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                                                                                  48
                                                                                                Science and Engineering Profile
                Characteristic                              State                          U.S.              Rank                                Characteristic                                State                 U.S.              Rank
                           1
  Doctoral scientists, 1997 ............................... 12,919                        483,162                  14                                                            $7,543              $199,110
                                                                                                                             Total R&D performance, 1997 (millions).............................................                               9
  Doctoral engineers, 19971............................... 2,474                            97,075                 13                                                                   $6,610
                                                                                                                             Industry R&D, 1997 (millions).............................................           $150,329                     7
                                                        1
      S&E doctorates awarded, 1998 ........................................... 27,272
                                                                      449                                          21                                                                              $508
                                                                                                                             Academic R&D, 1997 (millions)............................................. $23,740                            13
                                                                       30%
       of which, in life sciences.............................................     25%                                                                                                                 66%                56%
                                                                                                                              of which, in life sciences............................................................................
       in engineering.............................................     19%         22%                                                                                                                 11%                  6%
                                                                                                                              in environmental sciences............................................................................
       in social sciences............................................. 14%         15%                                                                                                                   9%
                                                                                                                              in engineering............................................................................ 16%
      S&E postdoctorates, 19971                                                                                              Higher education current-fund
                                                                       1,073                   37,928
                 in doctorate-granting institutions.............................................                   9                                                                    $3,450
                                                                                                                               expenditures, 1996 (millions)............................................. $189,626                         20
                                                    1
      S&E graduate students, 1997                                                                                                                                                       795
                                                                                                                             Number of SBIR awards, 1990-1998............................................. 35,413                          12
                                                                       5,777                 424,650
                 in doctorate-granting institutions.............................................                   26                                                                1,776                 80,287
                                                                                                                             Patents issued to state residents, 1998.............................................                          13
                                                                 5,689
      Population, 1998 (000s).............................................          274,153                        15                                                                                 $172
                                                                                                                             Gross state product, 1997 (billions)............................................. $8,152                      14
                                                                 3,039
      Civilian labor force, 1998 (000s).............................................139,125                        15         of which, agriculture............................................. 2%                   2%
                                                                                                                                                                                                          18%
                                                                                                                              manufacturing, mining, construction............................................. 23%
                                                      $27,961                   $26,412
      Personal income per capita, 1998.............................................                                11                                                                                       9%
                                                                                                                              transportation, communication, utilities.............................................8%
                                                                                                                              wholesale and retail trade.............................................     17%        16%
      Federal spending                                                                                                        finance, insurance, real estate.............................................18%        19%
                                                       $31,186             $1,453,884
       Total expenditures, 1998 (millions).............................................                            16                                                                                     22%
                                                                                                                              services............................................................................   20%
                                                        $1,226                  $68,424
       R&D obligations, 1997 (millions).............................................                               16                                                                                     14%
                                                                                                                              government............................................................................ 12%
 NOTE:                    Rankings and totals are based on data for the 50 states, D.C., and Puerto Rico. Reliability of the estimates of industry R&D and of doctoral scientists and
                           engineers varies by state, because the sample allocation was based on sector, not geography. The rankings do not take into account the margin of error
                           of estimates from sample surveys.
 1
         Data on graduate students, doctoral scientists and engineers, and postdoctorates include all graduate degree (except M.D.) candidates and recipients in S&E fields,
         including health fields. Data on doctorates awarded do not include health fields.

                                                Federal Obligations for Research and Development by Agency and Performer: Fiscal Year 1997
                                                                                                                                                  Performer
                                                                                        Federal              All                                                Universities &                Other             State & local State rank,
                                                                        Total          Intramural           FFRDCs               Industrial firms                   colleges                 nonprofits          government            total
                                  Agency                                                                                                 [In thousands of dollars]
                                1,226,154
  Total, all agencies………………………………….                                                         167,356          143,527                         451,601                         344,568           114,787                 4,315               16
                 Department of Agriculture…………………………….35,561 20,384                                                0                             164                          14,754               249                    10               12
                 Department of Commerce………………………………   60,774 54,471                                                0                           2,299                           3,619                75                   310                4
                 Department of Defense…………………………………. 427,471 74,735                                            4,739                         318,450                          28,855               692                     0               19
                 Department of Energy………………………………….  180,884      0                                          131,498                          30,451                          18,687               248                     0                9
                                                     364,610  5,019
                 Dept. of Health & Human Services………………………………….                                                7,103                          17,037                         221,177           111,318                 2,956                8
                                                      12,010
                 Department of Interior………………………………………. 10,337                                                     0                              14                           1,614                 0                    45               11
                                                       4,258
                 Department of Transportation……………………………………… 0                                                     0                           3,056                             153               155                   894               23
                                                       3,839
                 Environmental Protection Agency……………………………….     0                                                0                              70                           3,117               552                   100               20
                                                      89,007  2,371
                 Nat'l Aeronautics & Space Admin……………………………………..                                                 155                          77,868                           8,553                60                     0               12
                 National Science Foundation……………………… 47,740     39                                               32                           2,192                          44,039             1,438                     0               16
                                     16
  State rank, total……………...……………………………………..                                                        16               10                               16                             10                  7                   12                 na
 NOTE:                      Federal R&D obligations are as reported by funding agencies. Ranks and totals are based on data for the 50 states, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.
 KEY:                        FFRDC = federally funded research and development center; SBIR = small business innovation research; na = not applicable
 SOURCE:                     Prepared by the National Science Foundation/ Division of Science Resources Studies. Data compiled from numerous sources -- see the section, "Data
                             Sources for Science and Engineering (S&E) State Profiles".                                                                                                                         Prepared on March 21, 2000

				
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