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A&P LAB - THE BLOOD

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					                                           A&P LAB - THE BLOOD

THE FORMED ELEMENTS - Identification & Recognition (pp. 658 & 659)
See also laserdisc images and wall poster to view samples of human blood and identify the formed elements.

ERYTHROCYTES (RBCs) See film clip from disc #10 33643→ and frames 1005, 1007, 1012

Functions (2)


Life span = 100 – 120 days

THROMBOCYTES (PLATELETS) (frames 1018, 1019)
Cell fragments that have the tendency to aggregate / agglutinate together at sites of tissue damage and initiate
the blood clotting process. Life span = 10 days.

LEUKOCYTES (white blood cells)(WBCs)
    A “mobile army” of cells helping our immune system protect us against microorganisms.
    Life spans range from a few days to many years depending on type of cell.
    NORMAL WBC COUNT = 4,000 - 11,000 /mm3.
         If >11,000 / mm3 then condition is called LEUKOCYTOSIS.
         If < 4,000 / mm3 then condition is called LEUKOPENIA
      Neutrophils (see wall poster and frames 1013, 1016 lower left)
    Shape of nucleus?                                                          Color of granules?



      Eosinophils (see wall poster and p. 658, 659, & 661)
    Shape of nucleus?                                                               Color of granules?



      Basophils (see wall poster and frames 1014, 1016 top middle)
    Shape of nucleus?                                                                       Color of granules?



    Lymphocytes (see wall poster and frame 1016 right side)
    Shape of nucleus?                                                                       Overall size of
    cell?




       Monocytes (see wall poster and p. 658, 659, & 661 and frame 1015)
    Shape of nucleus?                                                                       Size of cell?




                                          - 1 -
                                                 OYOs

Define LEUKEMIA and explain the effect on WBC numbers and function.




In acute leukemia the most common causes of death are internal hemorrhage and infections. Why?




Functions Of Leukocytes (WBCS) -- A Self Quiz

Which of the WBCs contain granules in their cytoplasm and are therefore considered “granulocytes?”
After staining, what is the respective color of the granules in each?




Which WBC contains and releases histamine and other chemical mediators of
inflammation?____________________

Which WBC directly attacks virus-infected cells with lethal chemicals? __________________

Which three WBCs are actively phagocytic?




Which WBC produces massive quantities of antibodies? __________________




Which WBC would increase in # in response allergies to try to suppress the inflammatory chemicals.?
____________________




                                       - 2 -
                                                THE HEART

Before you begin you should know:
 Arteries are vessels that carry blood away from the heart. Always.
 Veins are vessels that carry blood toward the heart. Always.
 On models, the color of any vessel, red or blue, is determined by whether or not it is carrying oxygen-
   rich or oxygen-poor blood. Direction of blood flow is irrelevant when it comes to color.
 Most arteries will be red and most veins will be blue... except in the pulmonary circulation where the
   colors are reversed. Can you explain this?




SUPERFICIAL ANATOMY OF THE HEART
 1. Identify each of the following structures on diagrams and on human heart models.

Base of the heart - the upper, more broad end of the heart where the vessels enter / exit. The pericardial sac
      surrounding the heart also attaches here.

Apex of the heart - the lower, more pointed end of the heart.

Coverings of the heart (p. 679 Fig. 18.2)
   Fibrous Pericardium


    Serous Pericardium

         Parietal Pericardium (layer)


         Visceral Pericardium (layer)


         Epicardium - Same as visceral pericardium. Touch the surface of the heart and your touching it.


Pericardial Cavity




Interventricular Sulcus – a surface groove on the anterior side of the heart filled with coronary vessels and
      fat. It runs diagonally from the top middle to the lower right of the heart. Directly behind this,
      internally, is the interventricular septum. Open the heart. Put a finger in each ventricle and pinch
      them together. The tissue between your fingers is the interventricular septum.




                                          - 3 -
Coronary Arteries and Veins - those vessels on the surface of the heart often obscured by fat. These are
     supplying blood flow to and from the actual myocardial muscle cells themselves.

State a brief function for each of the following with an "*".   Most of these functions can be stated as
“carries blood from ____ to ____”

* Pulmonary Trunk & L and R Pulmonary Arteries




* L and R Pulmonary Veins




* Superior and Inferior Vena Cava




* Aorta - (Where it makes an abrupt turn and descends downward is called the aortic arch.)




Brachiocephalic Artery – the 1st vessel branching off of the aortic arch. It carries blood to the right arm and
the right side of the neck and head.

Left Common Carotid Artery – the 2nd vessel branching off of the aortic arch. It supplies blood to the left
side of the neck and head.

Left Subclavian Artery – the 3rd branch off of the aortic arch. It supplies blood to the left shoulder and arm.

Helpful laser disc images for later review and for quizzing purposes:

     R pump vs. L pump and       frame 984             Valves                  Frames 979, 998, 1042,
     Pulmonary vs. Systemic      and film clip                                 1043 and film clips
     circulation.                10:35275                                     10:38025, 10:38314
     Chambers                    978-981               Septa                   978, 979
     Vessels                     979, 983              Heart wall (3 layers)   978
                                                       Pericardial sac         977

Confirm the accuracy of your identifications of the above with your instructor.




                                          - 4 -
INTERNAL HEART ANATOMY:
Chambers:
   * Right and Left Atria



    * Right and Left Ventricles



Interventricular Septum - “septum” is a generic term for a dividing “wall.” This structure is the wall
between the two ventricles.

Myocardium - When comparing the lateral walls of the L and R ventricles the thickness of the L usually
much greater. Why?




ENDOCARDIUM THE INNERMOST LAYER OF THE HEART WALL. IT APPEARS AS THE INNER
LINING OF THE CHAMBERS.




ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES (FOUND BETWEEN EACH ATRIUM AND ITS RESPECTIVE
VENTRICLE)
Describe the function of each valve as “prevents blood from flowing from the _______ back to the ______.”
    * Tricuspid Valve


    * Mitral (bicuspid) Valve
    (This valve is almost always the culprit when you hear of someone having heart valve problems. Why?)



Semilunar Valves
   * Pulmonary Semilunar Valve


    * Aortic Semilunar Valve


Chordae Tendineae and Papillary Muscles. (Function?)


Trace the path of blood pumped through the heart listing in sequence the vessels, valves, and chambers
encountered beginning with the superior and inferior vena cava and ending with the aorta. (When you can
do this from memory on a blank sheet of paper then you know your heart anatomy pretty well.)

Confirm the accuracy of your identifications of the above with your instructor.


                                        - 5 -

				
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