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LOS INCAS

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					    Los Incas
El imperio Tahuantinsuyu con
          fotografías
¿Dónde vivían los incas?
            • Los incas habitaban
              los países de
              Sudamérica:
              Colombia, Ecuador,
              Perú, Bolivia, Chile y
              Argentina.
            • Su imperio contenía
              los Andes – las
              montañas más altas
              de America Latina.
El mapa de expansiones
                           Geografia
•   Perú es mas conocido como la tierra de los Incas. Tiene una área de
    1,285,216 Km. cuadrados, y esta situado en la costa del Pacifico, en la
    parte norte central de Sud America.

•   Perú es el tercer país mas grande de Sud America, detrás solo de Brasil y
    Argentina. Perú es considerado un país tropical. Perú tiene tres regiones
    bien marcadas, una delgada zona costera, las montañas de los Andes de
    mayor anchura, y la zona forestal del Amazonas.

•   La faja costera es mayormente formada de desiertos pero aquí se ubican
    los ciudades principales.

•   Los ríos corren desde el este hacia el oeste, deslizándose hacia abajo con
    taludes bien inclinados lo que hace que los ríos sean torrentosos. En estas
    valles se encuentran los mayores centros de agricultura.
                      Historia
• La famosa civilización Inca solo es una parte de toda la
  Arqueología Peruana. Antes de los Incas, Perú tuvo las
  culturas PRE-Colombinas , algunas de estas
  precediendo a los Incas por muchos siglos.

• Este imperio es uno de lo mas conocido en el mundo.
  En su apogeo, el imperio tenia 2500 Km. cuadrados
  cubriendo los países que hoy se llaman: Colombia,
  Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Chile, e Argentina.
              El Imperio Incaico
• A pesar de toda su grandeza el Imperio Incaico existió más de un
  siglo. Con anterioridad al año 1430 los Incas gobernaron solo el
  Valle del Cuzco.

• Ellos habían entablado una guerra con los Chancas y finalmente los
  derrotaron en una gran victoria en 1430. Esto marcó el comienzo de
  una gran expansión militar.

• El Imperio Incaico conquistó e incorporó la mayoría de las culturas
  en el área que se extendía desde el sur de Colombia hasta el centro
  de Chile. Los Incas impusieron su modo de vida sobre las gentes
  que conquistaron.

• Para el tiempo que los Españoles arribaron la mayoría del área de
  los Andes había sido totalmente controlado bajo las leyes de los
  Incas.
      Las fechas importantes
• 1438 – empezó el imperio inca (el rey,
  Pacha cutí conquistó otros tribus)

• 1532 – Francisco Pizarro llegó a
  Sudamérica (la conquista española)

• 1572 – murió el ultimo rey inca (Tupác
  Amaru) terminó el imperio
Quipu
     The Inca Rise To Power (1)


• Their own legends state that ten related clans
  emerged from caves in the region and were taken to
  Cuzco by a mythical leader. Wherever their origins,
  by about A.D. 1350 they resided in and around Cuzco
  and by 1438 they had defeated their hostile
  neighbors in the area. At this point under their ruler,
  or Inca, Pachacuti (1438-1471), they launched a
  series of military alliances and campaigns that
  brought them control of the whole area from Cuzco
  to the shores of Lake Titicaca.

•
Cuzco
      The Inca Rise To Power (2)
• The Inca armies were constantly on the march, extending
  control over a vast territory. Pachacuti's son and successor,
  Topac Yupanqui (1471-1493) conquered the northern coastal
  kingdom of Chimor by seizing its irrigation system, and he
  extended Inca control into the southern area of what is now
  Ecuador.
• At the other end of the empire, Inca armies reached the Maule
  River in Chile in spite of the Araucanian Indians’ resistance.

• The next ruler, Huayna Capac (1493-1527) consolidated these
  conquests and suppressed a number of rebellions on the
  frontiers. By the time of his death, the Inca Empire - or as they
  called it, Twantinsuyu - stretched from what is now Colombia to
  Chile and eastward across Lake Titicaca and Bolivia to
  northern Argentina.

• Between nine and 13 million people of different ethnic
  backgrounds and languages came under Inca rule, a
  remarkable number given the extent of the empire and the
  technology available for transportation and communication.
     Las centros importantes
• Cuzco (el ombligo del mundo [navel of the
  world] en quechua)

• Machu Picchu (desde allí los incas
  estudiaban el sol)

• Pisac (también en Perú)
Machu Picchu
               La religión
• Los incas también creían en muchos
   dioses (eran politeístas).
-Viracocha – el dios creador
-Inti – el dios sol
-Mama Kilya – la diosa de la luna
-Ilyapa – el dios del buen tiempo (weather)
                            Religion
•   Inca political and social life was infused with religious meaning. Like
    the Aztecs, the Incas held the sun to be the highest deity and
    considered the Inca to be the sun's representative on earth.
•   The magnificent Temple of the Sun in Cuzco was the center of the
    state religion, and in its confines the mummies of the past Incas
    resided. The cult of the sun was spread throughout the empire, but the
    Inca did not prohibit the worship of local gods.

•   Other deities were also worshiped as part of the state religion.
    Viracocha, a creator god, was a favorite of Inca Pachacuti and
    remained important.
•   Popular belief was based on the idea that many natural phenomena
    were connected to spiritual power. Mountains, stones, rivers, caves, or
    tombs and temples were considered to be holy shrines. At these
    places, prayers were offered and sacrifices of animals, goods, and
    humans were made.
•   The temples were served by many priests and women dedicated to the
    preparation of cloth and food for sacrifice. The temple priests were
    mainly responsible for the great festivals and celebrations upon which
    state actions often depended.
            La sociedad incaica
•   emperador                       • Los incas creían que
                    La familia real   sus emperadores
•   la familia real
•   aristócratas                      eran hijos del primer
                                      dios Viracocha, por
•   administradoresnobles             eso el rey o
•   otros nobles                      emperador tenía la
•   artesanos                         autoridad máxima en
•   Trabajadores                      el imperio.
•   Campesinos
•   guerreros
•
                  Social classes
• The Inca nobility was greatly privileged and those related to the
  Inca himself held the highest positions. The nobility were all
  drawn from the ten royal ayllus.
• In addition, the residents of Cuzco were given noble status to
  enable them to serve in high bureaucratic posts.
• The nobles were distinguished by dress and custom. Only they
  were entitled to wear the large ear spools that enlarged the ears
  and caused the Spaniards to later call them orejones, or "big
  ears."
• Noticeably absent in most of the Inca Empire was a distinct
  merchant class. Unlike Mesoamerica where long-distance trade
  was so important, Inca emphasis on self- sufficiency and state
  regulation of production and surplus limited trade.
• Only in the northern areas of the empire, in the chiefdoms of
  Ecuador, the last region brought under Inca control, did a
  specialized class of traders exist.
               La comida
• Tres cosas esenciales:
-maíz (sara)
-papas o patatas (chuno)
-quinoa (chisaya mama [mother grain])
 para cereales, harina, sopas
• Cuando los incas empezaron a comerciar
  con otros tribus comían calabazas, piñas y
  papayas.
• Sabían como hacer la comida seca.
Las fotos
                      Language
• The Incas intentionally spread the Quechua language as a
  means of integrating the empire.

• The Incas made extensive use of colonists. Sometimes
  Quechua-speakers from Cuzco might be settled in a newly won
  area to provide an example and a garrison. On other occasions,
  a resistive conquered population was moved to a new home.

• Throughout the empire, a complex system of roads was
  constructed with bridges and causeways when needed. Along
  these roads, way stations, were placed about a day's walk apart
  to serve as inns, storehouses, and supply centers for Inca
  armies on the move.

• Tambos also served as relay points for the system of runners
  who carried messages throughout the empire. The Inca
  probably maintained over 10,000 tambos.
Machupichu
              World of the Incas
• Almost at the same time that the Aztecs
  extended their control over much of
  Mesoamerica, a great imperial state was
  rising in the Andean highlands, and it
  eventually held sway over an empire
  some 3000 miles in extent.

• The Inca Empire incorporated many
  aspects of previous Andean cultures but
  fused them together in new ways - and
  with a genius for state organization and
  bureaucratic control over peoples of
  different cultures and languages, it
  achieved a level of integration and
  domination previously unknown in the
  Americas.
                     Los Impuestos
•   With few exceptions the Incas, unlike the Aztecs, did not demand
    tribute, but rather required labor on the lands assigned to the state
    and the religion.

•   Communities were expected to take turns working on state and church
    lands and sometimes on building projects or in mining.

•   These labor turns were an essential aspect of Inca control.

•   In addition, the Inca required women to weave high-quality cloth for
    the court and for religious purposes. The Incas provided the wool, but
    each household was required to produce cloth. Woven cloth, a great
    Andean art form, had political and religious significance.

•   Some women were taken as concubines for the Inca and others were
    selected as servants at the temples, the so-called "Virgins of the Sun."

•   In all this, the Inca had an overall imperial system, but remained
    sensitive to local variations so that its application accommodated
    regional and ethnic differences.
     Inca Cultural Achievements
• The Incas drew on the artistic traditions of their Andean
  predecessors and the skills of subject peoples.
• Beautiful pottery and cloth was produced in specialized
  workshops.
• Inca metallurgy was among the most advanced of the
  Americas, and Inca artisans worked gold and silver with great
  technical skill. The Incas also used copper and some bronze for
  weapons and tools.
• Like the Mesoamerican peoples, the Incas made no practical
  use of the wheel.
• They had no system of writing.
• The Incas, however, did make use of a system of knotted
  strings with which numerical and perhaps other information
  could be recorded. It functioned something like an abacus, and
  with it the Incas took censuses and kept financial records.
     Inca Cultural Achievements
• The Incas had a passion for numerical order, and the
  population was divided into decimal units from which they
  enlisted the them in the military.
• Inca stonecutting was remarkably accurate and the best
  buildings were constructed of large fitted stones without the
  use of masonry. Some of these buildings were immense.
• Incan constructions, the large agricultural terraces, irrigation
  projects, and the extensive system of roads were among the
  Incas' greatest achievements.
• The Incas displayed their technical ability and workmanship as
  well as their ability to mobilize large amounts of manpower.

• Inca genius was best displayed
   – in their statecraft and
   – in their architecture and
   – public buildings.
    Comparing The Incas And Aztecs
•    Both the Inca and the Aztec empires were based on a long
    development of civilization that preceded them; and while in
    some areas of artistic and intellectual achievement earlier
    peoples had surpassed their accomplishments, both
    represented the success of imperial and military organization.

• Both empires were based on intensive agriculture organized by
  a state that accumulated surplus production and then
  controlled the circulation of goods and their redistribution to
  groups or social classes.

• In both states older semi kinship-based institutions, the ayllu
  and the calpulli, were being transformed by the emergence of a
  social hierarchy in which the nobility was increasingly
  predominant. In both areas this nobility was also the personnel
  of the state, so that the state organization was almost an image
  of society.
Comparing The Incas And Aztecs (2)
•   While the Incas attempted to create an overarching political state and
    made conscious attempts to integrate their empire as a unit (the
    Aztecs did less in this regard), both empires recognized local ethnic
    groups and political leaders and were willing to allow considerable
    variation from one group or region to another - that is, provided that
    Inca or Aztec sovereignty was recognized and tribute paid.

•   Both the Aztecs and the Incas found that their military power was less
    effective against nomadic peoples who lived on their frontiers.
    Essentially, the empires were created by the conquest of sedentary
    agricultural peoples and the extraction of tribute and labor from them.

•   At the same time, their ability to survive the shock of conquest and to
    contribute to the formation of societies after conquest demonstrates
    much of their strength and resiliency. Long after the Aztec and Inca
    empires had ceased to exist, the peoples of the Andes and Mexico
    continue to draw on these cultural traditions.
Comparing The Incas And Aztecs (3)
• There were considerable differences between Mesoamerica and
  the Andean region in terms of climate and geography but also
  in terms of their civilizations.
• Trade and markets, for example, were far more developed in the
  Aztec Empire and earlier in Mesoamerica in general than in the
  Andean world.
• There were considerable differences in metallurgy, in writing
  systems, and in social definition and hierarchy. But within the
  context of world civilizations, these two empires are variations
  of populations where sedentary agriculture is the most
  important.

• Basic similarities can also be seen in systems of belief and
  cosmology and in social structure.
• But the American Indian civilizations shared much with each
  other, and that factor plus their relative isolation from external
  cultural and biological influences gave them their peculiar
  character and ultimately their vulnerability.
         La Conquista Española
•   En Noviembre de 1526, Francisco Pizarro encabezó desde el sur de
    Panamá una expedición. Pizarro se enteró de la riqueza del Imperio Incaico
    y retornó a España para recaudar dinero y reclutar gente para la conquista.

•   En 1530 acoderó en la zona costera del Ecuador y comenzó su marcha
    hacia tierra adentro. En 1532 Pizarro fundó el primer pueblo español en
    territorio Peruano el que llamó San Miguel de Piura. En Noviembre de
    1532 el alcanzó la ciudad de Cajamarca, donde el Inca Atahualpa estaba
    residiendo.
•   Pizarro y sus hombres capturaron Atahualpa aprovechando de la ventaja
    de las corazas que sus hombres vestían y sobre todo de los caballos que
    eran desconocidos en América, lo que ponían a los Españoles en ventaja
    respecto a altura y protección. Después que los hombres de Pizarro
    capturaron a Atahualpa, Pizarro encarceló a Atahualpa y pidió un rescate
    en piezas de oro suficiente para llenar el cuarto donde encerraron a
    Atahualpa hasta la marca que el Inca alcanzara con su brazo extendido.

•   Con la excusa que la gente de Atahualpa estaba demorando, Pizarro
    ordenó la ejecución de Atahualpa con la pena del garrote. Los Españoles lo
    condenaron a muerte por herejía.
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