Nordic Cooperation in Criminal Policy and Crime Prevention

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					„Crime Prevention: Czech Republic and International Perspective“
                   15-16 october 2007, Praha




          Nordic Model of Crime
               Prevention
                      Hannu Takala
            National Council for Crime Prevention,
                          Finland
Generally about Nordic societies
Nordic societies: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway
and Sweden
• Small countries
• Interrelated history
• Common “Scandinavian” language
• Welfare states: comprehensive public sector and high
tax rate
• High social cohesion – like in the Czech Republic
• Politically stable and among the least corrupted
• High confidence in public institutions, esp. police
      On Nordic cooperation
• Nordic Council in 1952
  – inter-parliamentary cooperative body
  – Recommendations and aggreements
• Nordic Council of Ministers in 1971
  – inter-governmental cooperative body
• Inter-Nordic budget
  – funding some 30 organizations

Common labour market since the mid-1950s
             Cooperation in
             criminal policy
• Joint agenda in criminal policy issues and
  agreed guidelines for law drafting
• Nordic Criminal Law Committee 1960–
  1984
• Countries as peer group
  Nordic criminological cooperation
• National associations for criminal law professionals since
  1890s and first Nordic meeting in 1937
   – Scandinavian Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology over 90
     years
• Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology
   –   started in 1962
   –   Joint decision of the Ministers of Justice
   –   Annual seminars
   –   Funding research
   –   Publications
   –   www.nsfk.org
• Cooperation in crime statistics
 National crime prevention councils
• Det Kriminalpræventive Råd, Denmark 1971
   – www.dkr.dk
• Brottsförebyggande råd, BRÅ, Sweden 1974
   – www.bra.se
• Det Kriminalitetsforebyggende Råd, KRÅD,
  Norway, 1980
   – www. krad.dep.no
• Rikoksentorjuntaneuvosto, RTN, Finland,
  1989
   – www.rikoksentorjunta.fi
• Different
  – Backgrounds
     • In DK and SE concern of crime, in FI international
       recommendation and cooperation
  – Structures
     • BRÅ (SE) an independent authority; in DK, FI and NO
       councils representing various sectors of society
     • Secretariat of the DKR (DK) part of National Police, of RTN
       (FI) Crime Prevention Unit in the Ministry of Justice
  – Mandates
     • Swedish BRÅ research agency and statistics authority
  – Sizes
     • In Swedish BRÅ over 70 permanent workers; secretariats in
       FI and NO are from 8 to10
 Cooperation between CP councils

• Joint (annual) meetings since the 1980s
• Attempt to articulate joint crime prevention
  ideology – ”the Nordic Model”
• Common presentation leaflet
• Publishing together (with Scandinavian
  Research Council for Criminology)
   – Journal of Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and
     Crime Prevention
   – Scandinavian Criminological Bibliography
• and at present:
            Joint violence project
• Funded by Nordic Council of Ministers
• Nordic crime prevention councils together with the
  Scandinavian Research Council for Criminology
• Main themes
   –   Collecting available data on violence, comparing variations (FI)
   –   Restraining order as method to prevent repeat victimisation (SE)
   –   Developing intrument to measure violence against children (DK)
   –   Violence agains female immigrants (NO)

   Material collection ready in 2007
      Cross-national influences

• Examples from Finland
  – Danish know how in CPTED used in the
    Finnish manual
  – Swedish work in prevention of bank and shop
    robberies used as starting point in developing
    the Finnish strategy
  – Swedish National Crime Prevention
    Programme ”Our Collective Responsibility ”
    (1996) used as model when the Finnish
    programme ”Working Together for a Safe
    Society” (1999) was drafted
– Norwegian initiative to educate conscientious
  objectors to serve in tasks relevant for crime
  prevention (VOKT) adopted in Finland
– Danish Safe Chat campaign replicated in
  Finland
– Danish Ringsted experiment replicated in
  Finland
           ”The Nordic model”
• Not theoretically original
   – Only Denmark has somewhat original theory
     (human/techno prevention), not adopted in other
     Nordic countries
   – Social/situational prevention balanced
• Same basic methods and measures as in other
  countries
• However a lot common in interests and accents
• Common ”Nordic values” reftected in crime
  prevention
• Crime prevention understood as an alternative
  to repression
• Measures to support disadvantaged understood
  as personal rights, not tools in crime prevention
• ”Smooth” variations of common methods
  Examples:
      - integration instead of exclusion in
       CPTED
      - Neighbourhood Wach is in Scandinavia
      Nabohjelp (neighbourly help) or
      Grannsamverkan (neighbour cooperation)
• Governmental/national crime prevention
  programmes/strategies
  – multidisciplinarity/parnerships
  – Coordination of efforts
• Local crime prevention co-operation
  – Main emphasis in national crime prevention
    programmes in SE and FI ; local CP councils
    and networks in majority of municipalities
  – Structure of local CP in DK SSP-
    (School/Social Service/Police) Committees;
    model adopted in NO (s.c. STL)
Newest development in FI: Internal
     Security Programme
• First programme 2004-2007; second in
  preparation
• All aspects of internal safety: prevention of
  crime, accidents, disasters etc.
• Cooperation at national and local level
• Crime prevention integrated in wider
  safety planning
• Recommendable ???
         Results I: Success stories
NO: Harstad in mid-1990thies: a huge reduction of serious
violence by interventions like controlling bars

SE: Check frauds almost eliminated 1970-1973 by introducing
identification obligation and abolishing bank guarantee

FI: Number of successful bank robberies was reduced to one
twentieth in 1990thies by various situational measures

DK and SE: Building safe housing areas by using Nordic CPTED
recommendations (evaluated examples)

SE: Reduction of street violence by schooling bar personal in
Stockholm SE (academic evaluation)

NO: Ulwaeus-guidelines in prevention of bullying in schools (NO)
                                                       Results II
Nordic countries are perceived as safe
        Perceived risk of burglary and feeling unsafe
                    on streets in EU15+2

      100

      90

      80

      70

      60
  %




      50

      40
                                                                                                                                                                                 Unsafe on the
      30                                                                                                                                                                         streets after
                                                                                                                                                                                 dark
      20
                                                                                                                                                                                 Perceived
      10                                                                                                                                                                         likehood of
                                                                                                                                                                                 burglary
       0
                      Denmark




                                                                          Germany




                                                                                                                                        Portugal
                                                                                                                                   UK
                                                                                             Belgium
                                                                 Poland




                                                                                                               Ireland
            Finland




                                                                                                                         Estonia
                                                                                    France




                                                                                                                                                                        Greece
                                                                                                                                                   Luxembourg

                                                                                                                                                                Italy
                                                       Hungary
                                         Netherlands




                                                                                                       Spain
                                Sweden
                 Results III
 Crime rates rather low especially when
    crime opportunities considered
• Crime rates high because everything is
  recorded (in police statistics) and reported
  (in victim surveys)
• Rich crime opportunities
  – Onslaught of goods
  – Freedoms – same for women as for men and
    for children as for adults
• Crime problems vary considerably
  between Nordic Countries; examples
          Robbed bank branches per 1000 branch
                    offices in 2002

    120
    100
     80
     60
     40
     20
      0




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                            Fi
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   ec
Cz
Violent deaths per 100 000 of
          population
                Results IV
           Downward trends in crime
• E.g youth crime has decreased substantially
  according to the Finnish and Danish studies on
  self-reported crime
  – Traditional youth crime partly moved to Internet
• Downward trend not impact of single preventive
  measures but reflect changes in the youth’s
  social situation which at least partly are impact
  of political decisions
        Proportion of 15-16 year old pupils in Helsinki who
         have committed the asked criminal acts at least
                  once during the last 12 monts
 25
 20
 15
                                                              1992
 10                                                           2006
  5
  0
        g




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                                          As
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                                          Ro
            Jo
Sh
  Results IV
Low repression
Prison populations per 100 000 population

 Denmark               67
 Finland               68
 Iceland               36
 Norway                75
 Sweden                79

 Czech Republic       187
     The Nordic Model in brief:


A safe society with extensive liberties and
low repression is not an impact of Nordic
crime prevention activities. It reflects
Nordic values more generally.
Thank you for your attention

				
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