Lord of the Flies
• Ralph’s leadership based on democracy
• Ralph makes references to the conch which is
a symbol of order.
• He is elected as the leader.
• Jack tries to undermine Ralph so that he can
exercise authoritarian power. He uses his knife
as a symbol of his power.
• Jack treats the members of his choir without
• Piggy has knowledge – which is power. That is
why Jack doesn’t like him
• Fear has power over the boys.
Fear of the unknown
• The boys are fearful because they don’t know where
• They fear what will happen if they are not rescued.
• The littluns fear the beastie. In darkness, the boys
fear beasts that are still unknown.
• They fear being alone – no parents, grown ups.
• They are afraid of their fear. They don’t understand it
or know what to do about it.
• Fear of anarchy (loss of order and control)
Point of View
• Golding shifts from presenting the points of view of
individual characters to presenting the point of view
of an omniscient (all knowing) narrator.
• Ralph – he sees the island as a great place to play.
• Simon – he describes the island and the other boys
poetically and insightfully. He appreciates beauty.
• Piggy – He sees everything with logic and order.
• Omniscient narrator – he explains what none of the
• Conch – democratic power
• Beastie – fear; the evil in all of us
• Huts – civilization, home
• Clothing – civilization
• Fire – warmth, comfort, rescue AND death,
• Spectacles – sight, foresight
• Scar – man’s destruction
Characters as symbols
• Ralph – law, order, responsibility
• Jack – anarchy, lawlessness
• Piggy – knowledge
• Roger – evil, satan
• Simon – pure goodness, Christ figure