Food Packaging Technology

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Food Packaging Technology Powered By Docstoc
					                     By: OT CHANDY,
 B. Eng, Msc. Food Science & Technology

Date: January 4, 2011
 Recognize    the importance of food packaging

         various type of material use in food
 Identify

 Explain    the information print on food label

 Explain    various techniques in food packaging
 History of Food Packaging & Innovation
 Principle of Food Packaging
 Function of Food Packaging
 Food Packaging Label
 Food Packaging Materials
 Food Packaging type
 Sustainability in Food Packaging
 Trend in Food Packaging
        Eat where found

 >20,000 years          5000 years ago:   2500 years ago:    Last 1000 years
 ago: modified          wooden, barrel    Glass container    ago: many
 natural material       boxes, crates                        changes

     8,000 years ago:      3500 years ago:      2000 years ago:    Notable advance in 20th Century:
     Ceramic,              Mass produce of      Paper and          • Aluminum foil containers
     amphorae              ceramics, pottery    cellulose fibers   • Aluminum can
                                                                   • Cellulose packaging
                                                                   • Heat shrinkable plastic film
                                                                   • Styrene foam
                                                                   • PET (polyethylene terephthalate)

Reference: Reduce Packaging
 Better containment
 Protection against physical chemical, biological and
  environmental factors.
   To aid consumers in using products, communicate,
    educate about the ingredients, nutritional contents and
    the materials used to provide the protection.
   Physical protection
       From: shock, vibration, compression, temperature
   Barrie protection
       From: gas migration control,
   Containment or Agglomeration
       For: granule food i.e rice, coffee, nut
   Information communication
       how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or
        product. Some types of information are required by

   Marketing purpose
   Security
     Tamper resistant
     Package pilferage
     Authentication seal/counterfeit
     Anti-theft device

 Convenience
       Distribution, display, handling, stacking, reclosing, reuse

 Portion      control
   Cambodia Food Labeling:

       Trade mark certification – MoC
       Label registration requirement:
           Design and Claim
           Language
           Ingredient
           Manufacturing address
           Net Content
     Manufacturing Date
     Expiry Date
     Bar Coding
   Bar Code:
       EAN/UCC-13 type formate

     Country prefix: 884 (Cambodia)
     Manufacturing Number: 6 digits
     Item reference number: 3 digits
     Check number: 1 digit
   Serving Size:

       Number of serving
       Serving size
       Nutrition Facts represent only one serving
   Daily Percentage:

     This show after nutrients
     Amount nutrient per one serving
     Foods within 10% - 19% are good source of
     Foods > 20% is excellent source
     IF drink with 21% of daily amount of
      calcium, it is excellent source of calcium
   Calories or Energy:
     The calories or energy content of food is
      one the first content you will see
     This is not ingredient but amount of energy
      produced when the body burns that food

   Fat:
     Important source of calories
     Dietary fat help absorb Vitamins A, D, E & K
     Two type of fat: saturated and unsaturated
   Sodium:
     Found naturally in food
     Sodium containing compound like common
      salt (sodium chloride) are also added to
      help preserve foods and give them flavor
     The body need small amounts of sodium to
      maintain proper body fluid balance,
      regulate blood pressure and help
      transmission of electrical signals through
     Too much sodium  high blood pressure
   Protein:
     Perform many function
     Part of every body cell
     Make of up of hormones and enzymes that
      regulate body processes and antibodies
      that help protect human from bacteria and
     Protein can also be source of energy when
      body lack of carbohydrates and fat
   Fiber:
     Exist in some form in almost every edible
     Consuming foods rich in fiber has been tied
      to intestinal and cardiovascular health
   Carbohydrate:
     On label, the number usually combine
      several types of carbohydrates include fiber,
      sugar, and other carbohydrates
     Carbohydrates are your body’s primary
      source of calories
     Source: fruit, vegetable, grain, sugar, and
                                                                                             Packaging Function
                                                            Protection                                       Utility                       Communication
                                       Tamper evident feathers                                         Reclosable designs                    Brand name
                                       Child resistant feather                                        Easy to open designs                    Warnings
                                       Design that do not require scissors or knives to                Pre measured units                     Directions
                                       open                                                          Compliance packaging                  Expiration dates
                                                                                                (packaging that, by nature of its        Storage information
                                                                                                  design, helps people comply                  Graphics

                                                                                                   with medication regimens)                   Material
                                                                                                        Talking packages                        Shape
                                                                                                            Material                            Color
                                                                                                              Shape                         Configuration
                                                                                                          Configuration                        Texture
                                                                                                             Texture                         Photographs

                                       Amber Color to protect from UV damage                        Controlled atmosphere              Time and temperature
                                       UV Absorbers to protect from UV damage                              packaging                         indicators
                                       Water Vapor Barriers                                     Modified atmosphere packaging                Pictorials

                                       Oxygen Barriers to protect from oxidation                          Edible films
                                       Oxygen absorbers to protect from oxidation                  Wet strength corrugated
                                       Antimicrobial films to retard microbial degradation
                                       Water Vapor barrier to protect from Moisture Loss
                                       or Gain
                                       Wet Strength Corrugated

                                       Cushioning                                                         Stretch wrap                       “This side up”
               Physical distribution

                                       Shipping containers                                                 Shrink wrap                         “Fragile”
                                       Corner posts                                                 Self heating packages                      Bar Codes
                                       Air bags                                                      Self cooling packages          Radio frequency identification
                                       Materials with Adequate compression strength to             Freezer to oven capable               “Handle with care”
                                       withstand stacking                                             Handles for carrying           “Temperature not to exceed
                                                                                                   Appropriately sized cases           70 degrees Fahrenheit”
Reference: Bix et al., The Packaging Matrix: Linking Packaging Design Criteria to the Marketing Mix
   Primary packaging:
       The main package that contact with food that is being

   Secondary packaging:
       Combine the primary packages into one box being made

   Tertiary packaging:
       Combine all the secondary packages into one pallet
   Special packaging:
       Bags-in-Box
   Textile:
       Poor gas and moisture barrier properties, and poorer
        appearance than plastics.

       Woven jute sack: reduce flammability, non-slip, tear resistant,
        and good durability

       Good for: bulks food such as grain, bean, rice, flour etc.
   Cotton:
       If closely woven, strong, plain, cotton fabric which is inexpensive

       Satisfactory as a wrapper for flour, grains, legumes, coffee beans
        and powdered or granulated sugar.

       It can be re-used as many times as the material withstands
        washing and is easily marked to indicate the contents of the bag.
   Kenaf:
     The kenaf plant grows in Central Asia, India, Africa and Cuba.
     It is chiefly used for making ropes and string but can be spun
      into a yarn which is fine enough to make a coarse canvas.
   Sisal:
     Sisal is a fiber that comes from the agave family of plants.
     Sisal is resistant to salt water and therefore makes an ideal
      natural material from which to make rope.
     The nets in which hard fruits are transported are often hand-
      made from vegetable fiber.
   Wood
     Wooden shipping containers have traditionally been used for a
      wide range of solid and liquid foods including fruits,
      vegetables, tea and beer.
     Wood offers good mechanical protection, good stacking
      characteristics and a high weight-to-strength ratio.
     The use of wood continues for some wines and spirits because
      the transfer of flavor compounds from the wooden barrels
      improves the quality of the product.
   Leaves
       Banana or plantain leaves are the most common and
        widespread leaves used for wrapping foods.
   Leaves
       Cornhusk is used to wrap corn paste or block brown sugar, and
        cooked foods of all sorts are wrapped into leaves.
   Bamboo
       These are widely used materials for basket making.

   Coconut palm
       Green coconut palm and papyrus leaves are frequently woven
        into bags or baskets, which are used for carrying meat and
        vegetables in many parts of the world.
   Treated skins
       Leather has been used for many centuries as a non-breakable
        container or bottle.
       Water and wine are frequently stored and transported in leather
       Cassava flour and solidified sugar are also packed in leather cases
        and pouches.
   Earthenware
       Earthenware is used worldwide for storage of liquids and solid
        foods such as curd, yoghurt, beer, dried food, honey, etc.

       It is a gas, moisture and lightproof container.

       Unglazed earthenware is porous and is very suitable for
        products that need cooling e.g. curd.

       Glazed pots are better for storing liquids e.g. oils, wine, as they
        are moisture proof and airtight.

       All are lightproof and if clean, restrict the entry and growth of
        micro-organisms, insects and rodents.
   Metal
Metal cans have a number of advantages over other types of container,
including the following:

     They provide total protection of the contents
     They are convenient for ambient storage and presentation
     They are tamperproof.
     However, the high cost of metal and the high manufacturing
      costs make cans expensive. They are heavier than other
      materials, except glass, and therefore have higher transport
 Glass
Glass containers have the following advantages:

       Impervious to moisture, gases, odors and micro-organisms
       Do not react with or migrate into food products
       Suitable for heat processing when sealed
       Re-useable and recyclable
       Re-sealable
       Transparent to display the contents
       Rigid, to allow stacking without container damage.

The disadvantages of glass include:
     higher weight which incurs higher transport costs than other types of
     lower resistance than other materials to fractures, scratches and thermal
      shock more variable dimensions than metal or plastic containers
      potentially serious hazards from glass splinters or fragments in foods.
  Flexible films
In general, flexible films have the following properties:
     Cost is relatively low
     Good barrier properties against moisture and gases
     Heat sealable to prevent leakage of contents
     Wet and dry strength
     Easy to handle and convenient for the manufacturer, retailer
      and consumer they add little weight to the product
     Fit closely to the shape of the food, thereby wasting little
      space during storage and distribution.
   Cellulose

       Plain cellulose is a glossy transparent film which is odorless,
        tasteless and biodegradable (within approximately 100 days).

       It is tough and puncture resistant, although it tears easily.

       However, it is not heat sealable and the dimensions and
        permeability of the film vary with changes in humidity.

       It is used for foods that do not require a complete moisture or
        gas barrier.
   Polypropylene

       Polypropylene is a clear glossy film with a high strength and is
        puncture resistance.

       It has moderate permeability to moisture, gases and odors,
        which is not affected by changes in humidity. It stretches,
        although less than polyethylene.
   Polyethylene
       Low-density polyethylene

           Heat sealable, inert, odor free and shrinks when heated.

           Good moisture barrier but has a relatively high gas
            permeability, sensitivity to oils and poor odor resistance.

           It is less expensive than most films and is therefore widely
   Polyethylene
       High-density polyethylene
         Stronger, thicker, less flexible and more brittle than low-density

           Lower permeability to gases and moisture

           Higher softening temperature (121ºC) and can therefore be
            heat sterilized.

           Sacks made from 0.03 to 0.15mm high-density polyethylene
            have a high tear strength, penetration resistance and seal

           Waterproof and chemically resistant and are used instead of
            paper sacks.
   Coated films
       Films are coated with other polymers or aluminum to improve the
        barrier properties or to import heat sealability.
       Nitrocellulose coating:
         One side of cellulose film to provide a moisture barrier but to

           retain oxygen permeability.
         Both sides of the film improves the barrier to oxygen, moisture

           and odors and enables the film to be heat sealed when broad
           seals are used.
       Vinyl chloride or vinyl acetate:
         Gives a stiffer film which has intermediate permeability.

         Tough, stretchable and permeable to air, smoke and moisture.

         They are used, for example, for packaging meats before

           smoking and cooking.
   Paper and cardboard
       Sulphate paper: strong and use for paper sack for flour, sugar etc.
       Sulphite paper: lighter & weaker for grocery bags
       Grease proof sulphite paper: sulphite paper made resistant to oils
        and fats for meat and dairy products.
       Glassine paper: grease proof sulphite paper given a high glass,
        resistant to water
       Tissue paper
       Paper treated with wax: to achieve heat seal, use for bread
   Paper and cardboard
       Boards are made similar way to paper
       Main characteristic: thickness, stiffness, crease without cracking
       Often coated with Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride for heat
        sealability, use for ice cream, chocolate, and frozen food cartons.
       Thicker design to food from mechanical damage
       Chipboard is made from recycled paper and it not use to contact
        with food
   Aseptic Packaging
       Aseptic packaging process is process of filling sterilized food
        content into sterilized containers

       Sterility is achieved through a flash-heating process or Ultra
        High Temperature Processing
   Shrink Wrapped Packaging
       Established approx. 3 decades ago, low cost

       Shrink film material made from PolyVinylChlorine (PVC),
        PolyPropylene (PP), and PolyEthylene (PE)

       LDPE, low density poloy ethylene is best suit general packaging
        application due to high strength and low cost
   Vacuum Packaging
       The packaging method which take out oxygen
       Foods maintain their freshness and flavor 3 – 5 times
       Maintain texture and appearance (most microorganism
        inhibited at this vacuum condition)
       Freezer burn is eliminated (no dehydration)
       Food with high fat & oil will no longer rancid (no O2 contact)
       Poly ethylene bag is the best for this method
   Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
       Technique use to prolong shelf life of fresh or minimal
        processed foods.

       The air surrounding food in package is changed to another

       Mixture of gases inside package depend on type of products
        (non respiring vs. respiring), packaging material and storage

       Packaging films: low density poly ethylene (LDPE), poly vinyl
        chlorine (PVC), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and oriented poly
        propylene (OPP) are NOT permeable enough for highly
        respiring products like mushroom and broccoli.
   Equilibrium Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)
   The goals of sustainable packaging

       Functionality – product protection, safety, regulatory
        compliance etc.

       Cost Effective

       Support long term human and ecological health
   Temperature recorders
       It is use to monitor products ship in the cold chain

   Time-Temperature indicator
       Indicate temperature fluctuation in packaged food
   Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
       Create a real time visibility of food product within the supply
   Biodegradable packaging
       Biodegradable material neither create waste disposal problem
        nor affect the trade and safety of food products

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Description: Introduction to Food Packaging Technology, Food labeling claim, Nutrition Facts