Austrian Monarchs Enlightened Despots Holy Roman Empire Empire Split • Emperor Charlemagne had unified most of western Europe into one empire • After his death, the empire split into two parts • Western part became France; eastern part became known as Germany Germany • France remained somewhat unified under one king • Germany separated into several small states, each with own ruler, or duke • 936, Otto the Great gained enough support to become king of the Germans Otto • Worked to unite German lands, conquered parts of northern Italy • 962, aided Pope John XII, rewarded by being named Emperor of the Romans • Territories united under Otto became known as Holy Roman Empire Description of Empire Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Emperors • Called holy because empire had pope’s • Made decisions, passed laws with help support of dukes • Called Roman because Charlemagne • Dukes maintained full authority on had title Emperor of the Roman own lands People Emperors Elected Crowned by Pope • 1100s, Holy Roman emperors did not • Person chosen by electors had to inherit position, were elected upon travel to Rome death of emperor • Pope had to crown new emperor • Group of electors—dukes, before his power fully recognized archbishops—chose successor Habsburg Family Crest TThe Holy Roman Empire 300+ German States Austria Bohemia Hungary he Holy Roman Empire •Major Obstacles in the way of an Absolute Monarchy •Not a nation-state – included too many languages, traditions and nationalities. •Germans •Czechs •Magyars •Slovenes •Slovaks •Croatians •Rumanians •Slovenes •Poles •Italians •Romanians •Italians •Poles Austrian Empire: 1657-1718 Maria Theresa and Joseph (1740- 1780) and (1780- 1790) Austria and Prussia Among the rulers who gained the most from the Treaty of Westphalia were the leaders of Austria and Prussia. Austria was governed by the Hapsburg family, while Prussia’s rulers came from a rival family, the Hohenzollerns. Pragmatic Sanction Reforms of Ivan IV • 1740, Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI • Charles VI’s daughter Maria Theresa died without male heir could now take throne • Before he died, approved document • Hohenzollerns had different plan called Pragmatic Sanction, stating • Frederick II of Prussia, Frederick the empire could be passed to female heir Great, seized Silesia • Offered Maria Theresa an alliance Frederick promised Maria Theresa to help her husband become the Holy Roman Emperor. Monarchy and Conflict in Central Europe Maria Theresa turned Frederick’s offer down, War of Austrian Succession broke out, 1740 • Spain, France, two German states entered war on Prussia’s side • Each hoped to gain territory • 1748, with so much against her, Maria Theresa asked for peace • Prussia kept Silesia, putting Prussia in position of real power War of the Austrian Succession Continued Rivalry Another War Prussia Rebounds • Prussia’s victory only intensified rivalry • During first part of war, Prussia on between Austria and Hungary verge of defeat; at one point Austrian, Russian forces occupied capital of • Not long until war broke out again Berlin • 1756, Seven Years’ War began • Russia pulled out, allowing Prussia to regain strength, eventually becoming • On one side Prussia, Great Britain; on strongest military power in Europe the other Austria, France, Russia • 1763, war ended, but rivalry far from over; struggle for control of Central Europe continued Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780) Maria Theresa & Her Family Her Notable Children: HRE Joseph II HRE Leopold II Queen Marie Antoinette (Fr.) After Maria’s husband died, Maria co-ruled with her son. She named him Emperor. Maria Theresa and Joseph II of the Hapsburg Empire (Austria) Note – mother and brother to Marie Antoinette (Queen of France) • Serfdom abolished in the Hapsburg Lands • Granted freedom of religion (very radical idea, especially in a Catholic empire) • Established a national education system • Developed equality before the law, even for the nobility • Many of the reforms were rolled back after revolutions broke out among the minority populations of the Hapsburg Empire The Austrian Hapsburgs ►Maria Theresa (r. 1740-1780): Wars of 1740s led to internal consolidation ►Reduced serfdom (more than any other e. European ruler except her son Joseph II) Maria Theresa and Joseph II of Austria (r. 1740-1780) • 16 children • Built Schönbrunn • Economic reforms • Limited power of the Pope • Reduced power of the lords • Joseph abolished serfdom • Poland divided Maria Theresa ﺣMaria Theresa ﺣPatient ﺣPractical sense ﺣDevoted to family life; sixteen children ﺣSchonbrunn Palace ﺣAided by notable team of international ministers including Count Kaunitz ﺣPrevented dissolution by enlarging and guaranteeing flow of taxes and soldiers ﺣBroke the local control of nobles in diets ﺣCameralism (mercantilist doctrine) policies increased production to augment economic strength ﺣChecked guild monopolies, suppressed brigands, created a tariff union ﺣAttacked serfdom (peasant belonged to more to the landlord than to the state) out of human, military, political motives ﺣLaws passed against peasant abuse, regularized labor obligations; often evaded 1740 – 1780 8 •War of Austrian Succession 1740-1748 – she successfully defended her right to inherit the Austrian Hapsburg domains •Created a centralized bureaucracy to control local affairs •Established the state’s control over the administration of the Roman Catholic Church •Husband had the title Holy Roman Emperor Maria tried to abolish serfdom. She regulated it so that peasants were not treated so harshly. Schoenbrunn Palace Versailles Schoenbrunn Versailles Schoenbrunn Versailles Maria Theresa and Joseph II of the Hapsburg Empire (Austria) Note – mother and brother to Marie Antoinette (Queen of France) • Serfdom abolished in the Hapsburg Lands • Granted freedom of religion (very radical idea, especially in a Catholic empire) • Established a national education system • Developed equality before the law, even for the nobility • Many of the reforms were rolled back after revolutions broke out among the minority populations of the Hapsburg Empire Her son wanted even more dramatic reforms… As a true enlightened monarch, he abolished serfdom, established equal taxation. He reformed the criminal code. The Austrian Hapsburgs ►Joseph II (1765-1790) – greatest of the Enlightened despots (“greatest good for greatest number”) – Abolished serfdom in 1781, freedom of press, freedom of religion & civic rights, more equitable justice system, made German official language (to assimilate minorities), increased control over Catholic education, expanded state schools, left empire in economic and political turmoil: Leopold I rescind many laws (e.g., serfdom) Enlightenment Ideas Spread Most radical enlightened despot, Austria • Joseph II, became emperor 1780 • Ambitious reform program – Eliminated torture, death penalty – Provided free food, medicine for poor – Granted religious tolerance to Protestants and Jews – Abolished serfdom, laborers to be paid • Changes resisted by nobility, church ﺣ Joseph II Joseph II ﺣImpatient (fast tempo), he would “end” existing conditions; solemn, earnest, good 1 ﺣDetested feudalism, nobility, church ﺣA pure representative of the Age of Enlightenment; use of right and reason 7 ﺣ Abolished serfdom 8 ﺣ Decreed absolute equality of taxes 0 ﺣ Equal punishment for equal crimes (Count Podstacky); less cruel ﺣ Religious toleration, freedom of the press ﺣ Equal civil right to Jews (army, noble) ﺣ Demanded increased powers in the appointment and supervision of Catholic bishops – ﺣ Used church property to finance secular hospitals ﺣ Built the port of Trieste, Ostend Company ﺣ Applied equal measures on Hungary to centralize the empire 1 ﺣ German as the single language for administration ﺣ Modern bureaucracy 7 ﺣ Secret police, instrument of enlightenment and reform 9 ﺣ Limitations of despotic enlightenment 0 ﻣFailed because he could not be everywhere and do everything; man without a party; lacked support from powerful groups ﻣSuggested that drastic and abrupt reform could perhaps only come with a true revolution ﺣ “The revolutionary emperor” ﺣ “What was right must be right everywhere” ﺣ “The state means the greatest good for the greatest number” 8 The Austrian Hapsburgs ►Joseph II (1765-1790) – greatest of the Enlightened despots (“greatest good for greatest number”) – Abolished serfdom in 1781, – freedom of press, – freedom of religion & civic rights, – more equitable justice system, – made German official language (to assimilate minorities), – increased control over Catholic education, – expanded state schools, – left empire in economic and political turmoil: Leopold I rescind many laws (e.g., serfdom) He ordered toleration for religion and equal rights for Jews. But when nobles did not support his reforms, he used suppression and the secret police to thwart the rebellion… So, consequently, he became ruthless and dictatorial against those who did not support his reforms. Joseph has been called the “revolutionary” emperor. A good man whose ideas were too advanced for the people he served. He died disillusioned and broken- hearted.