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					   SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention


     Elizabeth Kimbell           Ghanashyam (Sam) Sharma
Communication Instructor   Ph.D. Fellow in Rhetoric & Composition
 ejkimb01@louisville.edu          g0shar01@louisville.edu
                                 Introduction

• Elizabeth Kimbell
      – Communication Instructor at UofL since 1999
      – Online instructor since 2004
      – Piloted and used SafeAssign since Summer ’08
• Shyam Sharma
      – Faculty in English at Tribhuvan University of
        Nepal 2001-2006
      – Consultant, UofL Writing Center-2006;
        Assistant Director-2007

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Agenda

• Overview of SafeAssign
• Preventing Plagiarism through Pedagogy
      – Why SafeAssign is not sufficient in itself
      – Integrating Pedagogy and SafeAssign
• Using SafeAssign
• Conclusions and Questions
• Hands-On Lab


SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
Overview of SafeAssign
                                 Plagiarism Statistics

• From plagiarism.org:
      – In U.S. News and World Report surveys
            • 80% of "high-achieving" high school students admit to
              cheating
            • 75% of college students admitted cheating, and 90% of
              college students didn't believe cheaters would be caught
            • Almost 85% of college students said cheating was
              necessary to get ahead
      – In a sample of 1,800 students at nine state
        universities:
            • 84% admitted to cheating on written assignments
            • 52% had copied a few sentences from a website w/o
              citing the source


SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Plagiarism Prevention Timeline

• 2004: initial efforts
• 2005-2006: negotiations with TurnItIn (failed)
• 2007: Blackboard acquires SafeAssignment
• 2008
      – Spring: Provost agrees to terms for deployment
      – Summer: training delivered to pilot group
      – Fall: Formal SafeAssign trainings conducted
• Where are we now? (some controversy)

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 What is

• SafeAssign is a plagiarism prevention
  service integrated with the Blackboard
  Learning System™
• It is delivered by Blackboard at no additional
  cost to the institution
• It uses an originality detection algorithm to
  run a comparison of submitted papers
  across a large collection of databases


SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 What does           check?

• SafeAssign compares submitted papers to:
      – Internet
            •Index of billions of documents available to public
      – ProQuest ABI/Inform database
            •Millions of articles, updated weekly, many in full-text
      – Institutional Database
            •Papers submitted by users from UofL
      – Global Reference Database
            •Papers that were volunteered by students at other
             institutions (on Blackboard’s central database)


SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
Integrating SafeAssign with Pedagogy
                                 SafeAssign is not Enough

• SafeAssign cannot replace faculty judgment
      – SA report does not prove that student
        plagiarized work
      – SA won’t detect all forms of plagiarism
• SafeAssign can be used for creating
  teaching opportunities
• It must be used as a pedagogical tool



SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 What is Plagiarism?

• UofL defines plagiarism as "representing the
  words or ideas of someone else as one’s own
  in any academic exercise” – Undergraduate
     Catalog
• Plagiarism should be discussed as a negative
  standard for learning essential skills
• Plagiarism is not the only form of academic
  dishonesty



SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Plagiarism as a Form
                                 of Academic Dishonesty

Acts of academic dishonest include:

• Plagiarism: "representing the words or ideas of someone else
     as one's own"
• Cheating: getting credit by deceptive means
• Fabrication: making up information
• Falsification: altering information/records
• Multiple Submission: using the same work to receive multiple
     instance of credit
• Complicity in any of the forms of academic dishonesty above
                                                      Undergraduate Catalog

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                  Intentional and Unintentional Plagiarism

INTENTIONAL                             UNINTENTIONAL
• Potluck paper                         • Mixing up notes & sources
• Forgotten footnote                    • “Common” knowledge
• Source mismatch                       • Incorrect citation or style
• Perfect crime                         • Improper paraphrasing
• Consumerism                           • Cultural background
• Ghost writing                         • Professional differences
• Self-stealing                         • Misunderstood expectation
• Labor of laziness


 SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Activity 1

Discuss and share how you would deal with the
following cases of (possible) plagiarism:

1. A student continues to use ideas from a
   source after proper citations
2. A student turns in a recycled paper written for
   another class (with minor changes)
3. A student has rephrased words from a source
   such that SafeAssign doesn’t show lengthy
   blocks of matched text
4. A student has used lecture notes without
   citing source

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Preventing Plagiarism
                                 through Pedagogy

• Syllabus
• Assignment Design
• Teaching: process-based view of writing
• Teaching: research skills




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Syllabus:
                                 The Plagiarism Section

• Communicate your expectations about
  intellectual honesty and rigor
• Highlight intrinsic motivation (the desire to
  learn research skills), besides giving the
  regular warning against plagiarism




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Syllabus:
                                 A Critical View of Plagiarism

• Plagiarism should be avoided not only because it is
  seriously penalized but also because it
  shortchanges your opportunities for academic and
  professional development. Proper use of sources
  by using appropriate academic conventions is one
  of the important standards I expect you to maintain
  and further develop in this course. If you have any
  doubts about plagiarism, consult me.




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Syllabus:
                                 Integrating SafeAssign

• If you intend to use SafeAssign in your
  course, you must:
      – Include university language about plagiarism
        prevention from Undergraduate Catalog (section
        14)
      – State how you intend to use SafeAssign,
        specifying whether you will accept alternative
        submission



SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Assignment Design

• Specific
• Process-based
• Integrated
• Challenging
• Engaging




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Teaching: Using Process-Based View of
                                 Research and Writing

• Conducting preliminary research/reading
• Selecting a topic
• Preparing a working bibliography
• Drafting research questions
• Developing a working thesis (or hypothesis)
• Creating an outline
• Writing the first draft
• Revising, editing, and proofreading
• Producing the final draft
• Writing a reflection of the process

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Teaching: Supporting Students with New
                                 Research Skills

If you are demanding more complex research
skills than students already have,
• Either teach those new skills, or
• Encourage students to use available resources:
      – The Library
      – Research librarians
      – The Writing Center
      – Tools that the University makes available
      – Databases accessible through the library


SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
Using SafeAssign
                                           Modes of Use

• SafeAssign may be used in two primary ways
      – Creating SafeAssignments
            • Like a regular Assignment in Blackboard that routes
              student submissions through plagiarism service
      – Direct Submit
            • Faculty may directly upload papers




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Demonstration

• Easier to show in actual system




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Creating a SafeAssignment

• From Control Panel, enter a content area
  (typically Assignments)




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Creating a SafeAssignment

• Select SafeAssign from the drop-down menu
  in toolbar, then click Go




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Creating a SafeAssignment

• Enter Information - Draft mode example




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Creating a SafeAssignment

• Optional Announcement - Draft mode example




• Click Submit at bottom of page

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Creating a SafeAssignment

• Enter Information – Normal mode example




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Student View of SafeAssignment

• From Assignments, choose View/Complete




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Student View of SafeAssignment

• Draft mode example




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Instructor View of SafeAssignments

• Instructors may view SafeAssignment
  matching reports in two ways
      – From SafeAssign in Control Panel
      – From Grade Center in Control panel




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Instructor View of SafeAssignments

• From SafeAssign in Control Panel




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Instructor View of SafeAssignments

• From SafeAssign in Control Panel
                                     If you make a Course Copy, you’ll
                                     need to synch once before use.




• Choose View


SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Instructor View of SafeAssignments

• From SafeAssign in Control Panel




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Instructor View of SafeAssignments

• From Grade Center in Control Panel




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Instructor View of SafeAssignments

• From Grade Center in Control Panel




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Instructor View of SafeAssignments

• From Grade Center in Control Panel




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Using Direct Submit

• Instructors may use Direct Submit to directly
  upload papers
• Two modes
      – Shared
            •Shared folders are accessible to anyone that can
             access Direct Submit for a course (other instructors
             and teaching assistants, for example)
      – Private
            •Private folders are only accessible by the instructor
             and may be accessed from any course in Blackboard
             in which you are designated as an instructor

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Using Direct Submit

• Access Direct Submit from SafeAssign in
  Control Panel




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Using Matching Report

• Paper Information




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Using Matching Report

• Suspected Sources




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Using Matching Report

• Paper Text




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Using Matching Report

• Paper Text




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Conclusions

• Be sure to add explicit statement about use of
  SafeAssign to your syllabus
• Goal is to prevent plagiarism by using
  SafeAssign in tandem with effective pedagogy
      – Syllabus
      – Assignment Design
      – Teaching Strategies
• Faculty must still use judgment to assess
      – SafeAssign report does not prove that student
        plagiarized work

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Reflections and Questions

  • Share any pedagogical strategies for
    preventing plagiarism that you use in
    your own classes.

  • Describe how you might incorporate
    SafeAssign and teaching ideas covered
    today into your classes.

  • Any Questions for us?



SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
   SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention


     Elizabeth Kimbell           Ghanashyam (Sam) Sharma
Communication Instructor   Ph.D. Fellow in Rhetoric & Composition
 ejkimb01@louisville.edu          g0shar01@louisville.edu
                                 Catalog Statement

• From current Undergraduate Catalog
      – “Plagiarism Prevention: Instructors may use a range of
        strategies (including plagiarism-prevention software at
        the university) to compare student works with private
        and public information resources in order to identify
        possible plagiarism and academic dishonesty.
        Comparisons of student works may require submitting a
        copy of the original work to the plagiarism-prevention
        service. The service may retain that copy in some
        circumstances. Academic units or programs may
        establish a more rigorous standard of review or consent,
        which will be noted in the relevant guidelines.”



SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 Resources

• Delphi is building resources for SafeAssign:
  http://delphi.louisville.edu/help/safeassign/
      – Includes:
            •Overview documents for students and faculty
            •Step-by-Step directions for creating a
             SafeAssignment
            •Step-by-Step directions for using Direct Submit
• Also, check out Blackboard’s site:
  http://www.safeassign.com/
      – Has manuals, how to’s, FAQs, and more!

SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 SOURCES

• Alice Robison: “Designing Assignments to Discourage
  Plagiarism,”
  http://mendota.english.wisc.edu/~WAC/page.jsp?id=141&c_ty
  pe=category&c_id=24
• Council of Writing Program Administrators: “Defining and
  Avoiding Plagiarism: The WPA Statement on Best Practices”:
  http://www.wpacouncil.org/book/export/html/9
• James E. Porter: “Discourage Plagiarism by Promoting Academic
  Honesty: A Proactive Approach for Teachers,”
  http://kairos.wide.msu.edu/porter/teach_plagiarism)
• Karen McClaskey: “Prevent Plagiarism with Creative
  Assignments: Ideas for Faculty”:
  http://www2.truman.edu/~karenmc/preventplagiarism.htm




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention
                                 SOURCES

• Plagiarism.org: www.plagiarism.org
• Robert Harris: “Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers,”
  http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm
• Tammy Kempfert: “Beating eCheating: Strategies for
  Discouraging Internet Plagiarism,”
  http://faculty.millikin.edu/~mgeorge/plagiarism/
• UofL Undergraduate Catalog:
  http://louisville.edu/undergraduatecatalog/currentcat/generali
  nfo/academic-policies-and-procedures.html
• U of Carnegie Mellon: “Plagiarism and the Web”:
  http://www.cmu.edu/teaching/solveproblem/strat-
  cheating/plagiarism.html
• Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Academic_dishonesty




SafeAssign & Plagiarism Prevention

				
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