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Julius Caesar and Shakespeare PowerPoint - The Tragedy of Julius

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									The Tragedy of Julius Caesar



     By William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
    Background on William
         Shakespeare
Shakespeare was born on April 23, 1564 in
Stratford-upon-Avon in England.
His parents were Mary Arden and John
Shakespeare, a respected glove-maker.
He attended the local grammar school were
he learned to read and write in English and
Latin.
Shakespeare’s Birthplace
King Edward VI Grammar School at
       Stratford-upon-Avon
Shakespeare background cont.
When he was 18, he married a woman by
the name of Anne Hathaway. She was 26 at
the time of their marriage.
The relationship was solely based on
convenience. It is unclear as to whether or
not Shakespeare actually loved her, but
when she became pregnant he felt that it
was his duty to marry her.
Shakespeare background cont.
Shakespeare and Anne had three children
together: Susanna and the twins Judith and
Hamlet.
From 1585-1592, there are no official
records of Shakespeare, thus the title “The
Lost Years” is given to this period.
It is speculated that he worked numerous
odd jobs to try and support his family.
Shakespeare background cont.
Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway did not have a
loving marriage. As soon as Shakespeare had
saved enough money, he moved to London to
become an actor and left Anne and the kids in
Stratford-upon-Avon.
In 1594, Shakespeare became a charter member of
a theatrical group known as the Lord
Chamberlain’s Men which became the King’s
Men in 1603. (The name changed because King
James I was the patron for this group).
King James I
Shakespeare background cont.
Shakespeare acted and wrote for this company
until he retired in 1612.
By this time he had written thirty-seven plays-
comedies, tragedies, histories, and romances.
Shakespeare is sometimes referred to as “The
Bard.”
Not a single original manuscript has survived
due partly to the fact that they were written
strictly for performance.
Shakespeare background cont.
There is much speculation as to whether or not
there was an actual “Shakespeare.”
Many historians claim that “Shakespeare” is
actually a collection of several poets and
playwrights works, while others claim that it was a
pseudonym for another writer.
The three men most associated with the
“Shakespeare Debate” are Edward De Vere,
Francis Bacon, and Christopher Marlow.
Shakespeare background cont.
The reasoning behind the controversy seems to lie
in the fact that many people find it difficult to
accept that a man of poor education and
upbringing could write such eloquent masterpieces
and have such a strong command of the English
language.
The important thing is not to focus on whether he
was real or not, but instead we should focus on the
great pieces of literature that we have attributed to
him.
Shakespeare background cont.
Shakespeare died on April 23, 1616, at the age
of fifty-two.
At the time of his death he was considered one
of the greatest playwrights and actors to have
ever graced the stage.
He wrote 37 plays, 154 sonnets, and 2 long
poems.
His works were not published during his
lifetime, but they appeared four years after his
death in the “First Folio.”
     The Elizabethan Stage
Queen Elizabeth (1558-1603) was the ruling
monarch in England during Shakespeare's
day.
She was an avid fan and supporter of the
arts.
At this time, London was the heart of
England, reflecting all the vibrant qualities
of the Elizabethan Age.
Queen Elizabeth
      Elizabethan Age cont.
London became a leading center for culture and
commerce.
Its dramatist and poets were among the most
revered and admired men during this time period.
There was no such thing as a theatre during the
first part of the Elizabethan Age.
It seems that traveling acting companies would
come into England and set up their own stages.
      Elizabethan Age cont.
These “stages” were actually more like
platforms, and they were often set up in the
courtyards of inns.
The audience would stand at the three sides
of the stage, or if they paid more money,
than they could sit in chairs on the balcony
of the inn.
      Elizabethan Age cont.
In 1576, James Burbage decided to build
the first permanent theatre just outside the
city of London.
Burbage called his new playhouse “The
Theatre.”
In 1599, the owner of the land that The
Theatre was built upon decided to raise the
rent.
       Elizabethan Age cont.
Because the theatre was behind on its payments,
the landlord threatened to take it over.
On the night of January 20, 1599, James
Burbage’s son Cuthbert and others in the company
stealthily took the theatre apart piece by piece and
relocated across the river.
They reconstructed a new theatre and named it
“The Globe.”
The Globe Theatre
The stage at The Globe
Side view of the stage
The Gallery during performance
The Gallery
The Groundling Area
        The Globe Theatre
Shakespeare was part owner of the Globe Theatre.
This was the theatre where Shakespeare’s greatest
works were performed.
Among these works included: Romeo and Juliet,
Hamlet, Macbeth, and King Lear.
There were no elaborate stages, but instead
Shakespeare relied on the imaginations of his
audience.
There were, however, numerous special effects
that Shakespeare employed into his works.
    The Globe Theatre cont.
All of the plays were performed during the
day.
The cost of admission was one penny.
All of the actors were young boys or men.
(Women were not allowed to act until 1660).
Actors on stage dressed like Elizabethans, but
their costumes were controversial just the
same.
Shakespearean Actors and
      Accessories
Shakespearean Actors and
      Accessories
    The Globe Theatre cont.
England had “Clothing Acts” which forbade
certain classes of people from dressing like
a higher class.
So, for an actor-a person of the lower
classes- to dress like a nobleman or a king
was something of a scandal.
  Parts of The Globe Theatre
The Pit- Sometimes referred to as “The Yard”
where the groundlings watched the play for their
one-penny admission.
The Stage- Major playing area jutted into the Pit,
creating a sense of intimacy with the audience.
Hangings curtained off space beneath.
Main entrance- Here the doorkeeper greeted
playgoers and collected one penny from everyone.
    Parts of the Globe cont.
Lord’s Rooms- private galleries; six pennies
let a viewer sit here, or sometimes even on
the stage itself.
Middle Gallery- called “two-penny rooms”
because the seats here were higher priced.
Inner Stage- A recessed playing area often
curtained off, then opened for appropriate
scenes.
Parts of the Globe Theatre cont.
Flag- a white flag hoisted above the theatre
meant a show would be performed that day.
White-comedy, Black-tragedy, Red-history
Stage Doors- doors opening into the Tiring-
House.
Hut- a storage area that also held a wench
system for lowering enthroned gods or other
characters to the stage.
Parts of the Globe Theatre cont.
The Heavens- so identified by being painted
with the zodiac signs.
Gallery- located above the stage house for
musicians or spectators. An auxiliary stage
for special scenes.
Dressing Rooms- rooms where actors were
“attired” and awaited their cues.
Parts of the Globe Theatre cont.
Tiring-House- The important backstage area
which provided space for storage and business
offices.
Stairs- Ascending to the first level, theatre goers
reached the galleries by wooden staircases
enclosed by stairwells.
Trap Door- Leading down to the Hell area where
equipment included the winch elevator that raised
and lowered actors or properties.
Parts of the Globe Theatre cont.
Hell- The area under the stage, used for
ghostly comings and goings or for more
mundane storage of properties.
 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
Most scholars agree that Shakespeare wrote The
Tragedy of Julius Caesar in 1599.
The historical play is based upon the assassination
of Julius Caesar by his close friends and
confidants.
Shakespeare gained much of his knowledge about
Caesar and Roman life from Plutarch’s The Lives
of the Noble Grecians and Romans.
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
During Caesar’s time, Rome was constantly
at war.
The ruling power of Rome was in the hands
of its generals.
These generals would contract “private
armies” and subdue other countries that
were weaker than Rome.
 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
After these “private armies” conquered a new
area, a Roman governor was sent there to watch
over the new land.
In many cases, the governor exacted cruel taxes on
the conquered people.
Sometimes the generals themselves turned on one
another, because they were strong men battling for
power. This treachery is exactly what happened in
Julius Caesar.
Julius Caesar
 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
            cont.
Julius Caesar was born in 100 B.C. in Rome.
Julius Caesar rises to power through the use of his
oratory skill.
He was always a member of the democratic or
popular party.
He married Cornelia, the wealthy daughter of
Lucius Cornelius Cinna.
Caesar’s uncle arranged the marriage.
Roman Toga
 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
            cont.
When Caesar was given orders by Sulla to
divorce Cornelia, he fled Rome in 81 B.C. for
fear of his life because he refused to obey Sulla.
After Sulla’s death, Caesar returned to Rome
and began to climb his way through the political
arena.
Caesar soon began to back Pompey, the head of
the popular party.
Caesar helped him gain both military and
political advantages.
Pompey the Great
 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
            cont.
Caesar and Pompey agreed that one would leave
to fight for the good of Rome every three years,
and then return to Rome so that the other person
could leave and have his turn at conquest.
During this time Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus
form the First Triumvirate, which means “three
men” or “rule by three.”
They took over the Senate and the rulings of
Rome for a while. The idea was that Caesar had
the backing of the Legions (army).
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
           cont.
Pompey had the political power, and
Crassus had the financial backing.
Pompey was even married to Caesar’s
daughter Julia at this time.
The First Triumvirate would not last long
due to the jealousy that erupted between
Caesar and Pompey.
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
           cont.
Pompey returned early from his sieges and
told Caesar that it was his turn to leave
again. While Caesar is gone, Pompey uses
this opportunity to rally people behind him
by claiming that Caesar has become too
powerful and is only interested in
benefitting himself and not the Roman
Empire.
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
           cont.
By making these allegations, Pompey
declares a war with Caesar.
The problem is that Caesar had the backings
of the Legions, and Pompey only had the
backing of the Senate.
While Caesar is conquering new territory
for Rome, he gets word of Pompey’s plan.
Caesar decides to quit his campaigns and
return to Rome to face Pompey and the
charges against him.
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
           cont.
When Caesar returns to Italy, Pompey
warns him that if he crosses the Rubicon
River, he is declaring a civil war on Rome.
Caesar responds with Alea Iacta Est, which
translates to “the die is cast.”
Roman Legionaire
Roman Helmets
 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
            cont.
Caesar’s crossing of the Rubicon is a symbolic
acceptance of Pompey’s challenge.
During this time the other member of the First
Triumvirate, Crassus, takes his money and
flees.
Caesar easily makes his way into Rome and
forces Pompey to flee.
Caesar was now in total control of Rome.
 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
            cont.
During this time Caesar proclaims himself
Senator for Life.
Caesar eventually tries to go after Pompey,
who fled to Egypt, but he never catches him.
Servants of Cleopatra later kill Pompey while
he is in Egypt, and his sons try to avenge the
death of their father by declaring war on
Caesar.
Shakespeare’s play begins after Caesar defeats
Pompey’s sons.
  The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
             cont.
Contrary to popular belief, Caesar was not an
actual Emperor of Rome. In fact, Rome had no
actual emperors until about twenty years after
Caesar’s death.
While Caesar was living, Rome was a Republic
ruled by a Senate.
The name “Caesar” eventually became not a
name, but a word meaning “ruler” or “chief” in
Latin.
 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar
            cont.
The word “Caesar” evolved into different
languages such as German which took the name
and turned it into Kaiser. The Russian word Czar
as well traces its roots back to “Caesar.”
The term “caesarian sections,” or “C-sections” can
trace its origins back to Julius Caesar because the
popular belief was that Caesar did have not a
natural childbirth, but instead was “cut from the
womb.”
Outside the Roman Coliseum
Inside the Roman Coliseum
The Pantheon
The Forum of Julius Caesar

								
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