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					Max Weber
  Biography (1864-1920)

• Weber was born in Erfurt, Germany. In 1882 Weber
  enrolled in the University of Heidelberg as a law student.
  Weber looked at sociology in terms of it being an
  extensive science of social action and in the beginning he
  would only focus on specific social contexts.
• During the First World War, Weber served for a time as
  director of the army hospitals in Heidelberg. In 1915 and
  1916 he sat on commissions that tried to retain German
  supremacy in Belgium and Poland after the war. Weber's
  views on war, as well as on expansion of the German
  empire, changed throughout the war. He became a member
  of the worker and soldier council of Heidelberg in 1918.
• Sociologist and political economist best known for his
  thesis of the "Protestant Ethic," relating Protestantism to
  capitalism, and for his ideas on bureaucracy. Through his
  insistence on the need for objectivity in scholarship and his
  analysis of human action in terms of motivation, Weber
  profoundly influenced sociological theory.
   Weber is looking at meanings in a social context (rather
   than just psychology), where situations are interpreted and
   meanings shared. Being focused on the matter of action in
   the social situation, Weber distinguished four types:

• Affective action is emotional and spontaneous.
• Traditional action is continuing what was always
  repetitive in history.
• Wertraditional action is rational action based on a value
• Zwekrational action is doing something to attain a
  rational goal
• Affective actionA
The Ideal Type:

• An ideal type is an analytical construct that serves the
 investigator as a measuring rod to ascertain similarities as
  well as deviations in concrete cases. It provides the basic
               method for comparative study.

• Ideal types enable one to construct hypotheses linking
 them with the conditions that brought the phenomenon or
  event into prominence, or with consequences that follow
                    from its emergence.
• One major type of organization that has emerged in
  modern, western society has been bureaucracy or
  bureaucratic administration. This is the primary way that
  rational-legal authority has developed in formal
  organizations. The dominance of bureaucratic
  organizations in modern society shows the effectiveness of
  formal rationality as a way of organizing society. The
  ideal type of formal bureaucracy has a continuous and
  hierarchical organization of official functions or offices,
  with rules that govern each positions and relationships in
  the organization. Ten characteristics are associated such an
  ideal type.
• a. Personally Free. People in such an organization are not
  bound to others in a servant-master, slave-master, or
  family relationship. They are free to leave the job, and the
  corporation is free to end the individual’s contract with the
• b. Hierarchy. Offices or positions within the bureaucracy
  are organized into a hierarchical system, where some have
  more power than others. But the power is associated with
  the position, not the individual.
• c. Clearly Defined Sphere of Competence. The office or
  position carries with it a set of obligations to perform
  various duties, the authority to carry out these duties, and
  the means of compulsion required to do the job.
• d. Office Contractual. Positions are not associated with
  particular people who have inherent rights to them, but are
  associated with a particular contract governing duties,
  expectations, rights, and other conditions associated with
  doing the job.
• e. Technical Qualifications. The offices may carry with
  them technical qualifications that require that the
  participants obtain suitable training. Selection and
  promotion is on the basis of ability to perform the technical
  requirements of the job.
• f. Salaried. Wages or salaries are associated with the
  position. These are likely to be part of the contract
  associated with the position. Note how this allows for
  calculation in terms of costs associated with the position.
• g. Primary Occupation. The individual filling the position
  is expected to devote time and energy to the position, and
  be devoted to the job.
• h. Career. Individuals in the bureaucracy expect to have a
  career in the organization, and the organization is expected
  to commit itself to promoting individuals in the
  organization. This is to be done on the basis of technical
  qualifications and abilities, and not on the basis of
  friendship or personal likes and dislikes.
• i. No Ownership of Positions. The staff that fills the
  offices does not own the means of production or
  administration associated with the position. Those filling
  the position cannot pass the position on to friends or family
  and once their contract ends, they have no rights to any
  aspect of the position. Individuals in the positions are
  provided with the means to carry on the duties associated
  with the position.
• j. Discipline. While those who are higher in the
  bureaucratic hierarchy may be less subject to discipline
  than those lower in the hierarchy, everyone is subject to
  discipline. If the individual does not meet the requirements
  of the position or breaks the rules, the individual may be
  disciplined or removed from the position.
• Weber defines authority as legitimate forms of domination,
  that is, forms of domination which followers or
  subordinates consider to be legitimate. Legitimate does not
  necessarily imply any sense of rationality, right, or natural
  justice. Rather, domination is legitimate when the
  subordinate accept, obey, and consider domination to be
  desirable, or at least bearable and not worth challenging. It
  is not so much the actions of the dominant that create this,
  but rather the willingness of those who subordinate to
  believe in the legitimacy of the claims of the dominant.
  Weber outline three major types of legitimate domination:
  traditional, charismatic, and legal or rational.
• He regards the development of rational forms to be one of
  the most important characteristics of the development of
  Western society and capitalism. Weber viewed traditional
  and charismatic forms as irrational, or at least non-rational.
  The latter may rely on religion, magic, or the supernatural
  as a way of explaining the social world and authority may
  also derive from these. These may have no systematic form
  of development, but may rely on personal insight,
  revelation, emotions and feelings, features that are non-
  rational in form.
Charismatic Authority:

• Weber defines charismatic authority as "resting on
  devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary
  character of an individual person, and of the normative
  patterns or order revealed or ordained by him" (Weber, p.
  215).That is, charisma is a quality of an individual
  personality that is considered extraordinary, and followers
  may consider this quality to be endowed with supernatural,
  superhuman, or exceptional powers or qualities. Whether
  such powers actually exist or not is irrelevant – the fact
  that followers believe that such powers exist is what is
• The charismatic leader gains and maintains authority
  solely by proving his strength in life. If he wants to be a
  prophet, he must perform miracles; if he wants to be a
  war lord, he must perform heroic deeds. Above all,
  however, his divine mission must 'prove' itself in that
  those who faithfully surrender to him must fare well. If
  they do not fare well, he is obviously not the master sent
  by the gods.
 The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of
• Weber shows that certain types of Protestantism favoured
  rational pursuit of economic gain and that worldly
  activities had been given positive spiritual and moral
  meaning. It was not the goal of those religious ideas, but
  rather a byproduct — the inherent logic of those doctrines
  and the advice based upon them both directly and
  indirectly encouraged planning and self-denial in the
  pursuit of economic gain.
• In other words, the Protestant ethic was a force behind an
  unplanned and uncoordinated mass action that influenced
  the development of capitalism.
• He further noted that the spirit of capitalism could be
  divorced from religion, and that those passionate capitalists
  of his era were either passionate against the Church or at
  least indifferent to it.The most common tendencies were
  the greed for profit with minimum effort and the idea that
  work was a curse and burden to be avoided especially
  when it exceeded what was enough for modest life.
As he wrote in his essays:

   In order that a manner of life well adapted to the
   peculiarities of the capitalism… could come to
   dominate others, it had to originate somewhere, and not
   in isolated individuals alone, but as a way of life
   common to the whole groups of man.
 Iron cage:

• Iron cage refers to the increasing rationalization of human
  life, which traps individuals in an "iron cage" of rule-
  based, rational control.

• Weber became concerned with social actions and the
  subjective meaning that humans attach to their actions and
  interaction within specific social contexts
Weber, M. , Toplumsal ve Ekonomik Örgütlenme Kuramı.

Weber, M. , Simmel, G. , Tönnies, F. , Martindale, D. ,
Şehir ve Cemiyet.