub-Period                         Other Titles            Significant Genres/ Schools/Movements
1485-1660 CE   The English Renaissance
1485-1558 CE                                         Tudor Period/Age                    Humanist Era                           Humanist Prose (essays, drama)
                                            (Tudor is the family name of a line of                                                  Introduction of sonnet
                                                                                                                                 Introduction of blank verse
1558-1603 CE                                       Elizabethan Period/Age              High Renaissance                                  Courtly Poetry
                                                                                                            Courtly poetry is aimed at, and often set in, an idealised version of the
                                                                                                            courtly world (the world of the monarch and nobles) and comes in two
                                                                                                            basic poetic forms:
                                                                                                                                  Lyric and Narrative Poetry
                                                                                                                  Two Important Subcategories of Lyric Courtly Poetry
                                                                                                            1) Sonnet and Sonnet Cycles (collection of sonnets loosely forming a
                                                                                                            “story”) in Italian/Petrarchan, Spenserian, English/Shakespearean
                                                                                                            2) Pastorals (poems dealing with the lives of shepherds or rural life in
                                                                                                            general and typically drawing a contrast between the innocence and
                                                                                                            serenity of a simple life and the misery and corruption of city and
                                                                                                            especially court life)
                                                                                                                                    Narrative Poems (epics)
                                                                                                                                         Verse Drama
                                                                                                            tragedies (revenge tragedies very popular), comedies, romances, history
                                                                                                                                      Songs: Madrigals
1603-1625 CE                               Jacobean Period/Age (Jacobus is the Latin     Age of Donne                                   Verse Drama
                                                         for James.)                                                                    Lyric Poetry
                                                                                                                                       Pastoral Poetry
                                                                                                                                    Metaphysical Poetry
                                                                                                                                Religious/ Devotional Poetry
                                                                                                                                      School of Spenser
1625-1649 CE                               Caroline Period/Age (Carolus is Latin for                                                   Pastoral Poetry
                                                          Charles.)                                                       School of Donne (Metaphysical Poetry)
                                                                                                                          Tribe/ “Sons” of Ben (Cavalier Poetry)
                                                                                                                                      School of Spenser
                                                                                                                                        Verse Drama
1649-1660 CE                               Commonwealth and Protectorate Period           Puritan Age                      School of Donne (Metaphysical Poetry)
                                               or Puritan Interregnum or                                                      Tribe/ “Sons” (Cavalier Poetry)
                                                  Puritan Period/Age                                                        Political Writing (Milton, Hobbes)

                                                      The English Renaissance, Page 1 (Literature Section of Notebook)
 Sub-periods               Significant Genres/ Schools/Movements                                    Characteristic Features, Topics, Issues                               Representative Authors
 Humanist Era                        Humanist Prose (essays, drama)                                   Topics of education and good government                             Thomas More, John Skelton,
                                        Introduction of sonnet                                                                love
                                      Introduction of blank verse                                                                                                           Thomas Wyatt (the Elder)
High Renaissance                            Courtly Poetry                                     Courtly Poetry Characteristics: Highly technical,                       Poetry: Edmund Spenser, Sir Philip
                   Courtly poetry is aimed at, and often set in, an idealised version of the   complicated form poetry, use of iambic pentameter with                   Sidney, William Shakespeare, Mary
Elizabethan Age    courtly world (the world of the monarch and nobles) and comes in            fixed rhymes and sophisticated imagery and figures speech,             Sidney Herbert, Christopher Marlowe,
    or Period      two basic poetic forms:                                                     requiring much technical skill. (witty love poetry) The basic           Sir Walter Raleigh, Queen Elizabeth
                                                                                               experiential requirements set out in the poem were generally
                                                                                               quite simple: a declaration of love to a noble and generally
                                                                                               unattainable (and often cruel) lady. The challenge: to frame
                                                                                               one's tribute in language which displayed one's cleverness
                                                                                               (one's wit) as a poet.
                                                                                               Lyric: Feelings – topics: love, death, nature, age, etc.
                                        Lyric and Narrative Poetry
                      Two Important Subcategories of Lyric Courtly Poetry
                                                                                               Sonnets: iambic pentameter, 3 diff. rhyme schemes
                   1) Sonnet and Sonnet Cycles (collection of sonnets loosely forming          Petrarchan: octave, sestet structure
                   a     “story”)        in     Italian/Petrarchan,       Spenserian,          Shakespearean: three quatrains, couplet structure
                   English/Shakespearean versions                                              Spenserian: archaic language like Chaucer’s (least common)
                                                                                               Pastoral: love, seduction; value of poetry; death and
                   2) Pastorals (poems dealing with the lives of shepherds or rural life in    mourning; corruption of the city or court vs. "purity" of
                   general and typically drawing a contrast between the innocence and          idealized country life; politics (generally treated satirically: the
                   serenity of a simple life and the misery and corruption of city and         "shepherds" critique society or easily identifiable political
                   especially court life)                                                      figures). This conversation may be between a shepherd and
                                                                                               the shepherdess he loves (generally his attempt to seduce
                                         Narrative Poems (epics)                               her); a "singing contest" to see which shepherd is the better
                                                                                               poet (a third may act as judge); or sophisticated banter
                                                                                               between two supposedly "rude swains" who discuss a lady,
                                                                                               their flocks, or a current event; lament a dead friend (a
                                                                                               eulogy or elegy); or praise a notable individual. Laudatory
                                                                                               poems, laments upon a death, songs of courtship, complaints
                                                                                               of a lovesick shepherd also occur as pastoral monologues.
                                               Verse Drama                                     Verse Drama: Blank verse for aristocratic/court                           Drama: William Shakespeare,
                      tragedies (revenge tragedies very popular), comedies, romances,          characters primarily; prose for lower class figures and
                                                history plays
                                                                                                                                                                            Christopher Marlow
                                                                                               comic relief in tragedies. Topics: the whole range of
                                                                                               human experience: love, sex, power, ambition, revenge,
                                             Songs: Madrigals
                                                                                               Madrigal: setting for 3–6 voices of a secular text, often in
                                                                                               Italian. Related mostly by name alone to the Italian trecento
                                                                                               madrigal of the late 13th and 14th centuries. Most important
                                                                                               secular form of music of its time. Bloomed especially in the
                                                                                               2nd half of the 16th century.

                                                              The English Renaissance, Page 2 (Literature Section of Notebook)
Sub-periods       Significant Genres/ Schools/Movements                      Characteristic Features, Topics, Issues                        Representative Authors
Jacobean Period                  Verse Drama                                            Verse Drama: See above                           Shakespeare (drama), Ben Jonson
                                 Lyric Poetry                                                                                                    (comedies only)
                                Pastoral Poetry
                            Metaphysical Poetry                         Metaphysical poetry: appeals to intellect rather than              John Donne, George Herbert
                         Religious/ Devotional Poetry                   emotions; elaborate style of learned imagery, subtle
                               School of Spenser                        argumentation, and “metaphysical” conceit that
                                                                        employs unusual/paradoxical imagery/metaphors
                                                                        (Marvell’s soul = drop of dew); often but not always
                                                                        about religious/ metaphysical concerns

                                                                                    Religious/Devotional Poetry:                         George Herbert, Emilia Lanyer/
                                                                                praise/prayer/theological debate poetry                         Amelia Lanier
                                                                           Jonson’s Poetry: somewhere between the archaic                           Ben Jonson
                                                                                 lang. of Spenserian school and bizarre
                                                                          imagery/conceits of metaphysical school – owes to
                                                                            classical tradition but with a feel for the natural
                                                                               rhythms of English and realistic concerns

                                                                           School of Spenser: See Spenserian Poetry above.                       Michael Drayton

                                                                             Later Jacobean verse drama: revenge plays,                Frances Beaumont, John Fletcher, John
                                                                              titillation, pathos, emotionally extravagant                             Webster
Caroline Period                 Pastoral Poetry                                               Pastoral Poetry                           John Milton (early poems- pastorals)
                    School of Donne (Metaphysical Poetry)                                  *Metaphysical Poetry                           George Herbert, Henry Vaughn,
                    Tribe/ “Sons” of Ben (Cavalier Poetry)                                                                               Richard Crashaw, Andrew Marvell
                                                                           *Cavalier Poetry: carpe diem, love, influenced by            Robert Herrick, Thomas Carew, John
                                                                                         Jonson’s style and topics                           Suckling, Richard Lovelace
                                                                          Cavalier Poets (most were supporters of Charles I –
                                                                           Royalists--, associated with the court, opposed to
                                                                                           Puritan Roundheads)
                                                                         *Although these two styles are often contrasted, many poets    William Browne, and brothers Giles
                               School of Spenser                                           wrote in both styles.                               and Phineas Fletcher

                                 Verse Drama                                    Verse Drama (comparable to Jacobean)                              John Webster
  Puritan Age        School of Donne (Metaphysical Poetry)                        Cavalier and Metaphysical Poetry                               Andrew Marvell
                        Tribe/ “Sons” (Cavalier Poetry)                             No Drama (Theatres Closed)
                      Political Writing (Milton, Hobbes)
                                                                                             Political Writings                            John Milton, Thomas Hobbes

                                             The English Renaissance, Page 3 (Literature Section of Notebook)
                                     Themes/Concepts/Ideas/Inventions of the English Renaissance
•   The religious devotion of the Middle Ages, with its emphasis on an afterlife, gave way to a new interest in the human being's place here on
    Earth. (Humans are the measure of all things.)
•   Universities introduced a new curriculum called the humanities, which included history, geography, poetry, and modern languages.
•   The invention of printing from movable type made books more available to people than ever before, and literacy increased. This is also the
    beginning of Modern English.
•   Although scholars and students still used Greek and Latin to study the ancients, more and more writers began to use the vernacular (the local
    language). Thus, English shed some of its regional differences and became increasingly standardized.
•   The Renaissance is an Age of Exploration, the beginnings of modern science.
•   Love themes are frequent in the poetry of the period. There is a keen interest in the new and exotic as well as the old and the quaint.
                                           Artistic/Literary Information about the Elizabethan Age
•   Features an explosion of cultural energy: architects design and construct elegant mansions; composers create new hymns for Anglican church
    service and the English madrigal, a love song performed without musical accompaniment and often by several harmonizing voices; European
    painters and sculptors came to the English court to work.
•   Elizabethan Poetry
         Focus on lyric poetry, particularly the sonnet (adopted from Italy, the birthplace of the Renaissance): Sidney, Spenser, and Shakespeare.
         Development of pastoral verse (Marlowe and Raleigh): idealization of the rustic simplicity of rural life.
•   Elizabethan Drama
         Moved away from religious subjects toward more complex, sophisticated forms on secular subjects
         Borrowed heavily from classical models of ancient Greece and Rome, reintroducing tragedies and comedies.
                                    Elizabethan Theatre and Shakespeare (View Shakespeare in Love)
•   Before the Elizabethan Age, theatre companies put on plays wherever they could find audiences, frequently performing in the open courtyards
    of inns, spectators watching from the ground or from the balconies or galleries above.
•   1576: James Burbage, an actor, built the first English playhouse in London, simply called The Theatre.
•   Although the city fathers of London looked down on theatre and actors, theatre was extremely popular among the common people and the
    English court and nobility. Actors like Burbage held a celebrity status comparable to rock, rap, and popular music stars of today.
•   1597: The Theatre is closed down by the London leaders; Richard Burbage (James’ son) takes the pieces across the River Thames to Southwark
    and rebuilds it, renaming it the Globe.
•   Theatre, Actors, Performances:
            Theatres like the Globe may have seated as many as 2500 to 3000 people, with most of the people standing in front of the stage through the
             performances (groundlings) and the wealthier and noble patrons actually sitting in galleries behind the actors.
            Actors were all men, with young men or boys playing the parts of females.
            Plays were performed during daylight hours, with minimal scenery and with language that was extremely descriptive.

                                            The English Renaissance, Page 4 (Literature Section of Notebook)
•       Shakespeare (a short biography):
       23 April (christened 26 April) 1564 (son of a glovemaker, a businessman who held some local government positions)
            o Possibly educated at Stratford Grammar School where he would have acquired a knowledge of Latin
       November 1582: Marries Jane Hathaway (a woman somewhat older than he and possibly pregnant)
            o 1583 daughter Susanna born
            o 1585 twins Judith and Hamnet born
       1580s-1590s: Becomes involved in theatre in London
            o by 1594: part owner and chief playwright of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, one of the most successful London theatre companies
            o 1603: James I took control of the theatre group and renamed the company the King’s Men
       Between 1590s and 1610: wrote and produced tragedies, histories, comedies, and romances (plays) and poetry (154 sonnets and three longer
       1610: Retires to Stratford
       1616: Dies in Stratford
                                                Before and During the Elizabethan Age (1558-1603)
Historical Information
1485    Henry VII becomes first Tudor King
1509    Henry VIII becomes King (Father of Queen Elizabeth I) – Beginnings of Humanism and Reformation in England
1534    Church of England established
1547    Edward VI (Henry VIII’s son) becomes King
1553    Edward VI (son of Henry VIII) dies and is succeeded by Mary Tudor (daughter of Henry VIII)
1555    Mary reestablishes Catholicism and persecutes Protestants.
1558    Elizabeth I becomes queen at Mary Tudor's death – Period of Toleration
1588    England defeats the Spanish Armada.
1564    William Shakespeare is born
1603    Elizabeth I dies
                                                          Important Authors and Literature
Authors                                    Works                                  Genre                          Comp. Dates
Sir Thomas More                            Utopia                                 prose (philosophical           1514-16
Sir Thomas Wyatt the Elder                 “Mine Own John Poins”                  verse epistle (satire)         1536
                                           “I Find No Peace”                      lyric poem (sonnet)            1557
Henry Howard, Earl of Surry                “The Soote Season” lyric poem (sonnet) 1557
Sir Philip Sidney                          Astrophel and Stella                   sonnet sequence                1582
                                           Defence of Poesy                       essay                          1579
Mary Sidney Herbert                        "To the Thrice-Sacred Queen            lyric poem                     1599

                                              The English Renaissance, Page 5 (Literature Section of Notebook)
Christopher Marlowe                           Dr. Faustus                                  drama (tragedy)           1592
                                              "The Passionate Shepherd to                  lyric poem                1599
                                                       His Love"
Sir Walter Raleigh                            "The Nymph's Reply to the                    lyric poem                1600
Edmund Spenser                                The Faerie Queen (Part I)                    romance/epic              1592
Queen Elizabeth I                             "The Doubt of Future Foes"                   lyric poem                1570
                                              Speech to the Troops at Tillbury             prose -speech             1588
William Shakespeare (1564-1616)               Plays (37) and Poetry (Sonnets)                                        1593-1610
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)                     "Of Studies"                                 prose (essay)             1597

                                                                   The Jacobean (1603-1625)

1603       James I takes the throne
1607       First Settlement at Jamestown, Virginia.
1619       First African slaves arrive in the Virginia colony.
1625       James I dies and is succeeded by Charles I

Authors                                                Works                                        Genre            Comp. Dates

*Amelia Lanier                                "Eve's Apology in Defense of                          lyric poem              1500s-1600s
Scholars                                      King James Version of the Bible                                               1611
Authors                                               Works                                         Genre                   Comp. Dates

                                                                        School of Donne

                                                                   The Metaphysical Poets

John Donne (1572?-1631)                                "The Bait"                                   lyric poetry            1500s-1600s
                                                       "Song"                                       lyric poetry            1500s-1600s
                                                       "Holy Sonnet 10"                             lyric poetry            1500s-1600s
                                                       "Holy Sonnet 11"                             lyric poetry            1500s-1600s

                                                  The English Renaissance, Page 6 (Literature Section of Notebook)
                                                     Meditation 17                              sermon                 1500s-1600s

                                                                     School of Donne

George Herbert (1593-1633)                "Virtue"                                              lyric poetry           1600s
                                                  "Easter Wings"                                lyric poetry           1600s
Andrew Marvell (1621-1678)                "To His Coy Mistress"                                 lyric poetry           1600s
                                                  "The Garden"                                  lyric poetry           1600s
Henry Vaughn (1621-1695)                  "The Retreat"                                         lyric poetry           1600s


        The Metaphysical Poets, which includes Donne, and his followers (the School of Donne as they are sometimes called), were often concerned
with philosophical and religious issues. Their kind of poetry is characterized by extensive use of paradoxes and conceits (extended, fanciful metaphors).
Note that Donne's early poetry was love poetry.

Authors                                              Works                                      Genre                  Comp. Dates

                                                                     School of Jonson

Ben Jonson (1572-1637)                               "On My First Son"                          lyric poetry           1500-1600s
                                                     "To Celia"                                 lyric poetry           1500-1600s
                                                     "To the Memory of My Beloved”              lyric poetry           1500-1600s
                                                     Master, William Shakespeare"

                                                       The Cavalier Poets = Sons (Tribe) of Ben

                                              The English Renaissance, Page 7 (Literature Section of Notebook)
Robert Herrick (1591-1674)               "An Ode for Him"                                      lyric poetry         1600s
                                         "To the Virgins, to Make                              lyric poetry         1600s
                                                 Much of Time"
Sir John Suckling (1609-1642)            "The Constant Lover"                                  lyric poetry         1600s
                                                 "Song"                                        lyric poetry         1600s
Richard Lovelace (1618-1657)             "To Lucasta, on Going to the Wars"                    lyric poetry         1600s
                                                 "To Althea, from Prison"                      lyric poetry         1600s

George Wither (1621-1678)                "Shall I, Wasting Despair"                            lyric poetry         1600s


        Carpe Diem: Pick the flower of the day/Enjoy today while it lasts. Honor and glory of war; compare to the Anglo-Saxons.

Jonson and the poets that followed him, the Sons or Tribe of Ben or the Cavalier poets. Cavalier poetry focuses on love and secular concerns. Many of
these cavalier poets were Royalists, who fought with King Charles I against Oliver Cromwell and the Puritans. However, cavalier poets wrote
metaphysical poems, and vice versa.

                                             The English Renaissance, Page 8 (Literature Section of Notebook)