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DESIGN OF AN ADAPTIVE E-LEARNING MODEL BASED ON LEARNER’S PERSONALITY - Ubiquitous Computing and Communication Journal Powered By Docstoc
                    LEARNER’S PERSONALITY

                      Essaid El Bachari, El Hassan Abdelwahed, Mohamed El Adnani
                  Computer Systems Engineering Laboratory (LISI), Department of Enginneering Science,
                                  Faculty of Science Semlalia, Cadi Ayyad University
                                    B.P. 2390, Bd My Abdellah, 40000, Marrakesh
                                 {elbachari, abdelwahed, md-eladnani }

               Personalized e-learning implementation is recognized as among one of the most
               interesting research areas in the distance Web-based education. Since the learning
               style of each learner is different we must to fit e-learning to the different needs of
               learners. This paper presents an Adaptive e-learning model based personality
               learner’s. To recognize the learner’s personality, this system uses the Myers-
               Briggs Type Indicator's (MBTI) personality dimensions. Secondly, it will propose
               a Personalized Education System LearnFit Framework that suggests a learning
               style matching with learner’s preference in online distance learning education.

               Keywords: Adaptive Learning, E-learning, Learning Style, Teaching Strategy.

1   INTRODUCTION                                             people prefer some kind of interacting with, taking
                                                             in, and processing stimuli or information.
   Until now, it is extremely difficult for a teacher to
determine the optimal learning strategy for every            2   PREVIOUS WORKS
learner in a class. And even if a teacher is able to
determine all the strategies, it is even more difficult         A lot of research works has been done about
to apply all multiple teaching strategies in a               personality type, virtual learning system and learning
classroom. Today’s development of searching                  but it’s still very difficult to draw a definitive
technology provides learners a new way to break of           conclusion on the relationship between them. For
the traditional educational models “one size fits all”       example see [25], [11], [3], [21], [10], [8], [9] and
approach. It makes it possible to “customize down            [24]. In [1], authors designed an interface for
to the individual” and hence for effective                   computer learners appropriate for the type of their
personalized and creative learning [30].                     personality using MBTI test. Using learner’s
   In response to individual needs, personalization in       personality [23] and [15] proposed an expert system
education not only facilitates students to learn better      for virtual Classmate Agent (VCA).
by using different strategies to create various                 Recent developments of the online learning are
learning experiences, but also teacher's designer’s          related to Adaptive educational Hypermedia Systems
education needs in preparing or designing varied             (AEHS). An AEHS aims at building a model of the
teaching or instructional packages. Each learner has         goals, preferences and knowledge of each learner
a preference for a teaching style that allows him to         and use this model throughout the interaction with
learn better. Some one likes to listen and talk, others      the learner, in order to adapt learning content to the
prefer to analyze a text, or simply using a visual           needs of that learner [6]. In this research, there are
medium. So to learn effectively, learners have to be         four strategies path to improve the content suit for
aware of their preferences that make easy to manage          individual learners. They are adaptive content,
their own way of learning. This information will             adaptive navigation, adaptive presentation and
enable the learner to improve the effectiveness of its       adaptive learning task.
approach to learning and to exploit its own resources.            In this paper we will suggest new teaching
   Jungian based psychologists add that people’s             strategies on elearning context matching with
personality preferences influence the way they may           learner’s personality using the Myers-Briggs Type
or may not want to become more actively involved in          Indicator tools. In this purpose, we will apply our
their learning, as well as take responsibility for the       approach that may include four strategy paths, to
self-direction and discipline. So we have to identify a      implement a smart virtual learning which can give
person's individual learning style and then adapt            learner and also teacher a new positive educational
instruction toward that person's strengths and               experience.
preferences. It is commonly believed that most
3     THEORY BASE                                                  4.   Judging (J) or Perceiving (P)

    The related studies about this research can be           The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator reports a person’s
summarized under two sections; namely, the related           preferences on four scales which, is given in Table 1.
studies about learning style and the related studies
about MBTI and personality learners.                         Table 1: The MBTI preferences and their definitions.

3.1    Learning styles                                                  Preferences                   Definition
     The learning style (LS) can be defined as the                                            Where a person prefer
way a person collects processes and organizes                Extraversion or Introversion
                                                                                              to focus their attention
information.                                                                                  The way a person prefer
     There are many models of learning styles                Sensing or Intuition
                                                                                              to take in information
existing in literature. Individual learning styles differ,                                    The way a person prefer
and these individual differences become even more            Thinking or Feeling
                                                                                              to make decisions
important in the area of education. Learning style
                                                                                              How a person deal with
may be defined as “the attitudes and behaviours              Judging or Perceiving
                                                                                              the external world
which determine an individual’s preferred way of
learning” [22]. Therefore, when an instructor's style
                                                                 The various combinations of these preferences
matches a learner’s learning style; this affects the
                                                             result in a total of 16 personality types and are
learner’s experience and ability to do well. Until
                                                             typically denoted by four letters to represent a
today, a lot of research works has been done about
                                                             person’s tendencies on the four scales. For example,
learning styles and developed a good deal of learning
                                                             ENFP stands for Extroversion, Intuition, Feeling, and
style models but there does not seem to be any
                                                             Perceiving. This does not mean that a person
agreement of acceptance of any one theory [4]. Thus,
                                                             possesses only four preferences, but that the four
some tools are used to evaluate learner’s learning
                                                             preferences show a greater presence than their
style. There are many questionnaires that categorize
                                                             counterparts. The MBTI assessment can not only
people based on their learning preference. Indeed,
                                                             indicate the learner’s preferences, but also indicate,
MBTI is the well-known tool used for personality
                                                             how clear in expressing the preference for a
and learning style determination.
                                                             particular pole over its opposite.
                                                                 For example, Fig. 1, typical report from
3.2    Evaluation of learning styles
                                                             Consulting Psychologists Press, E is showing a
    Different tools are used to determine learners’
                                                             greater presence, on a clear level, over its opposite, I.
learning styles [2]. There are many questionnaires
                                                             N is showing a greater presence, on a moderate level,
that categorize each person according to their
                                                             over its opposite, S. F is showing a greater presence,
learning styles: Kolb questionnaire, honey and
                                                             on a clear level, over its opposite, T. Lastly, J is
Mumford questionnaire [20], GRSLSS questionnaire
                                                             showing a greater presence, on a moderate level,
[19] and [20]. Felder and Solman proposed a
                                                             over its opposite, P.
psychometric instrument, the index of learning style
Questionnaire ILSQ [16]. Among the different
proposals for modelling LS, we choose the MBTI
tools since it is the more powerful tools for personal
and team success.

3.3    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    The Myers-Briggs inventory is based on Carl
                                                              Figure 1: The strengths of MBTI type preferences.
Jung's theory of types, outlined in his 1921 work
Psychological Types [3], [12], [13] and [26]. Jung's
                                                             3.4    Dominant preferences
theory holds that human beings are either introverts
                                                                  We all have an aspect of our personality which
or extraverts, and their behavior follows from these
                                                             dominates or governs us. It gives direction to the
inborn psychological types. He also believed that
                                                             personality and shapes our motives and goals. This is
people take in and process information different
                                                             called the Dominant Process. There is an Auxiliary
ways, based on their personality traits.
                                                             Process which should be the second in strength and
    The Myers-Briggs evaluates personality type and
                                                             is the necessary assistant to the dominant. The
preference based on the four Jungian psychological
                                                             auxiliary takes care of the extraversion of the
                                                             introvert and the introversion of the extravert. All
                                                             four of these processes are found in the middle two
      1.   Extraversion (E) or Introversion (I)
                                                             pairs of preferences, that is, the perceiving
      2.   Sensing (S) or Intuition (N)
                                                             preferences which are either Sensing or Intuition and
      3.   Thinking (T) or Feeling (F)
                                                             the judging preferences which are either Thinking or
Feeling. If a person has a Dominant judging process,           benefit of the upcoming chapter's theory. Therefore,
his Auxiliary process will be one of the perceiving            the teacher present the chapter's Theory or ideas, and
ones. Conversely, a person with a Dominant                     then applies it to the original application. Afterwards
perceiving process will have a judging preference for          the teacher presents additional applications and has
his Auxiliary process [26]. Using these combinations           the students apply the theory [5].
can reduce the number of sixteen personality types to
four.                                                          • Intuitive (N): people get information through
    This is more manageable for planning teaching              perception between relationships and results; usually
approach and monitoring learning engagement.                   use their conception to get information. They prefer
Extroverts (E) use their dominant preference mostly            to know the theory before deciding that facts are
for the external world and introverts (I) use their            important. Intuitive people will always ask “why”
dominant preference mostly for the inner world [3],            before anything else. The discovery method, or the
[12], [13] and [26]. Table 2 illustrates clearly the           why method, will appeal to intuitive students and
priorities and function for each of the 16 personality         will teach sensing students how to uncover general
types.                                                         principles. To be motivated to learn, Intuitive people
                                                               prefer theory first, after the can attempt to analyze
Table 2: Priorities and direction of functions in each type.   and solve the case or problem [5], [12].
     Myers Briggs type             Dominant preferences
                                                               3.5.2 Thinking-Feeling (T-F)
ISTJ, ISFJ, ESTP ,ESFP                  S                          This scale suggests the way a person makes
INFJ, INTJ, ENFP, ENTP                  N                      decisions.
ISFP, INFP, ESFJ, ENFJ                  F                      • Thinking (T): people that make their decisions
ISTP, INTP, ESTJ, ENTJ                  T                           based logic, analysis, and reason.         Their
                                                                    decisions are logical and impersonal [26]. Since
    For example the dominant preference found in                    thinking students like clear course and topic
ISFP, INFP, ESFJ and ENFJ is sensing. For those                     objectives teacher have to present the chapter's
with ISTP, INTP, ESTJ or ENTJ type, the dominant                    Theory or ideas, and will use many examples
preference is thinking. For reasons of simplicity we                that illustrate the concept [13], [12].
can define four MBTI classes or MBTI clusters.                 • Feeling (F): people that have emphasis on
       S = {ISTJ, ISFJ, ESTP , ESFP}                                harmony and balance. They enjoy teamwork.
       )                                                            Their judgments and decisions are based on
      N = {INFJ, INTJ, ENFP, ENTP}                                  personal value [26].
       F = {ISFP, INFP, ESFJ, ENFJ}
      )                                                        3.6     Adaptive teaching strategies
      T = {ISTP, INTP, ESTJ, ENTJ}                                  We define the teaching strategies as the ways of
     The proposed taxonomy of learner preference               presenting instructional materials or conducting
consists on matching the different learning styles             instructional activities. It will be designed in a way
with teaching strategies. Then it’s easy to suggest the        that learner are encouraged to observe, analyse, look
suitable media as a channel for its representation,            for a solution and discover knowledge by themselves
thus personalizing it to every learner.                        [5]. The main objective is to facilitate the learning
3.5    Features of MBTI dimensions                                  In the first step, learner encounters with system
    Properties of each learner’s preference,                   questionnaire that finds out learner’s personality (for
pertaining to education and learning, were collated            example ISEJ, ESTP, INTJ …), then the system sets
from the literatures [5], [12], [13], [14], [26] and           learner in one of four MBTI taxonomy. Using learner
many others.                                                   traits based on Isabel Briggs Myers [3], [12], [13]
                                                               and [26], Table 3 below suggests an adaptive
3.5.1 Sensing-Intuitive (S-N)                                  learning style scenario for each learner’s preference.
This scale suggests the way a person prefers to take
in information that can give idea on how he can learn.
• Sensing (S): people rely heavily on their five
 senses to take in information. They like concrete
 facts, organization, and structure. Applications
 motivate sensing students to learn the material. To
 be motivated to learn, Sensing people attempt to
 analyze and solve the case or problem without the
                                 Table 3: Learners personality and teaching style matched suggest.

MBTI                          Teaching strategies Suggest                                      Distance educational delivery
                                                                                        •    Instruction that allows them to hear and
          TS1: it uses the Application-Theory-Application (ATA) approach.                    touch as well as see what they are
          Teacher start by presenting an Application. The students attempt to                learning
  )       analyze and solve the problem without the benefit of the upcoming             •    Hands-on labs, material that can be
  S       course's theory. Therefore, the teacher present the chapter's theory or            handled
          ideas, and then applies it to the original application. Afterwards the        •    Relevant films and other audio-visuals
          teacher presents additional applications to make easy the learning            •    First hand experience that gives practice
          process.                                                                           for the skills and concepts to be learned

          TS2: it uses the approach Theory-Application-Theory (TAT).                    •    Assignments that put them on their own
          Teacher start by presenting the chapter’s theory or idea before                    initiative
          application related. The students attempt to analyze and solve the            •     Real choices in the ways they work out
  )       problem using the course's knowledge. The teacher can reuse the                    their assignments
  N       theory to facilitate the learning process. This approach is used for          •    Opportunities     for     self-instruction
          the traditional educational model.                                                 individually or with a group
                                                                                        •    Opportunities to be inventive and
          TS3: it uses Theory- Example- Practical exercises Approach (TEP).             •    Logically constructed subject matter
          Teacher start by presenting the chapter’s theory or idea before               •    Classrooms free from emotional
  )       examples related. The students attempt to analyze and solve the                    distractions
  T       practical exercises using the course's knowledge. Afterwards the              •    Interesting problems to analyze
          teacher presents additional applications based logic and problem-
          TS4: it uses the opposite teaching of TS3. In fact, it uses Practical         •    Having topics with a human angle
  )       exercises, Example then Theory (PET). Teacher use case studies or             •    Learning into harmonious small-group
  F       learning based practical exercises. Therefore, the teacher presents the            work.
          chapter's theory or ideas.                                                    •    Collaborative work

      4   PROPOSED FRAMEWORK MODEL                                     As is shown in Fig. 2, the model includes three
                                                                    main modules, each of them described below:
         In this paper, a new Personalized Education                • Module 1. Preference Engine: in first step, the
      System LearnFit Framework is presented according                system finds deals with detecting and storing the
      to the learning model based on personality. This                preferences in student model according to MBTI
      module is displayed in Fig. 2. Our general purpose              Tools. The Index of MBTI was added to the
      framework may be viewed as being comprised of at                registration form of Expert System for the future
      least the following three elements:                             login.
      a- Domain Model: Consist of concepts and the                  • Module 2. Adaptive Engine: according to learners
           relations that exist between them. Typically the           group, the system chooses a teaching style
           domain model gives a domain expert’s view of               matching with learner’s personality. This
           domain.                                                    extension uses the decision unit to select an
      b- Learner Model: Consists of relevant information              adaptive course to improve the learning process.
           about the user that is pertinent to the                  • Module 3. Revised strategy Engine: this model
           personalisation of the learning style                      determines whether a given teaching style is
      c- Pedagogical Model: includes two parts                        appropriate or not. For each individual student
      • Adaptive Engine Model: Consists of a set of rules             the system initializes the decision model
           or triggers for describing the runtime behaviour           generated from a set of rules that represents the
           of the system as well as how the domain model              matches between teaching style and the learner’s
           relates to the user model to specify adaptation.           personality. This model uses Bayesian Network
      • Revised Strategy Model: Consists in determining               (BN) and its behaviour is quite similar to a
           whether a given resource is appropriate for a              content-based recommender system1 [7].
           specific learning style or not.
                                                                        A recommender system tries to present to the user the
                                                                        information items he/she is interested in. To do this the
                                                               Figure 3: Learner’s profile taxonomy

                                                               4.2     Domain Model
                                                                    This model describes the structure of the
                                                               information content of the application. It consists of
Figure 2: System Architecture of LearnFit                      concepts and concept relationships. A concept is an
                                                               abstract representation of an information item from
     The LearnFit project is an Add-On to the popular          the application domain. The domain model of the
Moodle2 Learning Management System to provide                  system is based on the notion of learning goals that
adaptivity learning experience. The add-on is a web-           the learner can select and study, and provides
based application having two tiers utilizing open              learners with a plurality of learning activities and
source technologies: PHP, MySQL, XHTML, CSS,                   resources
and AJAX. Our framework has three meta-models: a                    In preview work, the authors in [27] suggest
learner model, a domain model and pedagogical                  three hierarchical levels of knowledge abstraction
model. Theses models will be described in the                  learning goals, concepts and educational material.
following sub-sections.                                        We will add a fourth one that’s educational
                                                               pedagogical. This model is displayed in Fig. 4.
4.1     Learner Model
     This component stores all user-related data, i.e.
the users’ profiles, including personal information,
preferences. It enables the system to deliver
customized instruction, on the basis of the individual
student’s, or the student group’s, learning style [29].
     In our case, using MBTI questionnaire the
personality of the learner is recognized. The
questionnaire calculated and stored the preferences
in student model. It will only consider the four MBTI
                                   ) ) )         )
preferences of learners, which are S , N , T and F .
The learner’s profile taxonomy is displayed in Fig. 3.

                                                               Figure 4: Teaching strategies suggestions for Myers-
                                                               Briggs Preferences.
    user’s profile is compared to some reference
    characteristics. These characteristics may be from the          A learning goal corresponds to a topic of the
    information item (the content-based approach) or the       domain knowledge, which can be recognized and
    user’s social environment (the collaborative filtering     selected even by a novice learner. Each goal is
    approach).                                                 associated with a subset of concepts of the domain
2   Moodle has been an open source Learning managing           knowledge, which formulates a conceptual structure
    system designed to help educators to have a platform       that represents all the concepts of a goal and their
    where they could create online courses. Moodle is been     relationships [27].
    developed all the time by several parties who create new        Teaching strategies hold a one-to-one
    qualities and improve existing ones.
relationship with the learning styles. There can be
one teaching strategy that accommodates one
learning style. Each concept is associated with a
teaching strategy according to learner’s preferences
 TSD = {TS 1 , TS 2 , TS 3 , TS 4 } (1)
Where TSD denotes the set of all teaching strategies
used in our framework.
    Each teaching style TSi can be also associated
with appropriate learning objects (LOi):

        {     i      i      i      i
LO i = LO1 , LO2 , LO3 , LO4 ,..., LOn
                                                  }   (2)

Where LOi denotes the set of all learning objects
related to each teaching strategy TSi.                      Figure 5: Adaptive taxonomy: LS dimensions and
     Otherwise a teaching scenario can be also              TS relationships
represented by a tree of learning object where
sections constitute the components (Child) of               4.3.2 Revisited strategy engine
learning scenarios, each section can be composed of               The revisited strategy engine helps to determine
subsection that can also be composed of more                whether a given teaching strategy is appropriate for a
specific learning objects like pedagogical resources        specific learning style or not. This module uses a
and/or pedagogical activities.                              Dynamic Bayesian Network Classifiers DBN 3 [7],
                                                            [18] and [28] to classify a teaching strategy as
4.3     Pedagogical Model                                   “appropriate” or “not appropriate” for the learner.
     Teaching strategies (TS) are the elements given        To define the DBN’s parameters we set the a priori
to the students by the teachers to facilitate a deeper      distribution of the nodes representing the LS
understanding of the information. The emphasis              according to the score obtained by learner in the
relies on the design, programming, elaboration and          MBTI test (related module 1).
accomplishment of the learning content. Teaching
strategies must be designed in a way that students are
encouraged to observe, analyze, express an opinion,
create a hypothesis, look for a solution and discover
knowledge by themselves. Didactic teaching strategy
for example refers to an organized and systematized
sequence of activities and resources that teachers use
while teaching [18]. The main objective is to
facilitate the students´ learning. Our pedagogical
model has two main intelligent axes: adaptive
strategy engine and revisited strategy engine.

4.3.1 Adaptive strategy engine
    The system is designed to offer a best teaching         Figure 6: Bayesian networks representing the
environment matching with the learner’s profile. The        decision model
system sets learner in one of four kinds of
independent group given in Fig. 5. This classification          For a given concept, the system offers a suitable
is obtained based on preference engine which                teaching style (Selected Ti), the value of each node
detecting and storing the preferences in student            can be changed dynamically when the concept’s
model according to MBTI Tools. If the learner be            score is acceptable. For example, Fig. 6 shows that for a
placed in the independent group, the education a            person with S profile, the system offers a selected teaching
learning process will be started otherwise system           style selected T1. Thereafter, if the student's grade is less
selects a suitable teaching strategy according to           than 60%, the system presents another teaching style
learner’s personality type.                                 for example selected T2, and so until the score will
                                                            be more acceptable. In that time, the value of the
                                                            learner’s profile can be adjusted.

                                                            3   A DBN is a model to describe a system that is
                                                                dynamically changing or evolving over time. This model
                                                                enables uses to monitor and update the system as time
    Regarding the conditional probability tables          storing the preferences in student model according to
(CPTs) that represent the relationships between the       MBTI Tools. Then, according to learners group, the
dimensions of the LS and the TS, we estimated these       system chooses a teaching style matching with
CPTs taking into account the matching tables defined      learner’s personality. This extension deals with the
by the expert. The detail will be published in the next   decision unit to select the best adaptive course.
work.                                                     Lastly, the system determines whether a given
                                                          teaching style is appropriate or not using Bayesian
5   SYSTEM EVALUATION                                     network (BN).

     To evaluate the performance and the impact of           We are very encouraged by the system’s ability
the LearnFit framework to improve learning process,       and concentrating on evaluating the effectiveness
we plan to compare the learning outcome of                and impact of Learnfit’s to facilitate a positive
LearnFit’s adaptive teaching strategy with a classical    educational experiences.       The result of this
non adaptive strategy. The difference will be             experimentation will be published in the next work.
measured with respect to the following two main
criteria:                                                 7   REFERENCES
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