By: OT CHANDY,
B. Eng, Msc. Food Science & Technology
Date: January 4, 2011
Recognize the importance of food packaging
various type of material use in food
Explain the information print on food label
Explain various techniques in food packaging
History of Food Packaging & Innovation
Principle of Food Packaging
Function of Food Packaging
Food Packaging Label
Food Packaging Materials
Food Packaging type
Sustainability in Food Packaging
Trend in Food Packaging
Eat where found
>20,000 years 5000 years ago: 2500 years ago: Last 1000 years
ago: modified wooden, barrel Glass container ago: many
natural material boxes, crates changes
8,000 years ago: 3500 years ago: 2000 years ago: Notable advance in 20th Century:
Ceramic, Mass produce of Paper and • Aluminum foil containers
amphorae ceramics, pottery cellulose fibers • Aluminum can
• Cellulose packaging
• Heat shrinkable plastic film
• Styrene foam
• PET (polyethylene terephthalate)
Reference: Reduce Packaging
Protection against physical chemical, biological and
To aid consumers in using products, communicate,
educate about the ingredients, nutritional contents and
the materials used to provide the protection.
From: shock, vibration, compression, temperature
From: gas migration control,
Containment or Agglomeration
For: granule food i.e rice, coffee, nut
how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or
product. Some types of information are required by
Distribution, display, handling, stacking, reclosing, reuse
Cambodia Food Labeling:
Trade mark certification – MoC
Label registration requirement:
Design and Claim
EAN/UCC-13 type formate
Country prefix: 884 (Cambodia)
Manufacturing Number: 6 digits
Item reference number: 3 digits
Check number: 1 digit
Number of serving
Nutrition Facts represent only one serving
This show after nutrients
Amount nutrient per one serving
Foods within 10% - 19% are good source of
Foods > 20% is excellent source
IF drink with 21% of daily amount of
calcium, it is excellent source of calcium
Calories or Energy:
The calories or energy content of food is
one the first content you will see
This is not ingredient but amount of energy
produced when the body burns that food
Important source of calories
Dietary fat help absorb Vitamins A, D, E & K
Two type of fat: saturated and unsaturated
Found naturally in food
Sodium containing compound like common
salt (sodium chloride) are also added to
help preserve foods and give them flavor
The body need small amounts of sodium to
maintain proper body fluid balance,
regulate blood pressure and help
transmission of electrical signals through
Too much sodium high blood pressure
Perform many function
Part of every body cell
Make of up of hormones and enzymes that
regulate body processes and antibodies
that help protect human from bacteria and
Protein can also be source of energy when
body lack of carbohydrates and fat
Exist in some form in almost every edible
Consuming foods rich in fiber has been tied
to intestinal and cardiovascular health
On label, the number usually combine
several types of carbohydrates include fiber,
sugar, and other carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are your body’s primary
source of calories
Source: fruit, vegetable, grain, sugar, and
Protection Utility Communication
Tamper evident feathers Reclosable designs Brand name
Child resistant feather Easy to open designs Warnings
Design that do not require scissors or knives to Pre measured units Directions
open Compliance packaging Expiration dates
(packaging that, by nature of its Storage information
design, helps people comply Graphics
with medication regimens) Material
Talking packages Shape
Amber Color to protect from UV damage Controlled atmosphere Time and temperature
UV Absorbers to protect from UV damage packaging indicators
Water Vapor Barriers Modified atmosphere packaging Pictorials
Oxygen Barriers to protect from oxidation Edible films
Oxygen absorbers to protect from oxidation Wet strength corrugated
Antimicrobial films to retard microbial degradation
Water Vapor barrier to protect from Moisture Loss
Wet Strength Corrugated
Cushioning Stretch wrap “This side up”
Shipping containers Shrink wrap “Fragile”
Corner posts Self heating packages Bar Codes
Air bags Self cooling packages Radio frequency identification
Materials with Adequate compression strength to Freezer to oven capable “Handle with care”
withstand stacking Handles for carrying “Temperature not to exceed
Appropriately sized cases 70 degrees Fahrenheit”
Reference: Bix et al., The Packaging Matrix: Linking Packaging Design Criteria to the Marketing Mix
The main package that contact with food that is being
Combine the primary packages into one box being made
Combine all the secondary packages into one pallet
Poor gas and moisture barrier properties, and poorer
appearance than plastics.
Woven jute sack: reduce flammability, non-slip, tear resistant,
and good durability
Good for: bulks food such as grain, bean, rice, flour etc.
If closely woven, strong, plain, cotton fabric which is inexpensive
Satisfactory as a wrapper for flour, grains, legumes, coffee beans
and powdered or granulated sugar.
It can be re-used as many times as the material withstands
washing and is easily marked to indicate the contents of the bag.
The kenaf plant grows in Central Asia, India, Africa and Cuba.
It is chiefly used for making ropes and string but can be spun
into a yarn which is fine enough to make a coarse canvas.
Sisal is a fiber that comes from the agave family of plants.
Sisal is resistant to salt water and therefore makes an ideal
natural material from which to make rope.
The nets in which hard fruits are transported are often hand-
made from vegetable fiber.
Wooden shipping containers have traditionally been used for a
wide range of solid and liquid foods including fruits,
vegetables, tea and beer.
Wood offers good mechanical protection, good stacking
characteristics and a high weight-to-strength ratio.
The use of wood continues for some wines and spirits because
the transfer of flavor compounds from the wooden barrels
improves the quality of the product.
Banana or plantain leaves are the most common and
widespread leaves used for wrapping foods.
Cornhusk is used to wrap corn paste or block brown sugar, and
cooked foods of all sorts are wrapped into leaves.
These are widely used materials for basket making.
Green coconut palm and papyrus leaves are frequently woven
into bags or baskets, which are used for carrying meat and
vegetables in many parts of the world.
Leather has been used for many centuries as a non-breakable
container or bottle.
Water and wine are frequently stored and transported in leather
Cassava flour and solidified sugar are also packed in leather cases
Earthenware is used worldwide for storage of liquids and solid
foods such as curd, yoghurt, beer, dried food, honey, etc.
It is a gas, moisture and lightproof container.
Unglazed earthenware is porous and is very suitable for
products that need cooling e.g. curd.
Glazed pots are better for storing liquids e.g. oils, wine, as they
are moisture proof and airtight.
All are lightproof and if clean, restrict the entry and growth of
micro-organisms, insects and rodents.
Metal cans have a number of advantages over other types of container,
including the following:
They provide total protection of the contents
They are convenient for ambient storage and presentation
They are tamperproof.
However, the high cost of metal and the high manufacturing
costs make cans expensive. They are heavier than other
materials, except glass, and therefore have higher transport
Glass containers have the following advantages:
Impervious to moisture, gases, odors and micro-organisms
Do not react with or migrate into food products
Suitable for heat processing when sealed
Re-useable and recyclable
Transparent to display the contents
Rigid, to allow stacking without container damage.
The disadvantages of glass include:
higher weight which incurs higher transport costs than other types of
lower resistance than other materials to fractures, scratches and thermal
shock more variable dimensions than metal or plastic containers
potentially serious hazards from glass splinters or fragments in foods.
In general, flexible films have the following properties:
Cost is relatively low
Good barrier properties against moisture and gases
Heat sealable to prevent leakage of contents
Wet and dry strength
Easy to handle and convenient for the manufacturer, retailer
and consumer they add little weight to the product
Fit closely to the shape of the food, thereby wasting little
space during storage and distribution.
Plain cellulose is a glossy transparent film which is odorless,
tasteless and biodegradable (within approximately 100 days).
It is tough and puncture resistant, although it tears easily.
However, it is not heat sealable and the dimensions and
permeability of the film vary with changes in humidity.
It is used for foods that do not require a complete moisture or
Polypropylene is a clear glossy film with a high strength and is
It has moderate permeability to moisture, gases and odors,
which is not affected by changes in humidity. It stretches,
although less than polyethylene.
Heat sealable, inert, odor free and shrinks when heated.
Good moisture barrier but has a relatively high gas
permeability, sensitivity to oils and poor odor resistance.
It is less expensive than most films and is therefore widely
Stronger, thicker, less flexible and more brittle than low-density
Lower permeability to gases and moisture
Higher softening temperature (121ºC) and can therefore be
Sacks made from 0.03 to 0.15mm high-density polyethylene
have a high tear strength, penetration resistance and seal
Waterproof and chemically resistant and are used instead of
Films are coated with other polymers or aluminum to improve the
barrier properties or to import heat sealability.
One side of cellulose film to provide a moisture barrier but to
retain oxygen permeability.
Both sides of the film improves the barrier to oxygen, moisture
and odors and enables the film to be heat sealed when broad
seals are used.
Vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate:
Gives a stiffer film which has intermediate permeability.
Tough, stretchable and permeable to air, smoke and moisture.
They are used, for example, for packaging meats before
smoking and cooking.
Paper and cardboard
Sulphate paper: strong and use for paper sack for flour, sugar etc.
Sulphite paper: lighter & weaker for grocery bags
Grease proof sulphite paper: sulphite paper made resistant to oils
and fats for meat and dairy products.
Glassine paper: grease proof sulphite paper given a high glass,
resistant to water
Paper treated with wax: to achieve heat seal, use for bread
Paper and cardboard
Boards are made similar way to paper
Main characteristic: thickness, stiffness, crease without cracking
Often coated with Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride for heat
sealability, use for ice cream, chocolate, and frozen food cartons.
Thicker design to food from mechanical damage
Chipboard is made from recycled paper and it not use to contact
Aseptic packaging process is process of filling sterilized food
content into sterilized containers
Sterility is achieved through a flash-heating process or Ultra
High Temperature Processing
Shrink Wrapped Packaging
Established approx. 3 decades ago, low cost
Shrink film material made from PolyVinylChlorine (PVC),
PolyPropylene (PP), and PolyEthylene (PE)
LDPE, low density poloy ethylene is best suit general packaging
application due to high strength and low cost
The packaging method which take out oxygen
Foods maintain their freshness and flavor 3 – 5 times
Maintain texture and appearance (most microorganism
inhibited at this vacuum condition)
Freezer burn is eliminated (no dehydration)
Food with high fat & oil will no longer rancid (no O2 contact)
Poly ethylene bag is the best for this method
Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
Technique use to prolong shelf life of fresh or minimal
The air surrounding food in package is changed to another
Mixture of gases inside package depend on type of products
(non respiring vs. respiring), packaging material and storage
Packaging films: low density poly ethylene (LDPE), poly vinyl
chlorine (PVC), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and oriented poly
propylene (OPP) are NOT permeable enough for highly
respiring products like mushroom and broccoli.
Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
The goals of sustainable packaging
Functionality – product protection, safety, regulatory
Support long term human and ecological health
It is use to monitor products ship in the cold chain
Indicate temperature fluctuation in packaged food
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
Create a real time visibility of food product within the supply
Biodegradable material neither create waste disposal problem
nor affect the trade and safety of food products