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Solar Power Stations and Floating Solar Chimneys - PowerPoint

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					               Build your new world with Emaco Group

                SOLAR POWER
   The energy demand will be doubled in the
    next 30 years
   Insecurity in energy supplies
   International tensions
   A major threat is more urgent to be
    encountered Climate Change
   The sun has enormous potential to become
    the most dominant direct source of all
    renewable energies. It provides, within three
    days, as much energy as that contained by all
    of the known fossil fuel reserves
    underground.
                 The climate change and global warming
                due to CO2 emissions (IPCC* scenarios)
   Without the proper
    measures for CO2
    emissions elimination,
    the climate change




                             related to energy and industry
    will become a real
    threat
   The China’s and
    India’s energy
    demand make the
    situation much worst.
   The best scenario has
    a high cost, however
    the cost of the
    inaction is much
    higher

                                                              *Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
                                                              SRES - Special Report on Emissions Scenarios
         Precipitation change & extreme events


   Due to precipitation changes fertile land
    desertification it is possible in many
    areas.
   The existing atmospheric models can
    not exclude the appearance of the most
    catastrophic extreme events (very
    strong typhoons, tornados, snow or hail
    storms etc.).
   Thus such extremely catastrophic
    events it is possible to appear sooner or
    later
                 Increased cost of KWh produced by
                  the “clean” electricity technologies

“CLEAN” ELECTRICITY                KWh DIRECT PRODUCTION COST
TECHNOLOGY                         % ON EXISTING BASE LOAD
                                   AVERAGE KWh DIRECT COST (~ 6 cents)

Carbon Capture and Storage         135-160 % (8-10 cents)
(CCS) Power Plants
Nuclear Fission (New Power         130-160 % (7.5-10 cents)
Plants 3500 EURO/KW)

Wind Parks (With Energy            140-160 % (onshore) (8.5-10 cents)
Storage System)                    180-200 % (offshore) (11-12 cents)

Desert Solar Concentrating         300-350 % (18-21 cents)
Parks (With Energy Storage
System)
Desert Solar Photo-Voltaic Parks   500-550 % (30-33 cents)
(With Energy Storage System)

Biomass Power Plants               100-150 % (6-9 cents)
Nuclear Fusion                     - Non yet defined but most probably very
                                   high (>1000 %) (>30 cents)
                 The missing ideal technology
                     generating electricity
                   to cover 50% of demand
   Continuous high quality electricity generation
   Simple technology that can be applied in all
    continents
   Low construction cost of Power Plants and low
    direct cost of the produced KWh
   Easy and fast deployed technology, based on
    existing material and using local personnel for
    construction, operation and maintenance of
    Power Plants
   Zero CO2 emissions and of any other forms of
    pollution
   Zero water demand
   Zero thermal energy generation to the biosphere
   Originated from renewable source (better solar)
CSP =Concentrated Solar Power
PV = PhotoVoltaic
SWH= Solar Water Heating
                 CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems use lenses or mirrors to focus
a large area of sunlight onto a small area. Electrical power is produced
when the concentrated light is directed onto photovoltaic surfaces or used
to heat a transfer fluid for a conventional power plant.




Concentrated solar power systems are divided into:
concentrated solar thermal (CST)
concentrated photovoltaics (CPV)
concentrating photovoltaics and thermal (CPT)
                     CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

Concentrated solar thermal (CST)

   Concentrated solar thermal is used to produce renewable heat or
    electricity (generally, in the latter case, through steam). CST systems use
    lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight
    onto a small area The concentrated light is then used as heat or as a heat
    source for a conventional power plant (solar thermoelectricity).

   A wide range of concentrating technologies exist, including the parabolic
    trough, Dish Stirling, Concentrating Linear Fresnel Reflector, Solar
    chimney and solar power tower. Each concentration method is capable of
    producing high temperatures and correspondingly high thermodynamic
    efficiencies, but they vary in the way that they track the Sun and focus
    light.
                     CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

Concentrated photovoltaics (CPV)

   Concentrated photovoltaics systems employ sunlight concentrated onto
    photovoltaic surfaces for the purpose of electrical power production.
    Solar concentrators of all varieties may be used, and these are often
    mounted on a solar tracker in order to keep the focal point upon the cell
    as the Sun moves across the sky.
                     CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER

Concentrated Photovoltaics and Thermal (CPT)

   Concentrating Photovoltaics and Thermal technology produces both
    electricity and thermal heat in the same module. Thermal heat can be
    employed for hot tap water, heating and heat-powered air conditioning
    (solar cooling), desalination or solar process heat.

   CPVT systems can be used in private homes and increase total energy
    output to 40-50%, as compared with normal PV panels with 10-20%
    efficiency, and they produce more thermal heat in wintertime compared
    with normal thermal collectors. Also, thermal systems do not overheat..
                          SOLAR WATER HEATING

The diagram illustrates a simple water heating
circuit.
The solar collector contains two independent
circuits. An oil circuit in a closed system
comprises a solar collector, the tubes and a
small pump (needed to move hot oil through
the circuit) and a U-tube heat exchanger in the
water tank.
The cold oil is moved by the pump, collects heat
energy in the solar collector, goes to the u-tube
heat exchanger and transfers some of its heat
to the water in the tank.
The second circuit, starts in a cold water feed which fills up the thank and
pick up energy from the U-tube heat exchanger. Once the water is warm it
can be used in a tap water circuit.
If we want to produce electricity from the sun, the best way is by a thermal
solar plant .
                            SOLAR WATER HEATING

In an industrial Solar plant, an array of mirrors acts as a parabolic reflector,
concentrating solar energy onto a focal point (where the tube with a thermal
liquid is installed).
The temperature of the heat
transfer fluid, at the focal point,
may reach 3,000 ºC. This heat is
used to give energy to the water
circuit inside a Heat exchanger.
Water changes into stream and
moves a turbine whose axle
moves the generator, producing
electricity.
Steam water is changed into
liquid and pushed again to the
heat exchanger.
                               PHOTOVOLTAIC

Photovoltaics are best known as a method for
generating electric power by using solar cells to
convert energy from the sun into electricity. The
photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light
knocking electrons into a higher state of energy
to create electricity. The term photovoltaic
denotes the unbiased operating mode of a
photodiode in which current through the device
is entirely due to the transduced light energy.
Virtually all photovoltaic devices are some type
of photodiode.
Solar cells produce direct current electricity
from light, which can be used to power
equipment or to recharge a battery.
Today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power
generation. In this case an inverter is required to convert the DC to AC. There is also a
market for off-grid power for remote light, dwellings, boats, recreational vehicles,
electric cars, roadside signals and emergency telephones, remote sensing, and
cathodic protection of pipelines.
Actually available solution

  Based on solar energy

Photovoltaic applications
        a) WIRELESS STREET LIGHT


   See our catalog
        a) WIRELESS STREET LIGHT


   See our catalog
        a) WIRELESS STREET LIGHT

   See our catalog
         b. WIRELESS TRAFFIC LIGHT


   See our catalog
         WIRELESS TRAFFIC LIGHT

   See our catalog
         c. WIRELESS WATER PUMP


   See our catalog
         C WIRELESS WATER PUMP

   See our catalog
           Underground Battery Vaults (UBV )
   Underground Battery
    Vaults are
    manufactured from
    high density
    polyethylene (HDPE)
    and can house up to
    eight batteries.
   Comparison Cost Study
            between
 Traditional Lighting Systems
             and
Solar Street Lighting Systems
               Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                               and
                  Solar Street Lighting Systems
                         by Dr. Hamid Sherwali



Introduction
As the cost of any dream plays the important part when
deciding to make it real, it’s decided to investigate what is
the cost of making LIBYA streets take the advantage of
the sun shining 365 days per year, and to keep LIBYA, as
always, leads in all life aspects.
The investigation summaries a comparison study in which
the cost of solar powered street lighting is compared with
the cost of street lighting powered by traditional source of
power.
                    Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                    and
                       Solar Street Lighting Systems


Solar Street Lighting
Solar lights consist of three major components: a solar panel, the light
itself (which is a LED light), and a battery. Solar panels are made of a
semi-conducting material, often times silicon. When sunlight strikes the
panel the light waves get converted into electric current through a process
known as the photoelectric effect. The generated electricity is stored in
the battery throughout the day, and is then used to power the LED light at
night. Solar street lights can be easily installed and moved and delivers
free, renewable energy which is stored in a battery ready to be used when
darkness falls.

Traditional Street Lighting
Traditional street lighting system comprises, poles complete with
brackets, luminaries, lamps, jointing box, internal pole wiring, 4*16 (or 25)
mm2 power cable, 1*16 (or 25) mm2 earthing wire, earthing points, 4*50
mm2 (or above) power cable and lighting distribution box.
                  Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                  and
                     Solar Street Lighting Systems

Comparison

Based on GECOL specification, High pressure sodium lamps have the
following characteristics:
112 lumen/watt             --   Average lifetime hours max 18000 Hour

Comparison is based on one Km of single sided pole arrangement with:
H(Pole height) ≥ 0.8 W(Road width) and S(Spacing between poles) ≤ 3.5 H

Considering average working hours in Libya is 12 hours / day
(Summer time 10 hours dark time, winter time 14 hours dark time and 12
hours in spring and autumn)

For a 10-12 meter width road with single sided pole arrangement lighted
with high pressure sodium lamps of 250 watt (0.274 Kw with ballast) each,
along unit distance of 1 Km we will need the following:
                 Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                 and
                    Solar Street Lighting Systems


33 Lighting pole complete with brackets, luminaries, lamps, jointing
box and internal pole wiring.

1066 meter of 4*16 (or 25) mm2 power cable

1066 meter of 1*16 (or 25) mm2 earthing wire

At least two earthing point

Approximately 40 of 3.5*50 mm2 power cable

Approximately 25% of lighting distribution box

From above data and for entire life time of a lighting system (25
years), one can calculate the following:-
              Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                              and
                 Solar Street Lighting Systems


Capital Cost
1. Traditional Street Lighting




                                           * Estimated figure
                                           (average)

                                           ** Lighting box with
                                           six branches may
                                           cover 3 Km of
                                           street lighting

                                           ***Each 4 Km of
                                           street lighting may
                                           need one road
                                           crossing
                Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                and
                   Solar Street Lighting Systems




Traditional Street Lighting
Total 1 Km of single sided street lighting using poles of 8m length and
250 w lamps is approximately 107514 LD (One hundred and seven
thousand and five hundred and fourteen LD).


Solar Street Lighting
For solar system one can notice that most of the items existed in
traditional lighting system do not exist in solar system. This, in
addition to money saving, saves time and causes comfort during
execution.
         Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                         and
            Solar Street Lighting Systems


Capital Cost
2. Solar Street Lighting
                 Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                 and
                    Solar Street Lighting Systems


It is understood that the poles may have special design to adopt solar
units, thus pole prices may differ than that provided by HIB. If an
additional 300 LD assumed for each pole, gives a total of 10000 LD, the
total price becomes 124246 LD (One hundred and twenty four thousand
and two hundred and forty six LD).
Running cost
Total energy consumed / day = 33 * 0.274 * 12 = 108.504 Kwh/day
Total energy consumed / year =108.504 * 365 = 39603.96 Kwh/year
Energy consumed cost /year = 39603.96*cost of 1 Kwh (say0.05 LD)=
1980.198 LD/ year
Energy consumed cost/ life time =1980.198 * 25 =49.505 LD
(Forty Nine Thousand LD) Lamp average working hours are 18000 Hour,
i.e. 49 months
It must get replace before that time, thus for entire life time of lamps they
must be changed at least six times;
Lamp replacement cost =
 (average lamp price over life time i.e. 100) * (6)* 33 =19800 LD
                Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                and
                   Solar Street Lighting Systems


Fixing all other running costs such as cost of maintenance, cleaning,
replacement, etc…
Total running cost is 49.505+19800 = 69,300 LD
 (Sixty nine Thousand and 300 LD).
Solar Street Lighting
For a 10-12 meter width road with single sided pole arrangement lighted with
LED solar street lighting system, along unit distance of 1 Km we will need the
following:- Lighting pole complete with arms, luminaries, lamps (which is LED
light), jointing box, internal pole wiring, solar panel and Batteries.
No need for cabling, central lighting distribution box and earthing wire.
Running cost
Energy consumed cost /year = Zero
Energy consumed cost/ life time =Zero
Lamp average working hours are 60000 Hour, i.e. 164 months =14 years
Thus for entire life time of lamps they may get changed once, i.e. one shall
never have to worry about the LED light burning out.
Lamp replacement cost = 33 * 100 = 3300 LD
Battery replacement each five years
                        Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                        and
                           Solar Street Lighting Systems


Battery replacement cost = 4 * (cost of one box of batteries app 200 LD) * 33 =26400 LD
Fixing all other running costs such as cost of maintenance, cleaning, replacement, etc…
Total running cost for Solar Street lighting is 29700 LD,
{Solar lights have approximately 50% running cost of its counterpart over its entire life
time.}
Summary of the Comparison
Based on HIB price list, the capital cost of one Km of single sided street lighting is
approximately 107514 LD, and has a running cost of 69300 LD. However, the capital
cost of solar lighting street lighting is 124906 LD, and has a running cost of 29700 LD.
                       Capital cost          Running cost       Total cost
  Traditional          107514                69300              176814
  Solar                124906                29700              154606
Difference in capital Cost is S 17392 LD
Difference in running cost is T 39600 LD
Difference in total cost is   T 22208 LD

S: Solar higher,   T: Traditional higher
                Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                and
                   Solar Street Lighting Systems


Over the entire life time of the street lighting system, lighting system powered
by solar costs less than traditional lighting system by 18908 LD
                          Traditional Street Lighting Systems
                                          and
                             Solar Street Lighting Systems


Few more remarks
Solar system prices may be different than the above mentioned prices depending on
pole height and shape, battery position (top, bottom), panel type and the output power
required.
The difference in capital investment between solar and traditional street lighting
systems may become much narrower, or it may even vanish, because the calculation is
based on nowadays prices, future is working in favor of this technology; the prices of
solar technology are expected to become less expensive and the price of works
associated to the traditional system is expected to increase as advancing in time.
The Kwh price used for this analysis is 0.05LD which is likely increasing to become
more than doubled during the entire life time of lighting system. As a conclusion the
capital cost of solar system is going down while the running cost of the ordinary system
is going up, i.e. solar lighting will pay its capital cost back within its first six years of its
entire life time by the amount of money saved on energy costs.
Other Hidden Benefits
Solar lights are the safest and the easiest kind of outdoor lights to install.
They are the most environmentally friendly form of lighting that you can find.
You will never have to worry about the LED light burning out.
          SOLAR ENERGY


 Thank   you!



 Emaco   group

				
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