Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce A Baseline Assessment December 2010 State of Hawaiÿi Department of Labor and Industrial Relations Research & Statistics Office State of Hawai‘i NEIL ABERCROMBIE, GOVERNOR Department of Labor and Industrial Relations Dwight Takamine, Interim Director Audrey Hidano, Deputy Director Research & Statistics Office Francisco P. Corpuz, Chief Jeffrey Matsu, Lead Researcher Anders Corr Robin Komoto Ryan Morita www.GreenJobsHawaii.org • DLIR.RS.GreenJobsHawaii@hawaii.gov • (808)586-8999 Table of Contents List of Exhibits 4 Acknowledgements 5 Executive Summary 7 Introduction 8 Methodology 10 Current Green Jobs 14 Green Job Vacancies 23 Green Jobs Projected in 2012 27 Qualifications and Employee Training Requirements 38 Green Practices 42 Conclusion 47 References 49 Appendix A: Methodological Details 50 Appendix B: NAICS in Sample 55 Appendix C: Green Job Occupations 65 Appendix D: Survey Instrument 69 List of Exhibits TABLES FIGURES 1. Green Jobs by Core Area and County . . . . . 14 1. Green Labor Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 2. Green Jobs by Core Area and Industry . . . . 14 2. Statistical Sampling Methodology. . . . . . . 13 3. Green Jobs by County . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3. Green Jobs by Core Area and Worksite Size . 15 4. Green Jobs by Industry and County . . . . . . 16 4. Total Employment by County . . . . . . . . . 15 5. Top Industries for Green Jobs . . . . . . . . . 17 5. Green Jobs by County . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 6. Top Industries for Green Jobs by County . . . 17 6. Total Employment by Worksite Size. . . . . . 18 7. Green Jobs by Worksite Size . . . . . . . . . 18 7. Green Job Vacancies by County . . . . . . . . 23 8. Top Green Occupations and 8. Green Job Vacancies as a Share of Total SOC Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Unemployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 9. Top Occupational Groups with Green Jobs . . 22 9. Green Job Vacancies by Core Areas 10. Green Job Vacancies by County and County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 and Worksite Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 10. Green Job Vacancies by Core Areas 11. Green Job Vacancies by County and Worksite Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 and Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 11. Green Jobs by Core Area: 2012 . . . . . . . . 27 12. Top 25 Green Job Vacancies by 12. Green Job Growth by County: 2010-2012. . . 27 SOC Major Groups: 2010 . . . . . . . . . . 264 13. Growth in Green Jobs by Industry: 13. Green Job Projections by County 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 and Industry: 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 14. Green Job Projections by Industry: 2012 . . . 31 14. Growth in Green Jobs by County 15. Absolute Growth in Green Jobs by and Industry: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Worksite Size: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . 32 15. Green Job Projections by County 16. Percent Growth in Green Jobs by and Worksite Size: 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Worksite Size: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . 32 16. Growth in Green Jobs by County 17. Formal Green Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 and Worksite Size: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . 32 18. On-the-Job Green Training . . . . . . . . . . 38 17. Green Job Projections by 19. Projected Growth Rate of Top-Five Green Occupation: 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Occupations by Education: 2010-2012 . . . . 40 18. Top 25 Green Occupations by 20. Green Practices per Worksite . . . . . . . . . 42 Growth: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 19. Green Practices by County and Worksite Size, Share of Total . . . . . . . 43 20. Green Practices by Industry, Share of Total . . 45 BOX ITEMS 1. What is the NAICS? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 21. Sample Size by Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2. What is the SOC? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3. The Depth and Breadth of Green Jobs: Janitors, Cleaners, and Security Guards . . . . 20 4. New and Emerging Green Occupation: Sustainability Specialist . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 5. Industry Focus: Wind Energy . . . . . . . . . 33 6. Green Finance: Innovation Spurs Clean Energy Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36-37 7. Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 8. Green Certification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge support from Francisco Corpuz, Chief of the DLIR Research & Statistics Office. James Hardway and the Workforce Development Council provided a coordinating role throughout the grant’s procurement and implementation. Peter Quigley at the University of Hawaiÿi Community Colleges, Michael Hamnett at the Research Corporation of the University of Hawaiÿi, and members of the Green Workforce Intelligence Network (GWIN), Hawaiÿi Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism (DBEDT), Workforce Development Division, and Local Workforce Investment Boards provided expertise and insights. Katalina McGlone made significant contributions to survey design, statistical sampling and data collection. Albert Tou, Sarah Goodale, and Ed Robison from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics shared useful insights in sampling methodology, as did staff from statistical agencies in states such as Washington, Oregon, California, and Michigan. Casey Cho and James Doi were instrumental with website and database design. Phyllis Dayao assisted with the report’s graphical design and layout. Naomi Harada, Holly Nagamine, Allen Choy, Marc Fabian, Vicki Lau, Jeri Arucan, Jeri Sato, Deana Boswell, Anna Powell, Stan Fichtman, Phyllis Dayao, Lisa Langit, LoriAnn Nishigaya-Chung, Shannon Lee, and Victor Gong provided assistance during the data collection phase of the survey. There are numerous other stakeholders in both the public and private sectors that helped make this report possible, and we thank them collectively for their invaluable feedback and guidance at critical stages throughout the project. Lastly, a very big “thank you” goes to the thousands of Hawaiÿi businesses that participated in this inaugural survey. This report is intended for educational and informational purposes. References to specific products, services or companies are for illustrative purposes only, and do not reflect an endorsement by the State of Hawaiÿi or DLIR. Unless specified within this report, all data and analysis should be sourced as “State of Hawaiÿi, Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, Research & Statistics Office, ‘Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce Report, 2010’”. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 5 State of Hawaiÿi: County Profiles KAUAÿI OÿAHU 460 green jobs 1.9% of county jobs MAUI 71 additional green jobs by 2012 6,866 green jobs 2.0% of county jobs 1,885 additional green jobs by 2012 2,597 green jobs 4.6% of county jobs HAWAIÿI 437 additional green jobs by 2012 1,222 green jobs 2.5% of total jobs 510 additional green jobs by 2012 6 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Executive Summary This report provides a comprehensive framework for assessing green jobs in the private sector of the State of Hawaiÿi. Survey responses, from a stratified random sample of all Hawaiÿi businesses, provided data on 4,008 worksites for the first quarter of 2010. This represents a 44 percent overall response rate. Green jobs are defined as those that engage in at least one of five core green areas: (1) Generate clean, renewable, sustainable energy; (2) Reduce pollution and waste, conserve natural resources, recycle; (3) Energy efficiency; (4) Education, training and support of a green workforce; and (5) Natural, environmentally-friendly production. Key findings include: • Green jobs in the private sector of Hawai’i are estimated at 11,145, which accounts for 2.4 percent of total private employment. Green jobs are identified in 203 occupations across 19 major industry groups. Sixty-five percent of Hawaiÿi’s green jobs are found in three major industries – Construction, Professional Services, and Administrative & Support, Waste Management & Remediation Services. Five occupations — Janitors & Cleaners, Forest & Conservation Technicians, Security Guards, Electricians, and Heating & Air Conditioning Mechanics & Installers — account for 28 percent of the green workforce. • Current green job vacancies are estimated at 670, which represent 1.5 percent of Hawaiÿi’s total unemployment. Nearly three-quarters of these vacancies occur in three industries – Construction, Agriculture and Professional Services. • Businesses anticipate green employment to grow faster than the overall labor market in Hawaiÿi. Between 2010 and 2012, employer worksites project the number of green jobs to increase by 26 percent to 14,048, accounting for 2.9 percent of total employment. Occupations expected to experience the most growth in green jobs during this period are solar and insulation technicians. All counties report an increase in the number of green jobs by 2012, with Oÿahu projecting the largest number (1,885 new green jobs) and Hawaiÿi County the highest rate of growth (42 percent). • Community colleges and trade schools fulfill 62 percent of the education and training requirements for reported green jobs. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification is the most commonly cited qualification. • Businesses report an average of 3.5 green practices per worksite, with the largest numbers found in Maui and Kauaÿi counties. Recycling, use of recycled products, and energy-saving light bulbs are the most common practices. Over 90 percent of worksites report at least one green practice. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 7 Introduction Context for the Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey Hawai‘i experiences unique challenges in transitioning from a State that is 90 percent dependent on imported oil to one that meets the Hawai‘i Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) vision of being 70 percent reliant on renewable energy by 2030. Promulgated in June 2009, the HCEI aims to bring together business leaders, policy makers and a civil society committed to leading Hawai‘i to energy independence. The HCEI focuses on two primary objectives to meet this aggressive energy independence goal: Conserve: Use What We Need Efficiently Photo courtesy of Tom Burke • Commit to a more energy-efficient lifestyle in our homes and on the road. To support the State’s efforts to help build a workforce • Establish energy-efficient building codes and with the skills necessary to compete for green jobs, lower energy use at work and in our schools. the DLIR conducted a statistical survey of Hawai‘i businesses over a two-month period, May to July Convert: Harness What We Have Wisely 2010. The purpose of this Survey was three-fold, • Stop building fossil fuel plants. to: (1) estimate the number of jobs that significantly • Generate 40 percent of energy locally by 2030. contribute to environmental protection or preservation; • Harness energy from solar, wind, ocean, (2) identify the occupations involved with the geothermal, and biomass resources. emerging green economy; and (3) identify the training • Establish a sustainable alternative-fuel strategy. needs of a green workforce. Businesses were also • Modernize the power-grid system.1 asked to provide information on their green practices, irrespective of whether or not green jobs were The Department of Labor and Industrial Relations reported. (DLIR) has actively sought to become a more effective partner in this endeavor. Recognizing the This Survey addresses three programmatic areas: (1) rapidly evolving needs of the clean energy sector and collection of data necessary to guide the planning of the limitations of existing labor market information training programs for the short-term skills needed (LMI), Hawai‘i was one of several states selected for emerging green industries; (2) development by the US Department of Labor’s Employment of LMI tools and enhancements that facilitate & Training Administration to receive an LMI the reemployment of an increasing number of Improvement Grant funded through the American displaced workers; and (3) assistance to clean energy Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). It is this stakeholders to understand the capacity of the State’s funding that made possible the data collection and LMI system and its central role in building a skilled subsequent assessment of the inaugural Hawai‘i Green work force. Jobs Survey (“Survey”). To develop a more comprehensive picture of the 1 greening economy and workforce, we employed www.HawaiiCleanEnergyInitiative.org 8 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment a survey that was supplemented with analysis of underscore future data collection and labor market LMI and other resources. This initiative relies on research that track green jobs and their respective the support and feedback of a Green Workforce industries. Policy makers, business leaders and the Intelligence Network (GWIN), a collaborative and public can utilize this “green” intelligence to help expandable consortium of government, industry and guide their strategic decision-making in areas such as education representatives, which builds upon the investment, education and workforce development. statewide Energy Sector Work Group for Workforce Development. Given Hawai‘i ’s unique isolation Practical applications from this baseline assessment from other energy and grid systems, labor markets, are broad and far-reaching. Career counselors and education and workforce development systems, and other service providers rely on industry and the GWIN steering committee consulted regularly occupation-based data to meet the needs of different with counterparties in other states and regions clients, from displaced engineers who require training regarding issues, best practices and innovations in in green applications to lower-skilled job-seekers workforce development and LMI. Throughout the who require basic training to obtain entry-level jobs implementation phase of the Survey, an industry and in the green sector. Information on green jobs and LMI user-driven improvement process has been a the requisite skills companies seek when filling them strategic consideration. can also be used by leaders in the field of education to better identify relevant degrees, certifications and While a general understanding of what is meant by training programs. Universities, community colleges, “green jobs” and a “green workforce” permeates and trade and vocational schools are important various discussion forums, there is no widely accepted partners in bridging job-seekers and employers with standard definition. To address this deficiency, the innovative programs and curricula that address the Survey provides parameters defining occupations needs of a rapidly evolving green economy. Within and economic activities that qualify for inclusion. this context, the private sector becomes a vested This working definition formed an objective basis stakeholder by providing the demand for a pool of for measuring the current number of green jobs, the skilled workers to grow its businesses. The education qualifications and training necessary to compete for sector, in turn, generates revenue from expanded these positions, the green practices employers have services (Figure 1). Such symbiosis spurs activity and adopted, and the trends that are shaping the industry. innovation in the broader economy. Responses from all businesses were later vetted by a staff panel with a voting procedure to ensure overall Ultimately, the Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey aims to lay compliance. While no approach is absolute, adherence the foundation upon which future initiatives can be to a well-defined and consistent definition is needed built. Rather than being a terminus, it is the starting for a more transparent interpretation of the data. point from which the State of Hawai‘i can structure future endeavors that facilitate the expansion of green Survey data form the basis of the baseline estimation industries across the islands. presented in this report. From a functional Figure 1. Green Labor Life Cycle perspective, the DLIR will use this as a benchmark in two related areas, to: (1) project future employment in green jobs at the 2, 5 and 10-year horizons; and (2) form a skills-gap assessment2 focusing on training capacity and demographic characteristics, including the skills of existing and potential green workers. The baseline generated from this analysis will also 2 A skills-gap assessment seeks to address the disparity between a worker’s current skills and those required to fill a green job through education and vocational training. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 9 Methodology Defining Green Jobs There is no standard definition of what constitutes a “green” job. At the national level, the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) recently released what it considers to be a final definition of green jobs based upon public comments solicited during a six-month period, March to September 2010. According to this definition, “green jobs are either: (1) jobs in businesses that produce goods or provide services that benefit the environment or conserve natural resources, or (2) jobs in which workers’ duties involve making their establishment’s production processes more environmentally friendly or use fewer natural resources.” 3 The BLS will apply this definition for Photo Courtesy of 21st Century Technologies Hawaiÿi data collection beginning in FY 2011. the design of a robust scientific survey instrument and sampling procedure. Meanwhile, many states have already completed or are currently undertaking surveys to measure green jobs and related economic activity. Policy direction We define five core areas as green: and objectives specific to each state ultimately ¾ Generate clean, renewable, sustainable energy determine the scope of what is considered green, but the Workforce Information Council (WIC), a ¾ Reduce pollution and waste; conserve natural resources; recycle consortium of state and federal statistical agencies, has proposed its own working definition: “A green ¾ Energy efficiency job is one in which the work is essential to products ¾ Educational, training and support of a green or services that improve energy efficiency, expand the workforce use of renewable energy, or support environmental ¾ Natural, environmental-friendly production sustainability.”4 For the purposes of this report, we consider a green In designing this survey and conducting its analyses, job to be one that engages in economic activity that the DLIR sought a definition that was neither overly makes a positive impact on the environment or energy specific to be exclusionary nor so broad as to make sustainability, either on a full- or part-time basis. it not useful. Given the nascence in data collection related to this area of the economy, and a recognition • Generate Clean, Renewable, Sustainable that an understanding of green jobs is in many ways Energy refers to jobs in research, development, shaped by the results of an initial assessment, we production, storage and distribution, and chose to supplement a broad definition with a vetting maintenance of energy (electricity and fuel) from procedure. This approach provided a framework for renewable resources such as solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, ocean, and biofuels. Clean energy 3 Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 182. must have a positive net energy yield, relatively 4 Workforce Information Council Green Jobs Study Group, Final reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and be produced Report, October 2009. and distributed in a sustainable and safe manner. 10 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment • Reduce Pollution and Waste refers to the on a part-time basis, it is considered green whenever prevention and control of commercial, that responsibility occurs on a recurring basis. This transportation and industrial emissions and recognizes that many green functions may be of a pollution; environmental cleanup; water treatment; secondary or tertiary nature. and waste product management and treatment. Broadly considered, a distinction is made between jobs Conserve natural resources refers to managing that are simply performed outdoors or with nature and water and other finite resources more effectively. those that significantly contribute to environmental This includes land management, sustainable protection or preservation. For example, professions forestry and wildlife conservation. Recycling such as groundskeepers, landscapers and tree refers to re-use of materials in the production trimmers are considered green only if a portion of process. This area includes companies that collect their regular responsibilities is ostensibly green, such aluminum, paper, glass, and other recyclable as composting. Lawn maintenance and soil tilling materials. alone would not suffice. Alternatively, a pest-control technician who provides a green alternative using • Energy Efficiency refers to reducing the amount organic or bio-friendly chemicals would be considered of energy used to produce a unit of output. These green. jobs refer to the production, construction and installation of energy-efficient products, such as Other examples of green jobs include: (1) Energy Star appliances and more efficient lighting. in manufacturing, a chemist who produces This category also includes jobs related to bicycles environmentally-sound packaging, equipment and and public transportation, and energy-efficiency cleaning products that are less caustic than traditional services such as retrofitting and weatherization of products; (2) in construction, a worker who produces buildings. or installs green building materials such as alternative cement and manufactured wood products made from • Education, Training and Support of Green scraps, or a consultant who provides green building Workforce refers to the provision of services design and construction services; (3) in agriculture, a technician who installs smart irrigation systems, a to the other four green areas. This category farmer who uses organic and sustainable methods, includes activities to increase public awareness or a biologist who researches alternative pest control of environmental issues, activities to develop methods; and (4) in materials, a product designer or and enforce environmental regulations, and the engineer who develops biodegradable products, or provision of training in green technologies and a chemical engineer who researches a new chemical practices to develop Hawai‘i’s green workforce. catalyst to decompose waste and reduce toxins naturally. • Natural, Sustainable, Environmentally-Friendly Production refers to practices that reduce Green practices are not equivalent to green jobs. the environmental impact resulting from the While green practice data was collected in the Survey, production of any good or service. Included it is reported separately and includes responses from all worksites, regardless of whether a green job is are alternative methods for production, and reported. products that require less energy, emit fewer greenhouse gases or otherwise reduce impact on For example, worksites that use recycled toner the environment. Examples are net-zero energy cartridges and paper, or food service establishments buildings that use solar panels or photovoltaic that recycle cans and bottles, are practitioners of cells, and businesses that generate energy from green practices but do not fit the definition of green recycling waste created during a manufacturing jobs unless they fulfill one of the five core areas noted process. above. Moreover, if an economic activity is known to be environmentally harmful, then any job associated Support staff positions are included as green jobs directly with it would not be classified as green. only when a business is 100 percent green. When a job containing green responsibilities is performed Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 11 Statistical Sampling What is the NAICS? The data presented here is based on a survey The North American Industry Classification System conducted from May to July 2010 of a stratified (NAICS) is a system for classifying establishments random sample of 9,146 worksites drawn from the by type of economic activity for statistical purposes. Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) Its purposes are: (1) to facilitate the collection, database. The QCEW contains data on approximately tabulation, presentation, and analysis of data relating 37,674 private Hawai‘i worksites that report to the to establishments, and (2) to promote uniformity and State’s Unemployment Insurance Division. comparability in the presentation and analysis of statistical data describing the economy. To ensure a representative sample, the State Department of Labor and Industrial Relations (DLIR) NAICS is used by federal statistical agencies that mailed the survey to a stratified random sample of collect or publish data by industry. It is also widely the QCEW, including all four counties – Honolulu used by State agencies, trade associations, private businesses, and other organizations. At the heart of (O‘ahu), Hawai’i, Maui, and Kaua‘i. O‘ahu accounts NAICS is a production-based concept of classification; for about two-thirds of all QCEW worksites, so the that is, NAICS classifies each establishment into a first level of stratification was by county (Figure 2). detailed industry based in the production processes it uses. The NAICS system provides five levels of Within each county, a cross-section of employers was classification on detailed codes that have a maximum randomly selected such that small (1-9 employees), of six digits. The classification levels are Sector, medium (10-49 employees) and large worksites (50 Subsector, Industry Group, NAICS Industry, and U.S. or more employees) would be represented. In order Industry. to obtain complete data on worksites with potentially very large numbers of green employees, all large This report focuses on data analysis at the Sector worksites were sampled. This decreased the variance (2-digit NAICS) level. Including Government (which is not included herein), there are 20 Sectors in NAICS. in our random sample of small and medium-sized worksites, thus increasing the power of the sample. Source: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Executive Office of the President. The sample was further stratified to reflect a cross- section of industries, including traditional industries was pursued with non-responders, which yielded an and those thought likely to have a large representation additional 1,723 responses (Wave 2). This brought of green jobs. All 19 private sectors in the North the total survey response to 4,008 of the original 9,146 American Industry Classification System (NAICS, see sampled worksites, or a final response rate of 43.8 inset) were randomly sampled. Public Administration percent. (NAICS 92) was not sampled, but we plan to include the public sector in the future. Upon examination of the data, non-response bias was detected between Wave 1 and Wave 2 responders. To address this bias, a logistic regression was used Survey Response and Estimation to estimate propensity scores for prediction of likely responders and non-responders within the unsampled Businesses could respond to the survey via internet, data. In the final estimation procedure, Wave 1 mail, fax, or telephone within a ten-day period of the sample weights were increased to estimate the number deadline. (Businesses that mailed responses prior of green jobs for likely responders, and likewise, to a ten-day grace period following the deadline are the weight of Wave 2 sample data was increased to referred to as Wave 1). Based on this criterion, 2,285 estimate the number of green jobs for likely non- surveys were received, yielding an initial response responders. This method yields an unbiased estimate rate of 25 percent. An aggressive follow-up strategy of total green jobs. 12 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Figure 2. Statistical Sampling Methodology Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 13 Current Green Jobs Green Jobs by Core Areas There are an estimated 11,145 green jobs in Hawaii for the first quarter of 2010, composing 2.4 percent of total private sector employment. Green jobs are classified into five core areas. These areas are defined based on how a particular green job best makes a positive impact on the environment or energy sustainability. Table 1 shows the number of green jobs estimated for each of these core areas with respect to geographic location. Table 1. Green Jobs by Core Area and County Photo Courtesy of Kauaÿi County Recycling At the state level of aggregation, the largest core area of green employment is Reduce Pollution & Waste; Conserve Natural Resources; Recycle. Forty percent Table 2. Green Jobs by Core Area and Industry 14 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment of green jobs in the State are associated with this Figure 3. Green Jobs by Core Area and Worksite Size type of green activity. The second leading core area is Energy Efficiency, with 23 percent of green jobs. The next largest areas are Natural Environmentally- Friendly Production with approximately one in five green jobs, Generate Clean, Renewable, Sustainable Energy with 11 percent of green jobs, and Education, Training, and Support of a Green Workforce, which accounts for only about 7 percent of green jobs. At the county level, Reducing Pollution, Conservation, and Recycling is the leading category for O‘ahu (50 percent), Kaua‘i (43 percent) and Hawai‘i (36 percent), while in Maui, Natural Environmentally- Friendly Production accounts for 53 percent of all green jobs. Figure 4. Total Employment by County Most green jobs in medium and large worksites are in the Reducing Pollution category, at 44 percent and 43 percent, respectively. Meanwhile, the core area of Energy Efficiency accounted for one-third of green jobs reported by small worksites, followed by Reduce Pollution at 28 percent (Figure 3). The largest number of green jobs is in the Reduce Pollution core area (Table 2), but there are a few notable exceptions in certain industries. In Agriculture, 62 percent of green jobs are categorized in the Natural Production area, while in the Utilities sector, 51 percent are in Generate Energy and 29 percent are in Reduce Pollution. Energy Efficiency is the leading core area for Professional, Scientific and Technical Services (59 percent) and Construction employment (38 percent). Figure 5. Green Jobs by County Green Jobs by County Based on survey data, green jobs represent 2.4 percent of total employment in the State of Hawai‘i. With the exception of Maui, the share of total jobs reported as green by each county did not differ markedly from the Table 3. Green Jobs by County Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 15 Table 4. Green Jobs by Industry and County 16 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Table 5. Top Industries for Green Jobs statewide figure (Table 3). While the share of green Green Jobs by Industry jobs in other counties is within the range of 1.9 percent to 2.5 percent, Maui reported an outsized 4.6 percent. Maui accounts for 12 percent of the State’s total Construction is the fifth-largest private-industry sector employment, yet its green jobs comprise 23 percent as of the fourth quarter of 2009. Not coincidentally, of the State’s total. Meanwhile, Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i Construction has the largest number of green jobs counties’ share of total and green jobs relative to the at 3,327, or 30 percent of the State’s total green jobs State are comparable. In Kaua‘i, this equates to four (Table 4 and Table 5). Green jobs represent 11 percent percent of green and five percent of total jobs in the of that industry’s total employment. Construction led State. Hawai‘i County has 11 percent for both green in O‘ahu and Hawai‘i, reporting 2,246 and 488 green and total jobs. In contrast, O‘ahu supports 62 percent jobs, respectively (Table 4). Over one of every eight of the State’s green jobs, against a 72 percent share of Construction jobs in Hawai‘i County is green. total employment (Figure 4 and Figure 5). Kaua‘i’s green jobs as a share of total jobs are the smallest at The next largest industries with green jobs are in 1.9 percent. Administrative & Support & Waste Management & Remediation Services (ASWMRS); Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services; Wholesale Trade; and Retail Trade. Seventy-percent of all green jobs are concentrated within these five industries. While O‘ahu County reported the largest number of green Table 6. Top Industries for Green Jobs by County Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 17 Table 7. Green Jobs by Worksite Size Figure 6. Total Employment by Worksite Size jobs in ASWMRS, Maui holds a disproportionately larger share of its green work force in this industry (Table 4). Given Oÿahu’s large number of technical and research institutions, a disproportionate share of its green jobs are in the Professional, Scientific & Technical Services industry, at 11 percent versus eight percent for the State (Table 6). Green Jobs by Worksite Size In contrast to other counties, Maui has most of its To report at the county level, it was necessary that the green jobs in the Administrative and Support and Survey query businesses based on the actual location Waste Management and Remediation Services sector. of its employees whenever possible. Worksites were This sector includes 1,219 green jobs (Table 6), categorized as small (1-9 employees), medium (10-49 employees) or large (50+ employees). which makes 28 percent of the total sector in Maui green. Maui worksites reported the greatest number Large employer worksites comprise over half of total of green jobs in this sector as: Janitors and Cleaners, employment, yet only one-third of green jobs are at Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers, Recycling the biggest employers (Table 7). In contrast, medium- and Reclamation Workers, Pest Control Workers, size worksites have the greatest number and share of Commercial Divers, Sales Representatatives, Ship total green jobs at 42 percent. Both medium and small and Boat Captains, Environmental Science and worksites report a greater share of green jobs relative Protection Technicians, Energy Engineers, and Retail to total employment despite a less prominent role in Salespersons. the overall labor market (Figure 6). According to Survey estimates, 3.2 percent of total employment at Relative to other counties, Hawai‘i County has a medium and 3.7 percent of total employment at small large number of green jobs in Agriculture, Forestry, worksites is green compared to just 1.5 percent at Fishing, & Hunting. In this industry, the county is large worksites (Table 7). estimated to have 183 green jobs, which accounts for 15 percent of its green workforce and eight percent of its total employment (Table 6). Green Jobs by Occupation Despite reporting fewer green jobs overall, Kaua‘i supports a relatively significant number in Arts, Survey data estimate 11,145 green jobs in the State Entertainment and Recreation when compared to other of Hawai’i. These jobs are distributed across 203 counties and the State. Kaua‘i reports over 87 green occupations and classified under the Standard jobs in this industry, which represents 19 percent of its Occupational Classification (see inset). green workforce and approximately 9 percent of the sector’s total employment within the county (Table 6). The SOC system reflects 23 major groups5. In the 5 US Office of Management & Budget, Standard Occupational Classification Manual 2010. 18 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey, green jobs were found to be represented in all but one group, Military What is the SOC? Specific Occupations. We identify job titles with fifty or more reported green jobs, and the top five The Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) major occupational groups (Table 8 and Table 9). system is used by federal statistical agencies to Construction and Extraction reports the largest classify workers into occupational categories number of green jobs, which at 2,690 jobs is 61 for the purpose of collecting, calculating or percent larger than that of the second largest sector, Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance. disseminating data. All workers are classified into As reflected in the job titles associated with these one of 840 detailed occupations according to their occupational groups, many are skilled trades such as occupational definition. electricians, heating and air conditioner mechanics, and forest and conservation technicians. Some of To facilitate classification, detailed occupations these are quite new to the labor market, such as are combined to form 461 broad occupations, Sustainability Specialists. The Sales and Related 97 minor groups and 23 major groups. Detailed category features jobs that facilitate the sales and occupations in the SOC with similar job duties, distribution of green products and services. and in some cases skills, education and/or training, The depth and breadth of green jobs is thought- are grouped together. provoking. While there are occupations such as solar photovoltaic installers, recycling and reclamation workers, environmental science and protection This report focuses on data analysis at the detailed technicians, and hazardous materials removal occupational level, although some data at the workers that are tasked with predominantly green major group level will be reported as well. responsibilities, others are far less so. Occupations that are green on occasion include architects, Source: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Executive electricians and plumbers. Office of the President. Based on our working definition, a green job does not require its primary function or responsibility to be green. In many cases, the provisioning of a green SOC occupational group based on the Occupational good or service can be limited to a more secondary or Employment Survey (Table 8). To identify more tertiary role. Moreover, these jobs appear throughout promising job opportunities, growth projections are the economy in occupations that are not routinely also provided on this basis. associated with green activity, such as with janitors and security guards (see inset article). Our survey data indicates that there are very few jobs dedicated entirely to environmental preservation or energy sustainability. While the SOC provides a useful conceptual framework for categorizing the assortment of reported job titles, it may limit the identification of new or emerging green occupations. Based on a multi-stage screening process, however, no new job titles were identified among survey responses. Furthermore, there did not appear to be an overt inclination for businesses to over-report green jobs; any potential overestimation was minimized with follow-up interviews. Wage data were beyond the scope of this survey, but for informational purposes these are reported by major Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 19 The Depth and Breadth of Green Jobs: Janitors, Cleaners and Security Guards Hawaiÿi’s unique combination of industries, natural assets and environmentally-aware population leads to some surprising conclusions with regard to the large number of janitors, cleaners and security guards considered “green”. Job title descriptions submitted by businesses to the Hawaiÿi Green Jobs Survey provide evidence of an emerging industry of janitors, cleaners and security guards that are making a significant contribution to green practices and employment in the State of Hawaiÿi. The SOC occupational groups of Janitors & Cleaners and Security Guards are among the Survey’s top-five green occupations when measured in total numbers (Table 8). While tourism is not classified as a NAICS industry, this broad services-based sector spans several major industry groups which collectively employ a large number of local workers. According to our research, a growing number of cleaning providers have incorporated eco-friendly products as a significant feature of their services. This has been coupled with the provisioning of extensive employee training and certification in areas such as water conservation, recycling and proper waste disposal. Given the principal and recurring nature of these responsibilities in such cases, this report treats these two occupations – janitors and cleaners – as green jobs and lists them under the core green area of Natural, Sustainable and Environmentally-Friendly Production. Based on survey data, of the estimated 13,250 janitors and cleaners in Hawaiÿi, nine percent undergo special green training. These credentials are actively marketed by both employers and employees. While the majority of security guards are tasked with protecting real estate, capital assets and public safety, an increasing number are also responsible for pollution deterrence, environmental regulation enforcement and the safeguarding of hazardous materials from the general public. As a result, select positions within the Security Guard occupational group can be categorized under the core green area of Reduce Pollution and Waste; Conserve Our Natural Resources; Recycle. Based on this definition, survey data estimate that 5.4 percent of the 10,250 security guards in Hawaiÿi are green. One respondent to the Survey, a security company, notes clients with special “green” requirements. For example, a landfill hires security guards to monitor the quantity of dust pollution, and notify management when mitigation measures are required. This landfill also requires that the security guards check truck compliance with solid waste rules, such as regulations against dumping hazardous materials. Furthermore, the security guards limit the number of trucks so that the facility does not exceed its capacity. Other examples are piers and shippers. Security guards at these sites report to facility safety officers, following established protocols to monitor the water and containers for toxic spills and broken safety equipment that could lead to spills. The security guards also check hazardous materials documentation on the piers, which includes individual safety papers and the correct placarding of containers. In the event of a spill or other accident, these workers are responsible for cooperating with the coast guard to quickly staunch the flow and mitigate damages. According to a representative of this company, “I think green security guards will only increase, because people really care about that stuff now.” 20 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Table 8. Top Green Occupations and Related SOC Characteristics Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 21 Table 9. Top Occupational Groups with Green Jobs 22 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Green Job Vacancies Vacancies by County Survey data estimate 670 green job vacancies in the State of Hawai’i. With its significant job base relative to other counties, O‘ahu accounts for well over half of these green vacancies, followed by Hawai’i, Maui and Kaua‘i (Figure 7). Total green vacancies across counties represent about 1.5 percent of total unemployment in the State in the first quarter of 2010. Hawai‘i County reports the largest share of green job vacancies when compared to overall unemployment (Figure 8). Relative to other counties, Hawai‘i has the potential to employ a disproportionately larger share of its inactive workforce in green occupations. Figure 7. Green Job Vacancies by County Workers at Kahuku Wind Project. Photo Courtesy of First Wind. Vacancies by Industry and Worksite Size When examining green job vacancies by NAICS industry, we find that over 74 percent are concentrated among three major industry groups: (1) Construction, (2) Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting, and (3) Professional, Scientific & Technical Services. O‘ahu and Maui counties held the most vacancies in Construction, while Hawai‘i and Kaua‘i reported likewise in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting and Administrative & Support & Waste Figure 8. Green Vacancies as a Share of Total Unemployment Table 10. Green Job Vacancies by County & Worksite Size Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 23 Table 11. Green Job Vacancies by County and Industry Vacancies Industry Sector Hawai’i Kaua’i Maui O’ahu Total Construction 18 3 61 192 273 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, & Hunting 117 3 0 4 124 Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services 1 0 0 95 97 Other Services 51 3 2 0 56 Administrative & Support & Waste Mgmt & Remediation Services 10 4 7 21 42 Wholesale Trade 0 1 0 33 34 Utilities 0 0 3 12 15 Manufacturing 2 0 6 6 14 Educational Services 0 0 6 0 6 Health Care and Social Assistance 0 0 0 2 2 Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation 0 2 0 0 2 Retail Trade 0 2 0 0 2 Mining 0 0 0 0 0 Transportation and Warehousing 0 0 0 0 0 Information 0 0 0 0 0 Finance and Insurance 0 0 0 0 0 Real Estate and Rental and Leasing 0 0 0 0 0 Management of Companies & Enterprises 0 0 0 0 0 Accommodation and Food Services 0 0 0 0 0 Total 199 18 87 366 670 Management & Remediation Services, respectively. Figure 9. Green Job Vacancies by Core Areas & County Small and medium-size employer worksites account for 90 percent of all green job vacancies (Table 10). This may be a function of larger businesses being better capitalized and more able to attract and retain skilled talent, especially during periods of economic uncertainty. According to Survey data, 89 percent of green job vacancies can be found in the five largest NAICS industry sectors, with 84 percent in Oÿahu and Hawaiÿi counties (Table 10 and Table 11). Among the large firms, 57 percent of all green job vacancies can be attributed to two sectors: (1) Administrative, Support, Waste Management & Remediation Services, and (2) Construction. and Professional, Scientific & Technical Services Moreover, 52 percent of O‘ahu’s green vacancies are industries account for 61 percent of green job in Construction. vacancies for small businesses. For mid-size employers, 82 percent of vacancies are concentrated in Construction and Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting, while the Construction 24 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment In contrast, industries that contribute the least Figure 10. Green Job Vacancies by Core Areas & Worksite vacancies in the green labor market are Mining, Size Transportation and Warehousing, Information, Finance and Insurance, Real Estate and Rental and Leasing, Management of Companies & Enterprises, and Accommodation and Food Services (Table 11). This might suggest that the greening of these industries is mature or has not yet fully begun. In particular, given the limited opportunities for the excavation of minerals and metals in Hawai’i, we would not expect to see a large number of green job vacancies in the Mining sector. From an operational perspective, low vacancy levels in functional areas such as leadership (Management), capital (Finance) and risk mitigation (Insurance) are likely because: (1) these industries account for fewer jobs relative to the overall economy; (2) these jobs are less likely to be Vacancies by Occupation recognized as “green” given that they cover a wider spectrum of administrative and generalist activities; Table 12 depicts present estimated green job vacancies and (3) some of the positions may be of a broader by occupational title relative to the total estimated nature (e.g., chief operating officer or chairman of the green jobs in 2010 and those projected in 2012. The board). top-seven occupations -- Sales Engineers, Solar Photovoltaic Installers, Graders and Sorters of Vacancies by Core Green Areas Agricultural Products, First-Line Supervisors and Managers of Production and Operating Workers, Electricians, Retail Salespersons, and Janitors and When the data are assessed by core green areas, most of the job vacancies appear within Generating Cleaners -- include 50 percent of the total green job Clean, Renewable, Sustainable Energy and Natural vacancies. Environmentally Friendly Production. This is particularly the case in O‘ahu, with 219 vacancies in The three occupations of Sales Engineers, Solar the category. Ninety-five of the County of Hawai‘i’s Energy System Engineers, and First-Line Supervisors 199 green vacancies are in the Natural Production each have large numbers of vacancies, including category (Figure 9). relative to total current jobs. Their vacancies are between one to two times their total current green Reviewing job vacancies across firm size, medium- jobs. These figures may be a result of both an size worksites account for substantially more green anticipated expansion of these occupations and the vacancies than small and large worksites. In the lack of a skilled and qualified labor pool from which Generating Clean, Renewable, Sustainable Energy category, for example, data show that medium-size to fill the positions. firms hold 163 green vacancies. Medium-size firms also account for the majority (98) of vacancies within Examination of the 2012 projected green jobs figures the Natural Environmentally Friendly Production is instructional in showing change for each of the category, representing 87 percent of the vacancies in three occupational categories. The data shows that in this category (Figure 10). Interestingly, almost all of all three occupations, projected job increases ranged these vacancies also originated within the Agriculture, from 196 percent to over 485 percent. These findings Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting category. suggest that the present high vacancy rates in these jobs may not only be a function of lack of qualified potential employees, but also of expected expansion of green jobs in the near future. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 25 Table 12. Top 25 Green Job Vacancies by SOC Major Groups: 2010 The functions of several of the job titles likely overlap. For example, the top green job with respect to absolute vacancies, Solar Photovoltaic Installers, may overlap with other jobs that could provide the same services, such as Solar Energy Systems Engineers, Solar Sales Representatives and Assessors, Solar Energy Installation Managers, Electricians, and Solar Thermal Installers and Technicians. Summed together, these occupations make 114 green vacancies, the greatest number of vacancies by a factor of 1.6. 26 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Green Jobs Projected in 2012 Hawai‘i businesses anticipate solid growth of green jobs to the year 2012. Survey data show that employment in green-related occupations is expected to grow from 11,145 in 2010 to 14,048 in 2012, an increase of 26 percent over two years. Such growth considerably exceeds the 1.0 percent increase projected for statewide employment during the same period.6 Furthermore, green jobs are expected to grow from a 2.4 percent share of total state employment in 2009 to 2.9 percent by 2012. This accelerating trend is consistent with findings from a preliminary assessment of Hawai‘i ’s green workforce showing an increase in green jobs between 1998 and 2007.7 Figure 11. Green Jobs by Core Area: 2012 Photo Courtesy of Green Earth Cleaners on Maui More than half of projected green jobs are found in two core green areas, Pollution Reduction and Energy Efficiency (Figure 11). Most of the projected increase in green employment, however, is associated with the generation of clean energy. The Generate Clean, Renewable, Sustainable Energy core area is expected to experience an increase of 1,119 new jobs (88 percent) between 2010 and 2012. Figure 12. Green Job Growth by County: 2010-2012 6 DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Long-Term Industry Projections, State, 2008-2018, 2010. 7 Workforce Development Council, DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Green Workforce Report: Initial Labor Market Analysis Report, October 2009. Projected annually, the green job rate of increase is 12.7 percent from 2010 to 2012. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 27 Figure 13. Growth in Green Jobs by Industry, 2010-2012 Job Projections by County Survey data indicate growth in green jobs across all major counties. Consistent with its current status as the State’s largest provider of green employment, O‘ahu reports the most sizable green workforce at 8,750 jobs in 2012 (Table 13). This will be a 28 percent increase, or a net 1,885 additional green workers, compared to current levels. Further underscoring the anticipated demand for skilled green labor is the 42 percent increase in the County of Hawai’i. While this amounts to a smaller overall number of new jobs given that county’s lower employment base, it is the largest overall rate of growth within the State and adds 510 green jobs to the State’s economy (Figure 12). Solid gains are also expected in Maui and Kaua‘i, with businesses reporting an over 15 percent increase in the number of green jobs over the next two years. By Photo Courtesy of Kupu Hawaiÿi on the Big Island. 2012, these two counties are projected to support a total of 3,035 and 531 green jobs, respectively. 28 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Table 13. Green Jobs Projections by County and Industry: 2012 Green Jobs in 2012 Industry O’ahu Hawai’i Maui Kaua’i Total Construction 3,392 585 724 94 4,796 Administrative & Support & Waste Mgmt & Remediation Services 1,597 81 1,298 189 3,164 Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services 1,069 62 177 13 1,321 Wholesale Trade 690 185 26 14 916 Other Services 623 124 111 48 907 Retail Trade 559 43 134 9 745 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, & Hunting 37 393 51 15 495 Manufacturing 250 28 111 10 398 Accommodation and Food Services 36 132 78 30 276 Utilities 135 15 58 18 226 Health Care and Social Assistance 120 0 82 0 202 Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation 42 0 52 88 182 Transportation and Warehousing 175 0 0 0 175 Educational Services 15 83 37 2 136 Real Estate and Rental and Leasing 5 1 91 0 98 Information 0 0 6 0 7 Mining 3 0 0 0 3 Finance and Insurance 0 0 0 0 0 Management of Companies & Enterprises 0 0 0 0 0 Total 8,750 1,732 3,035 531 14,048 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 29 Table 14. Growth in Green Jobs by County and Industry: 2010-2012 New and Emerging Green Occupation: Sustainability Specialist The green economy has generated a number of Hiring managers are interested in individuals new professional, technical and administrative jobs with skill sets comparable to other corporate whose principal responsibilities are to monitor and professionals, which include excellent written and lead an establishment’s green efforts. One prime oral communication skills, project management example is the emerging occupation of Sustainability experience and data analysis expertise. An Specialist. The Hawaiÿi Green Jobs Survey helped undergraduate degree in engineering, environmental identify several, predominantly large, firms that studies or the natural sciences is also considered offer such career opportunities in industries ranging beneficial. from professional services to food services. In 2010, there were an estimated 61 Sustainability To produce students capable of entering career Specialists in the State of Hawaiÿi, with a projected pathways in energy and environmental sustainability, growth rate of 26 percent by 2012. Based on O*NET grass root initiatives such as Sustainable Saunders definitions, a Sustainability Specialist “address(es) at the University of Hawaiÿi aim to integrate the organizational sustainability issues, such as waste educational curriculum with campus-based projects stream management, green building practices, and and internships.2 This holistic approach allows green procurement plans” by undertaking prescribed students from multiple disciplines to work together tasks to: on current sustainability issues, while developing the skills and acumen necessary to transition successfully • Develop sustainability project goals, objectives, into the green workforce upon graduation. Moreover, initiatives, or strategies in collaboration with such programs serve as a useful conduit transmitting other sustainability professionals; the skills-needs of potential employers with front- • Monitor or track sustainability indicators, such line education providers. as energy usage, natural resources usage, waste generation, and recycling; • Assess or propose sustainability initiatives, 1 considering factors such as cost effectiveness, http://online.onetcenter.org/link/summary/13-1199.05 2 technical feasibility, and acceptance.1 http://sustainablesaunders.hawaii.edu 30 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Figure 14. Green Job Projections by Industry: 2012 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 31 Job Projections by Industry Table 15. Green Job Projections by County and Worksite Size: 2012 By 2012, the Construction and Administrative and Waste Services sectors are expected to yield the greatest number of green jobs at 4,796 and 3,164, respectively (Table 13). Construction will include 34 percent of all green jobs in 2012 (Figure 14) and experience 44 percent growth between 2010 and 2012, creating 1,468 new green jobs, the largest increase in absolute terms (Table 14). Table 16. Growth in Green Jobs by County and Worksite Agriculture and Forestry is projected to experience Size: 2010-2012 a 78 percent increase in its green employment, the largest growth reported by any industry group during this two-year period (Figure 13). Additional high- growth industries for green jobs are Accommodation and Food Services (59 percent) and Professional, Scientific and Technical Services (40 percent). Job Projections by Worksite Size Figure 15. Absolute Growth in Green Jobs by Worksite Size: 2010-2012 Between 2010 and 2012, most of the increase in green employment is expected to occur at small and medium-size employer worksites (Figure 15). Mid- size businesses report an estimated 1,520 additional green jobs by 2012, an increase of 33 percent (Figure 16). An even greater 36 percent rate of growth is projected for small businesses, which will bring total green employment by small businesses to 3,925 jobs (Table 15). In contrast, hiring at large worksites will likely grow at a more moderate pace of nine percent, amounting to a green workforce of 3,970 or 340 new green jobs by 2012 (Table 16). Figure 16. Growth in Green Jobs by Worksite Size: 2010-2012 Job Projections by Occupation Survey data show that the top three occupations with respect to absolute growth prospects in green jobs are Solar Photovoltaic Installers, Sales Engineers and Electricians (Table 18). In addition, Upholsterers, who recycle furniture, are estimated to increase by 145 positions by 2012. By 2012, employment in these areas is estimated to increase by 1,022 positions, or 142 percent. 32 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Other occupational groups that are likely to offer occupational groups of Heating and Air Conditioning a large number of total green jobs in 2012 include Mechanics and Installer; Insulation Workers, Floor, janitors and cleaners (1,248 jobs), forest and Ceiling and Wall; Insulation Workers Mechanical; conservation technicians (662 jobs), and electricians and Solar Thermal Installers and Technicians likely (647 jobs) (Table 17). provide similar functions of energy conservation, through the installation of improved insulation for Through the Hawai‘i Clean Energy Initiative, the State both cooling and more efficient water heating. If of Hawai‘i is pursuing a major push to improve home consolidated into a single category, this job type would energy conservation through encouraging the use of yield 338 new green jobs by 2012, for a total of 1,368 energy-efficient appliances, building components and positions, by far the greatest number of projected energy-efficient home design. LEED certification green jobs in 2012. (see inset article) is a major aspect of this endeavor, training architects, designers and contractors in Another example of a functional overlap is the SOC new technologies and methods to design energy- major group First-Line Supervisors and Managers. efficient homes and worksites. In addition to solar Green jobs in these categories include the management appliances such as water heaters, improved insulation of any type of green job, including diverse green is important for energy efficiency and the passive occupations in the agricultural, construction, janitorial, cooling of homes and work places. sales, and office environments. These First-Line Supervisors are likely fulfilling similar functions. Several SOC job categories will likely have When combined, they account for 752 green jobs, overlapping green functions and training requirements ranking green supervisors in the top-five largest green with other SOC job categories. Two of the most occupations projected for 2012 (Table 17). important green functions relate to harnessing solar energy and improving insulation. Management of green jobs also has much skill-overlap. The Industry Focus: Wind Energy Wind energy is a developing industry in the State of In addition to the Kahuku site, 21 megawatts worth of wind Hawaiÿi, generating a large number of green jobs during turbines are being installed in Maui. This new capacity the construction phase of a project and additional jobs will supplement the existing 61 megawatts of wind power during maintenance. from three large-scale farms on the Big Island (operated by Hawaiÿi Electric Light Company and Apollo Energy For example, 12 wind turbines with a total capacity of Corporation) and Maui (operated by First Wind). 30 megawatts of power are currently being installed in Kahuku, Oÿahu. According to First Wind, the Combined, approximately 112 megawatts of wind power site’s developer, this project is expected to create 200 are either on-line or currently under construction in the construction jobs, mostly in excavation, reinforced steel State. Moreover, these projects are likely to yield 25 long- framing, cement, and erecting of towers by specialty term infrastructure maintenance jobs. Smaller-scale wind cranes. These jobs are likely to last six to nine months energy initiatives, for example at the Parker Ranch on the during construction. After construction, there will be six Big Island, also add green jobs to the local economy.2 to ten jobs required for long-term maintenance of the facility. In addition, approximately eight administrative 1 staff are located at First Wind’s Oÿahu office. First Wind, “Press Release: First Wind Begins Construction of Oahu-based Kahuku Wind Project,” July 13, 2010; Honolulu Star Advertiser, “Kahuku wind farm lands $117M loan guarantee”, This project is expected to yield enough renewable energy 7/28/2010; First Wind, personal communication, November 16, to power nearly 7,700 homes in Hawaiÿi, and recently 2010. received a $117 million loan guarantee from the U.S. 2 Honolulu Star Advertiser, “Oÿahu wind farm stays on track,” Department of Energy.1 October 9, 2010. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 33 Table 17. Green Job Projections by Occupation: 2012 Occupation Green Jobs: 2012 Janitors and Cleaners Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners 1,248 Solar Photovoltaic Installers 684 Electricians 647 Forest and Conservation Technicians 622 Security Guards 552 Heating and Air Conditioning Mechanics and Installers 403 Construction Carpenters 345 Insulation Workers Floor Ceiling and Wall 337 Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers 336 Solar Thermal Installers and Technicians 297 Insulation Workers Mechanical 297 Retail Salespersons 290 Sales Engineers 267 Laborers and Freight Stock and Material Movers Hand 247 Recycling and Reclamation Workers 225 Environmental Science and Protection Technicians Including Health 215 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers 214 Upholsterers 209 Maintenance and Repair Workers General 194 Plumbers 185 Graders and Sorters Agricultural Products 181 First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Landscaping Lawn Service and Groundskeeping 179 Worker Construction Laborers 173 Civil Engineers 169 Computer Support Specialists 167 34 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Table 18. Top 25 Green Occupations by Growth: 2010-2012 Sorting invasive limu on the Big Island. Photo Courtesy of Kupu Hawaiÿi Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 35 Green Finance: Innovation Spurs Clean Energy Projects Obtaining adequate levels of financing can be a major obstacle for property owners seeking to implement clean energy and/or energy efficiency projects. Institutional investors, however, are generally not well suited to finance small, disaggregated projects, and are likely to avoid projects with high risks for default.1 One innovative solution to this size and duration mismatch is the use of Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) bonds, which are legislated in 24 states including Hawaiÿi. According to a report by researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, “renewable energy (projects)… generate more jobs per unit of energy delivered than the fossil fuel-based sectors” while freeing “money otherwise spent on energy cost(s) and redirect(ing) it to stimulate the economy through additional job creation.” PACE bonds bridge the gap between the needs of prospective property owners and institutional investors. As illustrated in the model below, a municipality floats PACE bonds that are purchased by institutional investors seeking bonds backed by property taxes.2 Property owners obtain a loan from the municipality to finance a green project, and the loan is later repaid through the assessment of a special property tax equal to 1/20th of the loan amount plus interest and payable over the following 20 years. For example, Company X owns a mid-rise commercial building and pays $10,000 per month in utilities. Company X completes an energy audit and learns that it can save $5,000 per month in utilities by investing $200,000 in clean energy and energy efficiency (e.g., solar photovoltaic, energy efficient lighting and HVAC). Company X borrows $200,000 at a 10 percent rate and 20-year term from the County’s PACE program, allowing it to complete the green retrofit. Company X then repays the loan by making a special property tax surcharge payment of $1,950 per month. This is a financially prudent investment -- from day one, Company X realizes a $3,050 monthly return (i.e., $5,000 energy savings minus $1,950 property tax surcharge). PACE bonds allow for a scaling-up of clean energy initiatives, and provide a wide array of social, environmental and financial benefits. From a societal perspective, local governments are able to stimulate the economy and create new green jobs, moving the state closer to a sustainable energy future. Environmentally, an expansion in the depth and breadth of clean energy projects will serve to decrease our dependence on fossil fuels and lower overall carbon emission levels. Financially, property owners realize an immediate positive return, and institutional investors have access to an asset that provides relatively steady returns with diminished risk of default. 1 Harvard Business Review, “The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2010,” January-February, 2010. 2 Max Wei, Shana Patadia, Daniel M. Kammen. “Putting renewable and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?” Energy Policy 38.2 (2010). 36 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Economic Stimulus & Job Creation (1) Municipal government floats PACE bonds that are purchased by institutional investors. Funds from this transaction are then used to make loans to property owners who complete energy efficient projects. (2) Property owner makes payment for special property tax assessment. Payments pass through to an institutional investor. (3) Property owner hires an entity (the direct employer) to design, manufacture, construct, and install the clean energy project. Direct employers hire employees and make purchases from both upstream and downstream suppliers (the indirect employers) to complete the project. Indirect employers, such as a silicon manufacturer for photovoltaic panels, then purchases supplies and hires its own employees. Finally, additional economic activity is generated when employees of direct and indirect employers spend money at downstream employer establishments such as fast food and retail stores.2 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 37 Qualifications and Employee Training Requirements Green jobs in Hawaiÿi require employees with a wide variety of qualifications, certifications and educational backgrounds. While more than half of Hawaiÿi businesses reporting a green job did not respond to this section of the survey, several noteworthy themes emerge when existing data are categorized into three broad areas: (1) minimum education, (2) formal certifications or licenses, and (3) informal on-the-job training (OJT). Of those businesses that responded to the Qualifications and Training section of the Survey, more than 70 percent indicate some form of minimum education or training requirement. The most frequently cited of these are community colleges and trade schools, which suggest that specialized training is sought for many green jobs (Figure 17). Photo Courtesy of Kupu Hawaiÿi on the Big Island. While university education is the second highest- ranked source for fulfilling such requirements, many employers with current or prospective green jobs view When queried specifically on certification or a formal degree as neither essential nor an impediment licensure, 64 percent of responding businesses cited to placement in many of these occupations. it as a requirement. Of these, the most commonly Incidentally, only 15 percent of businesses require a bachelor’s degree or higher, and these are likely to be concentrated in scientific, technical or managerial Figure 18. On-the-Job Green Training fields. Figure 17. Formal Green Training 38 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment cited requirement is the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, referred Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design to in 11 percent of responses. Examples of such (LEED) occupations include architects, civil engineers, construction managers, cost estimators, and electrical LEED is an internationally-recognized green engineers. Based on survey data, green jobs generally building certification system, providing third-party require some type of license (23 percent) as opposed verification that a building or community was to certification (16 percent). designed, built, and maintained using strategies intended to improve performance in metrics such The third area of analysis, informal OJT, received as energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions 318 responses. Of these, 83 percent indicated OJT as reduction, improved indoor environmental quality, a requirement, with 17 percent indicating no required and stewardship of resources. OJT. The two most cited durations for OJT were 0-12 months and 1-5 years, each of which represents Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council, seven percent of the total responses (Figure 22). LEED is intended to provide building owners and This suggests that employers view informal training operators with a concise framework for identifying at the workplace as an important component of and implementing practical and measurable green green workforce development, more so than formal building design, construction, operations and education, certifications or licenses. This is also maintenance. broadly in line with our findings that green jobs tend to be a greening of existing jobs rather than new jobs Source: U.S. Green Building Council requiring altogether new skills. Educational Requirements for Green Trades and Professions Categorizing occupations by education and training requirements yields additional insights (Figure 19). Based on information produced by the BLS, we divide these requirements into three tiers: “high” education/ training includes jobs that require work experience plus a four-year college degree, professional degree or graduate school; “medium” includes jobs that require an associate’s degree, work experience in a related occupation, post-secondary vocational training, Photo Courtesy of 21st Century Technologies Hawaiÿi or extensive OJT; “low” includes occupations that require minimal or moderate OJT. three tiers, the top-five occupations are estimated to The number of new green jobs in the medium collectively account for 63 percent of new green jobs tier is higher than that of either the high- or low- by 2012. education categories. By 2012, the five highest-ranked occupations in the medium-education category are Analysis of survey data by occupation shows expected to generate a total of 928 new green jobs. In that Solar Photovoltaic Installers are expected to contrast, the low- and high-education categories will experience the greatest overall increase in green jobs yield 422 and 491 new jobs, respectively. Across all (Figure 19). Based on employer responses, workers in Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 39 Figure 19. Projected Growth Rate of the Top 5 Green Occupations by Education, 2010-2012 40 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment this job group will need a moderate level of education In the high-education/training category, Sales and training, such as: contractor licenses, specific Engineers are expected to experience the largest photovoltaic training, electrician courses, associate’s overall increase, in both absolute and percentage degree, journeyman electrician’s license, or significant terms. Computer Support Specialists are projected OJT. to more than double to 91 positions, and these jobs typically require a bachelor’s degree and computer Electricians, also in the middle tier, have similar certifications. High-level Solar Energy Systems training requirements and are likewise projected Engineers are projected to increase by 46 positions, or to experience high growth, both in absolute and 460 percent. percentage terms. Requirements include an associate’s degree, certificate of achievement, electrical For “green collar” laborers in the low-tier, journeyman’s license, apprenticeship, work experience Upholsterers, Graders and Sorters of Agricultural in a related occupation, five years of OJT, or some Products, and Insulation Workers are projected combination thereof. The Honolulu Community to experience the greatest growth in absolute and College’s Electrical Installation & Maintenance percentage terms. Retail Salespersons will also Technology program, which offers both associate’s experience job growth. Requirements specific degrees and certificates of achievement, was to this occupation include work experience in a specifically mentioned by survey respondents. related occupation, less than two years of OJT, and occasional certification such as for food handling, Heating & Air Conditioning Mechanics and Installers vendor products, general sales, or forklifts. In contrast, are the largest projected growth category of insulation- Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers generally related green jobs, and typically require an associate’s require less than one year of OJT and no certifications. degree or certificate of achievement, and less than Specific skills, such as training in precision irrigation two years of OJT. Coursework and an apprenticeship with pop up multi-directional precision spray nozzles, in refrigeration, plumbing, air-conditioning, sheet is considered beneficial. metal, or basic electrical are useful. North American Technician Excellence (NATE) and Environmental Survey data confirm the general finding that most Protection Agency 608 Refrigerant certifications were future employee training requirements for green jobs cited by survey respondents, which include training to will be fulfilled at community colleges and trade protect the ozone layer. schools, supplemented with extensive OJT. Green jobs intersect a wide array of skill and knowledge areas that While occupations requiring mid-level education/ will require workers who can successfully adapt to the training are likely to experience the most sizeable changing needs of today’s economy. growth in new green jobs during the two-year period between 2010 and 2012, the other two tiers also contain jobs with high levels of projected growth. Photo Courtesy of Peter Liu, kaiscapes.com Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 41 Green Practices The primary distinction between a green practice and a green job is that the latter engages in economic activity that is favorable to the environment or energy sustainability and central or essential to business operations. It is not necessary for a business to offer green jobs for green practices to be in place. For example, a cleaning company that advertises the routine use of eco-friendly cleaning products could consider employees specifically engaged in such activities as occupants of green jobs. Presumably, these workers are required to make use of green products for which customers pay a nominal premium. If, on the other hand, this business does not advertise or commit itself to the usage of green products on a recurring basis, then its workers would generally be classified as practitioners of green behavior in non-green jobs. While the distinction is not always Kaläheo Elementary School. Photo Courtesy of Kauaÿi Recycling obvious or clear, it is the guiding definition of this report. of businesses recycling and nearly 60 percent using recycled products (Table 19). Such activity is not Based on survey data, green practices are common limited to the recycling of cans, bottles and paper. in the State of Hawaiÿi. Ninety-three percent Worksites report the recycling of an array of products of respondents report at least one green practice ranging from oil, grease, solvents, tires, plastic performed at their business worksite; 51 percent report buckets, cork, batteries, and electronic equipment. two to four such practices. Overall, the frequency of Other examples include the conversion of cooking oil green practices is normally distributed with an average to bio-diesel, and one hotelier reports delivering food of 3.5 per business (Figure 20). waste to contractors for the production of methane gas. Another company cites mercury recycling with Recycling is ubiquitous and by far the most common a mercury-capture filter, which not only recaptures green practice in Hawaiÿi, with more than 80 percent mercury for future use but also reduces mercury effluent, a major threat to marine habitat, fisheries and Figure 20. Green Practices per Worksite human health.8 The conservation of energy is also frequently reported by businesses, with over one-half using energy- saving light bulbs and nearly 40 percent making conscious efforts to reduce energy usage. Several worksites have been particularly proactive in this 8 Refer to http://hawaii.gov/dbedt/info/energy/publications/ recycling99.pdf for recycling companies in the State of Hawaii. Mercury pollution information is from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, “Mercury Pollution Threatens Health Worldwide, Scientists Say,” Science Daily, August 11, 2006. 42 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Table 19. Green Practices by County and Worksite Size, Share of Total regard, adopting technologies such as timers or other Analysis of survey data by county shows that Maui automatic-shutoff systems on high-energy appliances. and Kauaÿi counties report the largest average number Indeed, energy conservation measures can range of green practices per worksite (Table 19). Worksites from complex to pragmatic. Survey respondents cite in these two counties report a relatively strong the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lighting, commitment to recycling, use of recycled products, variable-frequency drive motors for air-conditioning reduced energy consumption, water conservation, and and booster pumps, and even wind generators.9 For commuting via carpool or bicycle. natural cooling and lighting, some companies report the use of skylights, fans and even black-out drapes. Businesses in Oÿahu and Kauaÿi counties cite close One business reported simply turning off the lights for cooperation with local energy companies to moderate half the day. energy usage during periods of energy shortages. For example, one company reports participation in the Twenty-eight percent of respondents clean with eco- Hawaiian Electric Company’s (HECO) Energy Scouts friendly products, and nearly as much (25 percent) program. Members of this initiative allow HECO practice water conservation. For example, one to control 50-10,000 kW of their energy use on an company reports the installation of rain sensors on as-needed basis. If alerted by HECO of a systemic its irrigation systems, while another uses reclaimed energy shortage, Energy Scouts are compensated to cut water for irrigating a golf course. In the transportation energy demand by either activating backup generators area, telecommuting and carpooling were listed as a or decreasing the use of high-energy appliances.10 green practices by more than 10 percent of responding Across employer worksite size categories, more than businesses (Table 19). Several companies reported 75 percent recycle, over one-half use energy-saving “walk to work” programs. light bulbs and recycled products, and roughly one- quarter clean with eco-friendly products and conserve water (Table 19). On average, larger businesses are more likely to adopt green practices with a higher 9 Variable frequency drives (VFD) vary the quantity of air pumped, for example through an air-conditioning unit, depending on system demand. 10 www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/financing/eip_hi.html Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 43 Green Certification Several organizations certify green products and services. Green Seal is a non-profit organization that certifies a broad range of products and services, including cleaning products and hotels; they also partner with large institutional purchasers to develop green purchasing plans. The U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) certifies construction companies that build according to sustainability requirements. USGBC developed the LEED building requirements, and LEED-certified buildings must be cleaned with products that are either certified by Green Seal or compliant with California environmental codes. Several additional entities encourage green practices in the hotel industry. These include the Green Hotels Association, EcoGreen Hotel, Green Globe, and the Tourism Sustainability Council, which provide green guidelines and certify particular hotels as green. EnergyStar is a government-sponsored program that certifies appliances as energy-efficient, and Green Shield certifies pest control practices and companies. Sources: Honolulu Star-Advertiser, “Check Labels to See What ‘Green’ Means,” October 25, 2010. Other resources include GreenSeal.org, GreenHotels.com, EcoGreenHotel.com, EnergyStar.gov, GreenShieldCertified.org, and www.cleanlink.com/cp/article.asp?id=2599&keywords=green+cleaning,+certification. frequency than their smaller counterparts. Large worksites performed an average of four green practices, compared with 3.5 and 3.2 for medium and small-size worksites, respectively (Table 19). For example, 91 percent of large employers recycle compared with just over three-quarters for small worksites; 54 percent report energy-use reduction compared to about one-third for small and mid-size worksites. Moreover, 12 percent of large businesses provide their employees with subsidized bus passes, compared with just three percent for smaller ones. Large worksites may provide support for more green practices for a number of reasons, such as the ability to better mobilize employee adherence to green policies and practices. Given the size and number of personnel available at larger businesses, it may also be more likely that at least some segment of the overall workforce prescribes to a green practice. For example, the probability that a worksite with 1,000 employees supports at least one worker who recycles is likely to be higher than that for a small-size business of ten. The high occurrence of green practices at small Photo Courtesy of Peter Liu, kaiscapes.com firms, coupled with the constricted distribution of the average number of green practices across all firms (3.2 to 4), suggests that green practices at even the largest firms are practiced by a large proportion of employees. 44 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Table 20. Green Practices by Industry, Share of Total Use Low Fuel Ef- VOC ficient Solar Paints, Clean w/ & Alter- Subsi- Bicycle Energy Use and Stains, Eco- native Reduce dized Water Com- Industry (Average Number of Green Saving Recycled Photo- Telecom- or Seal- friendly Fuel Energy Bus Conser- mute Practices) Recycle Bulbs Products voltaics mute ers Carpool Products Vehicles Use Pass vation Program Other Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting 64% 47% 46% 18% 8% 8% 7% 26% 3% 28% 0% 38% 1% 17% (3.1) Mining (1.0) 44 11 11 11 0 0 0 0 0 22 0 0 0 0 Utilities (3.3) 83 54 54 9 11 14 3 20 11 31 9 23 3 6 Construction (3.4) 81 45 53 16 7 13 16 27 8 35 2 26 1 5 Manufacturing (3.4) 82 54 55 7 10 12 10 32 8 36 1 26 1 9 Wholesale Trade (3.0) 82 40 57 8 13 3 9 25 6 27 2 20 1 7 Retail Trade (3.8) 85 61 65 7 13 5 11 31 6 45 10 26 3 9 Transportation and Warehousing (3.2) 87 47 66 3 18 6 9 18 5 34 4 15 0 5 Information (3.1) 87 40 58 10 12 2 6 19 2 38 6 19 4 4 Finance and Insurance (3.4) 89 52 65 3 10 3 9 14 7 46 29 13 0 2 Real Estate and Rental and Leasing 82 63 55 14 14 10 8 29 8 48 8 27 1 3 (3.7) Professional, Scientific & Technical 86 48 57 8 23 5 9 20 8 33 8 20 3 4 Services (3.3) Management of Companies & 89 50 64 7 18 9 7 25 7 45 21 27 0 2 Enterprises (3.7) Administrative & Support & Waste 75 47 55 9 10 4 14 31 9 31 5 28 3 6 Mgmt & Remediation Services (3.3) Educational Services (3.6) 83 54 61 12 11 10 16 35 6 41 9 19 4 4 Health Care & Social Assistance (3.5) 90 54 61 9 14 8 12 24 6 36 10 17 2 4 Arts, Entertainment & Recreation (4.1) 83 57 58 13 19 12 12 42 12 50 5 35 1 14 Assomodation & Food Services (4.0) 83 69 62 5 7 11 16 35 6 51 2 37 2 11 Other Services (except Public Admin) 77 58 58 6 9 14 9 30 6 38 3 30 1 5 (3.4) Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 45 Green Practices by Industry services can be efficiently performed from home offices. By major industry group, the Arts, Entertainment, & Recreation and Accommodation & Food Services industries report the highest average number of green Diversity of Green Practices practices at 4.1 and 4.0, respectively (Table 20). Accommodation & Food Services ranked first in the In addition to the green practices listed on the survey overall use of energy saving light bulbs (69 percent) instrument, businesses were allowed to customize and reducing energy usage (51 percent), and second in their responses. These diverse and sometimes creative cleaning with eco-friendly products (35 percent) and practices include the use of chlorine-free paper from water conservation (37 percent). The significance of sustainable forests, bio-degradable organic eating this finding is that Accommodation & Food Services is utensils and containers made from vegetable matter, the largest private industry employer in the State, and rechargeable batteries, LEED-certified buildings, these businesses generally require large amounts of low-sulfur diesel, heat reclamation from refrigeration energy to operate. and air-conditioning for hot water supply, and locally- sourced procurements. Several companies report Agriculture is another sector heavily dependent on providing reusable eating implements, including natural resources, with survey data reporting the dishes, silverware, water bottles, and coffee cups, highest share for water conservation and usage of all of which eliminate or reduce waste byproducts. solar and photovoltaic systems at 38 percent and 18 Other businesses limit copier and printer use while percent, respectively. Given the central role that water encouraging electronic communications and record- plays in irrigation systems, there remain significant keeping. Interestingly, one company supports an opportunities for further conservation efforts among executive mandate requiring “paperless” meetings. the State’s farming sector. In the agriculture and landscaping sectors, green practices include composting, use of native species Recycling is popular and widely practiced throughout to preserve biodiversity, and the venerable practice of the State, with a majority of industries reporting “giving food scraps to the pigs.” participation rates in excess of 80 percent. Ninety Opportunities to “go green” are abundant. Initiatives percent of reporting worksites in the Health Care to locate eco-friendly or eco-friendlier alternatives & Social Assistance industry recycle compared may require creativity, but can be practical and low- to just over 40 percent in Mining. Meanwhile, cost as well. Transportation & Warehousing had the highest share of worksites utilizing recycled products (66 percent), which is most likely due to the use of recycled cardboard containers and other moving materials. At least half of the remaining industries used recycled products. Finance & Insurance and Management of Companies & Enterprises lead in the practice of subsidized bus passes at 29 percent and 21 percent, respectively. This relatively high participation rate is likely the result of being located in the urban core. The Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services industry reports the highest rate of telecommuting (23 percent), which is likely due to recent technological advances, lower communication costs and the fact that many of these 46 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Conclusion The green economy in Hawaiÿi is sizable and positioned to grow rapidly. Fueling this trend is consumer demand for goods and services that are carbon-neutral or low impact on the environment. Businesses are responding to this niche market by developing production processes and delivery systems that consider factors beyond profit maximization. While these intentions may be well placed, our knowledge of the environment and the role that humans play in it remains limited and is still evolving. Technologies that can reduce our ecological footprint also require costly research and, in some cases, Photo Courtesy of Kauaÿi County Recycling complex infrastructure. To effectively respond to these challenges, policy makers and community or unemployment. The associated costs, both direct leaders must cultivate an educated and skilled and indirect, can be significant, particularly during the workforce capable of meeting the needs of a clean- current period of post-recession economic recovery. energy economy. Success will require active coordination among all stakeholders. Educators and training providers must Data from the inaugural Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey provide timely and relevant curricula; policy makers indicate that green jobs are expected to increase from a will need to provide support in the form of funding 2.4 percent share of total private employment in 2010 and a strategic plan that can deliver on its ambitious to 2.9 percent by 2012. Such growth will bring on line HCEI goals; business leaders should continue to 2,903 new green jobs statewide, a 26 percent increase actively incorporate greener practices and processes in just two years. This contrasts with a one percent into their production platforms; and workers or those average increase in total State employment over the seeking employment will need to update existing skills same period.11 Given our findings that green jobs exist and competencies to maintain their competitiveness. in a large array of industries, ranging from traditional This report provides the first comprehensive sectors such as agriculture and construction to high assessment of Hawaii’s green workforce. technology ventures in bio-fuels and hydrothermal, a growth rate differential of this magnitude can have Employment patterns and vacancy trends are analyzed profound social and economic implications at the state and county levels across all major groups of industries, occupations and worksite sizes. Green Labor market participants will require the tools and is an evolving concept that is better understood resources to transition to a greener economy. This will when considered within the context of a larger labor include retraining on-the-job or through certification market information (LMI) system. Connecting the and licensing. Enrollment in formal degree programs data collected on green jobs with broader LMI-use may be necessary if workers are to pursue entirely new dynamics and best practices will be an essential careers, either by choice or through underemployment next step. Such efforts are currently underway, and encompass two additional areas: 11 DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Long-Term Industry Projections, State, 2008-2018, 2010. The overall increase is based on first quarter 2010 non-government employment of 467,443 and projected 2012 employment of 476,835. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 47 (1) Detailed projections on green jobs across major industry and occupational groups. Econometric models will be used to generate a near- and long-term assessment of Hawaii’s future employment needs based on current trends, conditions, and policies and incentives impacting green investments. (2) Skills gap analyses that assess the skill and competency requirements of green industries and occupations; demographic characteristics of existing and potential green workers; and, current and prospective educational resources and training capacity. The goal will be to strengthen the linkages between job seekers, employers, and education and training providers. Establishing a process to standardize the definitions, concepts and technical issues related to green jobs will facilitate the sharing of information across states and regions. This leverages existing data, and helps to develop a more comprehensive understanding of occupation and industry relationships. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) has already solicited public feedback and finalized a working definition for green jobs at the national level.12 Based on this definition, the BLS intends to collect occupational employment and wage data through its existing Occupational Employment Statistics survey. Modalities to track emerging green businesses and potential new occupations would also be useful to more formally integrate green sectors with the wider economy. This will require coordination with the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) program, and possible changes to the NAICS and SOC. The State of Hawai‘i is making significant progress toward a more energy independent and secure future. While the challenges are numerous, measuring the depth and breadth of the green workforce is a necessary first step. The Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey provides the foundation upon which stakeholders across government, business and civil society can build a sustainable, greener economy. 12 Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 202. 48 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment References California Community Colleges, Centers for Economic Excellence, Economic and Workforce Development Program. Understanding the Green Economy in California: A Community College Perspective. June 2009. Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth. Bureau Of Labor Market Information & Strategic Initiatives. Michigan Green Jobs Report: Occupations & Employment in the New Green Economy, 2009. North Carolina State University. National Center for O*NET Development. Greening of the World of Work: Implications for O*NET-SOC and New and Emerging Occupations. February 2009. Oregon Employment Department. Workforce and Economic Research Division. The Greening of Oregon’s Workforce: Jobs, Wages, and Training. June 2009. Pew Charitable Trusts. The Clean Energy Economy – Repowering Jobs, Business and Investments Across America. June 2009. State of Hawai‘i Department of Labor & Industrial Relations (DLIR). Research & Statistics Office. Employment Forecasts for the Short-Term Future, 2009-2011. September 2010. State of Hawai‘i DLIR. Research & Statistics Office. 2009 Employment and Payrolls in Hawai‘i . October 2010. State of Hawai‘i DLIR. Research & Statistics Office. Hawai‘i Green Workforce Report: Initial Labor Market Analysis for the State of Hawai‘i . October 2009. State of Hawai‘i DLIR. Research & Statistics Office. Occupational Wages and Employment in Hawai‘i , 2009. August 2010. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration. Measuring the Green Economy. April 2010. University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Political Economy Research Institute. Job Opportunities for the Green Economy: A state-by-state picture of occupations that gain from green investments. June 2008. Washington State Employment Security Department. Labor Market and Economic Analysis. 2008 Washington State Green Economy Jobs. January 2009. Workforce Information Council. Measurement and Analysis of Employment in the Green Economy. October 2009. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 49 Appendix A: Methodological Details The data presented here is predominantly based on a Fishing & Hunting (11); Mining (21); Construction survey conducted from May to July 2010 of a random (23); Manufacturing (31-33); Wholesale Trade (42); sample of 9,146 worksites drawn from the Quarterly Retail Trade (44-45); Transportation and Warehousing Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) database, (48-49); Utilities (22); Information (51); Finance and which contains data on approximately 37,674 Insurance (52); Real Estate and Rental and Leasing private Hawai‘i worksites that report to the State’s (53); Professional, Scientific & Technical Services Unemployment Insurance Division. (54); Management of Companies and Enterprises (55); Administrative & Support & Waste Management To ensure a representative sample, the Hawai‘i & Remediation Services (56); Education Services Department of Labor and Industrial Relations (DLIR) (61); Health Care and Social Assistance (62); Arts mailed the survey to a cross-section (stratified sample) Entertainment and Recreation (71); Accommodation of the QCEW, including samples from all four and Food Services (72); and Other Services (except counties -- O‘ahu, Hawai’i, Maui and Kaua‘i. It was Public Administration) (81). Public Administration important to stratify the sample by county to ensure (92) was not sampled, but the public sector will be that the uneven distribution of businesses across the included in future samples (Table 21). state did not adversely skew the sample.13 The initial response to the survey mailing was 2,285 Within each county, a cross-section of worksites was completed surveys (referred to subsequently as Wave randomly chosen such that small (1-9 employees), 1) which arrived within a 10-day grace period of the medium (10-49 employees), and large worksites (50 June 4th deadline. The initial response rate was thus or more employees) would be represented. In order 24.98 percent. An aggressive follow-up strategy was to obtain complete data on worksites with potentially implemented with non-responders, which yielded very large numbers of green employees, or very an additional 1,723 completed surveys (referred to small numbers of green employees relative to their subsequently as Wave 2). This brought the total total number of employees, all large worksites were response to 4,008 of the original 9,146 sampled sampled. This decreased the variance in the random worksites, or a response rate of 43.82 percent. sample of small and medium-sized worksites, thus increasing the power of the random sample. Upon examination of the data, non-response bias was detected between Wave 1 and Wave 2 responders. The sample was further stratified in order to get a To address this bias, a logistic regression was used cross-section of industries operating in Hawai‘i, to estimate propensity scores for prediction of likely including traditional industries and those thought responders and non-responders within the unsampled likely to have a large representation of green jobs. data. In the final estimation, the weight of Wave 1 By increasing the sample in NAICS codes likely sample data was increased to estimate the number to contain large numbers of green jobs, these high- of green jobs for likely responders, and likewise, variance strata were better covered and the power of the weight of Wave 2 sample data was increased to the overall sample increased. estimate the number of green jobs for likely non- responders. This method yielded an unbiased estimate All 23 private sectors in the North American Industry of total green jobs. Classification System (NAICS, see inset) were randomly sampled, including: Agriculture, Forestry, 13 Katalina McGlone contributed to the drafting of this section. 50 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Data Table 21. Sample Size by Industry # of Work- sites Share of The QCEW database formed the survey universe. NAICS Sampled Total The QCEW includes extensive descriptive detail 11 Agriculture 177 1.9% on every employer that reports to Hawai‘i’s 21 Mining 16 0.2% Unemployment Insurance (UI) Division. UI coverage 22 Utilities 65 0.7% is mandatory for most employers. At the time the 23 Construction 1,135 12.4% sample was drawn, the latest available QCEW 31-33 Manufacturing 413 4.5% database was used, which was for the 3rd quarter of 42 Wholesale Trade 523 5.7% 2009. To get the most detailed county data possible, private employer QCEW records at the worksite level 44-45 Retail Trade 1,174 12.8% were used. Not sampled were employers with zero 48-49 Transportation/Warehousing 274 3.0% employees in the 3rd month of the quarter (6,310 in 51 Information 149 1.6% September), or with no specific county designation 52 Finance & Insurance 286 3.1% (1,020 in September). These exclusions yielded 53 Real Estate & Rental & Leasing 344 3.8% a revised survey universe totaling 30,484 records 54 Professional, Scientific, & Technical 1,038 11.3% (Figure 2). Services 55 Management of Companies & 118 1.3% While most businesses in Hawai‘i correctly Enterprises disaggregated their reports by worksite in the QCEW 56 Administrative/Support/Waste 715 7.8% database, a small subset reported for all their Hawai‘i Mgmt/Remediation Services locations at once. We saw no reason to think that 61 Educational Services 241 2.6% systematic bias would result from the foregoing and 62 Health Care & Social Assistance 678 7.4% most businesses have only one worksite. Therefore, 71 Arts, Entertainment, & Recreation 179 2.0% we assumed that all businesses reported by worksite. 72 Accomodation & Food Services 836 9.1% While we use the technical term “worksite” in the report, the data would be nearly identical if based on 81 Other Services 785 8.6% “businesses” or “employers” as the unit of analysis. TOTAL 9,146 100.0% The statistical program SPSS drew a disproportionate Sample selection stratified random sample, which means businesses were drawn from some strata at a different proportion DLIR chose the sample size based on available compared to others. Two principles guided the resources. Neyman methods and a Monte Carlo proportions used to select the sample from various simulation to determine the required sample for strata: significance testing showed that a larger sample 1) Ensure adequate representation from the approaching the universe of data would be optimal. smaller counties, businesses, and NAICS This large sample is preferable given: 1) the strong positive skew of the distribution of the quantity of codes. jobs, 2) the mean of total green jobs in the sample is 2) Draw more heavily from strata thought to near 0 at 0.34, and 3) when compared to the mean, the variance is relatively high at 28.55 jobs. The suggested be more likely to contain the main variable comprehensive survey of green jobs could be obtained of interest -- green jobs (“green” and “green with a rolling sample such that all companies were 2-digit NAICS” categories, and larger sampled at least once every 3-5 years. businesses). This provided more coverage of strata with most of the green jobs. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 51 The stratified random sample, divided by county, of green industries on O‘ahu and 45 percent from the size, “green or non-green,” and NAICS, required neighbor islands. For employment size 2, 45 percent calculation of 312 non-certainty sample cells. Records of green industries on O‘ahu were sampled, compared were randomly sampled without replacement. A to 55 percent from the neighbor islands. For size 1, stratified sample guards against an unrepresentative non-green, 15 percent were sampled from all counties. sample that does not have adequate representation of For size 2 non-green, 20 percent were sampled from various important strata (e.g., neighbor island counties all counties. and small-size businesses). Furthermore, data generated from a random sample can be generalized from the sample to the larger population. Stratification: By giving a larger-than-proportionate sample size in one or more subgroups, a stratified sample ensures that sufficient sample data is obtained to support a separate County analysis of any subgroup, such as by county, industry The sample was stratified by Hawai‘i ’s four counties: size, and 2-digit NAICS codes. For example, because Honolulu (O‘ahu), Hawai‘i , Maui, and Kaua‘i. It was fewer businesses were in the neighbor island counties important to stratify the sample by county to ensure than O‘ahu, worksites were over-sampled to ensure that there was adequate geographic representation in adequate numbers for meaningful reporting. Also the sample from all four counties. O‘ahu has about over-sampled were businesses from the green NAICS two-thirds of the QCEW worksites. codes, because they had more chance to contribute to the main variable of interest – green jobs. Worksites Worksite Size with greater than 50 employees were sampled with 100 percent certainty because they were more likely Hawai‘i’s businesses were categorized by number of to have some green jobs than were smaller businesses. employees into three groups: 1-9, 10-49, and 50+. Oversampling from green NAICS codes mitigated the Because there were a disproportionate number of effects of higher expected variance in these strata. business worksites across employment size categories, it was important to stratify the sample by number of The sample was primarily from the City and County employees. Based on the hypothesis that the larger of Honolulu (n = 5,559, 60.8 percent), followed by the firm, the more likely the firm is to have at least Hawai‘i (n = 1,447, 15.8 percent), Maui (n = 1,392, one green job, larger firms were sampled with higher 15.2 percent) and Kaua‘i (n = 748, 8.2 percent). The probability of being selected. All of the largest firms majority of the worksites had 1 – 9 employees (n (50+ employees) were included in the sample, that = 5,044, 55.1 percent). The other size categories is they were sampled with 100 percent certainty. were 10 – 49 employees (n = 2,445, 26.7 percent) Because the smallest firms (1-9 employees) have a and businesses with 50+ employees; the latter were smaller probability of having at least one green job, sampled with certainty, that is, 100 percent were in they were sampled at a lower proportion. Thus, even the sample (n = 1,657, 18.1 percent). Businesses from though the smallest businesses comprised about three- entire 4-digit NAICS industry codes which were more quarters of Hawai‘i worksites, they were only about likely to have some green activities at the 6-digit one-half of the sample. level were considered green (n = 4,394, 48 percent). Businesses with non-green NAICS codes comprised 52 percent of the sample (n = 4,752). All sample universe worksites in strata with 15 or fewer worksites Green / Non-green were selected with certainty. If the strata had fewer than 10 worksites after proportioning, then all were Because of the limited resources available to conduct selected from the cell. a survey, industries with a higher incidence of green jobs were sampled with higher probability. These Analysts iterated through cell proportion modifications select green industries were referenced as such in the until an optimal mix of overall sample size and State of Hawai‘i Workforce Report produced by the individual cell sample coverage was reached. For Hawai‘i Workforce Development Council, which was employment size class 1 (1-9), we sampled 30 percent guided by the PEW Charitable Trusts report. 52 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment After critical review of remaining NAICS by both 2) Divide data into Wave 1 (data received prior to the Hawai‘i Labor Market Research Section and the June 14) and Wave 2 (data received on or after Hawai‘i Green Jobs Initiative Team, several additional June 14). The cut-off date, June 14, was chosen industries were designated as green. All told, there because it provided respondents with a ten-day were 113 NAICS 4-digit level industry codes that grace period, and coincided with the start of an Hawai‘i classified as green. However, it should be intensive campaign to improve response using noted that ALL the remaining non-green industries at phone calls, emails, postcard reminders, and the 2-digit NAICS level were sampled, though at a additional survey mailings to nonrespondents. much lower rate than those in the 4-digit NAICS green industries. 3) Make histograms and determine summaries comparing Wave 1 covariates (NAICS, Size, For purposes of stratification, “green” means that at Green, etc) to Wave 2 covariates, and do a Z-test to least a small number of codes at the 6-digit level in determine whether systematic bias in Wave 1 and that particular 2-digit NAICS were likely green. The Wave 2 data is likely. The Z-test showed with 90 entire 4-digit NAICS was categorized green, even percent certainty that bias existed between Wave though most of the jobs within those codes are likely 1 and Wave 2 in terms of size category. This non- to be non-green. response bias will be corrected in estimation of green jobs in the universe below. 4) Load data from QCEW universe Industry (NAICS ) a. Use file “UNIVERSEEQUI093.csv” Not including Public Administration, there are 23 2-digit NAICS codes that cover 19 industrial sectors. 5) Estimate logit model from the sample data Of these 2-digit NAICS, 16 contained the presence of stratified between Wave 1 and Wave 2 data to use at least some green 4-digit NAICS codes. Because the for the propensity to respond variable (propensity remainder of these 16 NAICS are not classified green, score) in the universe of data. Wave 1 sample data it is required that there be two separate sampling cells will then be used to infer green jobs in the universe for each individual 2-digit NAICS, green and non- of likely responders, and Wave 2 sample data will green. In addition, there were seven 2-digit NAICS be used to infer green jobs in the universe of likely that had no “green” 4-digit NAICS. Thus, these non-responders. This procedure removes any non- individual 2-digit NAICS strata only require one cell, response bias that may exist. non-green, for purposes of sample selection. For the sample size of each NAICS strata, see Table 21. a. Linear model: logit(y=BX+e) Logit(Responder = B(Green+C2.NAICS+ County+Size)+e), where B is a vector of Estimation Four coefficients estimated by logistic regression. After random sampling and data collection, the following estimation procedure was followed. b. The model resulting from the Wave 1 and Wave 2 sample data is used to predict 1) Sum across Green job descriptions in the sample which unsampled observations would data and remove non-unique survey IDs (multiple have been likely to respond or not respond job descriptions for one employer) (given their covariates – Green, NAICS, County, and Size). This is the unsampled a. Out of business worksites (OOBs) are worksite’s “propensity” to respond. Those counted as 0 jobs for purposes of summing with the highest propensity to respond and weighting of green jobs for all (with cutoff propensity = x) are coded categories. For example, if ½ of a sample as Responders. The cutoff propensity is cell is composed of OOBs, then infer ½ determined such that the proportion of OOBs in the universe cell (0 jobs for half responders in the universe of data equals of the cell population). the proportion of responders in the sample, Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 53 and such that green jobs for each strata in the universe is estimated with at least 25 percent of the inference resulting from data from each response category (Wave 1 and Wave 2). 6) Stratify both sample and universe data on Green, NAICS, County Code, Size, and Responder status. a. Calculate number of companies per bin for both sample and universe of data b. Calculate number of green jobs per bin for the sample data 7) Calculate weights per bin, w_b, whereby w_b multiplied by the number of green jobs in the sample bin will be the best unbiased estimate for the number of green jobs per universe bin. 8) Apply the method above to all jobs data, including current jobs, current vacancies, and jobs projected in 2012. 9) Calculate change in green jobs between 2010 and 2012 per strata as projected green jobs in 2012 minus current green jobs in 2010. 54 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Appendix B: NAICS in Sample NAICS 2007 NAICS TITLES 212325 Clay and Ceramic and Refractory Minerals 111150 Corn Farming Mining 111211 Potato Farming 212399 All Other Nonmetallic Mineral Mining 111219 Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon 213112 Support Activities for Oil and Gas Operations Farming 221112 Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation 111335 Tree Nut Farming 221119 Other Electric Power Generation 111336 Fruit and Tree Nut Combination Farming 221210 Natural Gas Distribution 111339 Other Noncitrus Fruit Farming 221310 Water Supply and Irrigation Systems 111411 Mushroom Production 221320 Sewage Treatment Facilities 111419 Other Food Crops Grown Under Cover 221330 Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply 111421 Nursery and Tree Production 236115 New Single-Family Housing Construction 111422 Floriculture Production (except Operative Builders) 111930 Sugarcane Farming 236116 New Multifamily Housing Construction (except 111998 All Other Miscellaneous Crop Farming Operative Builders) 112111 Beef Cattle Ranching and Farming 236117 New Housing Operative Builders 112120 Dairy Cattle and Milk Production 236118 Residential Remodelers 112310 Chicken Egg Production 236210 Industrial Building Construction 112420 Goat Farming 236220 Commercial and Institutional Building 112511 Finfish Farming and Fish Hatcheries Construction 112512 Shellfish Farming 237110 Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures 112519 Other Aquaculture Construction 112910 Apiculture 237120 Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures Construction 112920 Horses and Other Equine Production 237130 Power and Communication Line and Related 113210 Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest Structures Construction Products 237210 Land Subdivision 113310 Logging 237310 Highway, Street, and Bridge Construction 114111 Finfish Fishing 114112 Shellfish Fishing 237990 Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction 115114 Postharvest Crop Activities (except Cotton 238110 Poured Concrete Foundation and Structure Ginning) Contractors 115115 Farm Labor Contractors and Crew Leaders 238120 Structural Steel and Precast Concrete Contractors 115116 Farm Management Services 238130 Framing Contractors 115210 Support Activities for Animal Production 238140 Masonry Contractors 115310 Support Activities for Forestry 238150 Glass and Glazing Contractors 211111 Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction 238160 Roofing Contractors 212319 Other Crushed and Broken Stone Mining and Quarrying 238170 Siding Contractors 212321 Construction Sand and Gravel Mining 238190 Other Foundation, Structure, and Building Exterior Contractors 238210 Electrical Contractors and Other Wiring Installation Contractors Source: DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Hawaiÿi Green Jobs Survey, 2010. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 55 Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 238220 Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning 312120 Breweries Contractors 312130 Wineries 238290 Other Building Equipment Contractors 312140 Distilleries 238310 Drywall and Insulation Contractors 313311 Broadwoven Fabric Finishing Mills 238320 Painting and Wall Covering Contractors 313312 Textile and Fabric Finishing (except Broadwoven 238330 Flooring Contractors Fabric) Mills 238340 Tile and Terrazzo Contractors 314121 Curtain and Drapery Mills 238350 Finish Carpentry Contractors 314129 Other Household Textile Product Mills 238390 Other Building Finishing Contractors 314912 Canvas and Related Product Mills 238910 Site Preparation Contractors 314999 All Other Miscellaneous Textile Product Mills 238990 All Other Specialty Trade Contractors 315211 Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Apparel 311111 Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing Contractors 311212 Rice Milling 315212 Women’s, Girls’, and Infants’ Cut and Sew Apparel Contractors 311311 Sugarcane Mills 315222 Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Suit, Coat, and 311330 Confectionery Manufacturing from Purchased Overcoat Manufacturing Chocolate 315223 Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Shirt (except 311340 Nonchocolate Confectionery Manufacturing Work Shirt) Manufacturing 311421 Fruit and Vegetable Canning 315225 Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Work Clothing 311423 Dried and Dehydrated Food Manufacturing Manufacturing 311511 Fluid Milk Manufacturing 315232 Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Blouse and 311513 Cheese Manufacturing Shirt Manufacturing 311520 Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert Manufacturing 315233 Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Dress 311611 Animal (except Poultry) Slaughtering Manufacturing 311612 Meat Processed from Carcasses 315239 Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Other Outerwear Manufacturing 311613 Rendering and Meat Byproduct Processing 315291 Infants’ Cut and Sew Apparel Manufacturing 311711 Seafood Canning 315999 Other Apparel Accessories and Other Apparel 311712 Fresh and Frozen Seafood Processing Manufacturing 311811 Retail Bakeries 321113 Sawmills 311812 Commercial Bakeries 321114 Wood Preservation 311821 Cookie and Cracker Manufacturing 321214 Truss Manufacturing 311823 Dry Pasta Manufacturing 321911 Wood Window and Door Manufacturing 311911 Roasted Nuts and Peanut Butter Manufacturing 321918 Other Millwork (including Flooring) 311919 Other Snack Food Manufacturing 321999 All Other Miscellaneous Wood Product 311920 Coffee and Tea Manufacturing Manufacturing 311930 Flavoring Syrup and Concentrate Manufacturing 322299 All Other Converted Paper Product Manufacturing 311941 Mayonnaise, Dressing, and Other Prepared Sauce Manufacturing 323110 Commercial Lithographic Printing 311942 Spice and Extract Manufacturing 323112 Commercial Flexographic Printing 311991 Perishable Prepared Food Manufacturing 323113 Commercial Screen Printing 311999 All Other Miscellaneous Food Manufacturing 323114 Quick Printing 312111 Soft Drink Manufacturing 323115 Digital Printing 312112 Bottled Water Manufacturing 323119 Other Commercial Printing 312113 Ice Manufacturing 324110 Petroleum Refineries 324121 Asphalt Paving Mixture and Block Manufacturing 56 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 325120 Industrial Gas Manufacturing 334413 Semiconductor and Related Device 325188 All Other Basic Inorganic Chemical Manufacturing Manufacturing 334511 Search, Detection, Navigation, Guidance, 325314 Fertilizer (Mixing Only) Manufacturing Aeronautical, and Nautical System and Instrument Manufacturing 325412 Pharmaceutical Preparation Manufacturing 334517 Irradiation Apparatus Manufacturing 325611 Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing 335121 Residential Electric Lighting Fixture 325620 Toilet Preparation Manufacturing Manufacturing 326111 Plastics Bag and Pouch Manufacturing 335991 Carbon and Graphite Product Manufacturing 326121 Unlaminated Plastics Profile Shape 336350 Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train Manufacturing Parts Manufacturing 326160 Plastics Bottle Manufacturing 336611 Ship Building and Repairing 326199 All Other Plastics Product Manufacturing 336612 Boat Building 326212 Tire Retreading 337110 Wood Kitchen Cabinet and Countertop 327112 Vitreous China, Fine Earthenware, and Other Manufacturing Pottery Product Manufacturing 337122 Nonupholstered Wood Household Furniture 327122 Ceramic Wall and Floor Tile Manufacturing Manufacturing 327212 Other Pressed and Blown Glass and Glassware 337125 Household Furniture (except Wood and Metal) Manufacturing Manufacturing 327215 Glass Product Manufacturing Made of 337211 Wood Office Furniture Manufacturing Purchased Glass 339113 Surgical Appliance and Supplies Manufacturing 327320 Ready-Mix Concrete Manufacturing 339115 Ophthalmic Goods Manufacturing 327331 Concrete Block and Brick Manufacturing 339116 Dental Laboratories 327332 Concrete Pipe Manufacturing 339911 Jewelry (except Costume) Manufacturing 327390 Other Concrete Product Manufacturing 339914 Costume Jewelry and Novelty Manufacturing 327991 Cut Stone and Stone Product Manufacturing 339920 Sporting and Athletic Goods Manufacturing 327999 All Other Miscellaneous Nonmetallic Mineral 339950 Sign Manufacturing Product Manufacturing 339992 Musical Instrument Manufacturing 332311 Prefabricated Metal Building and Component Manufacturing 339999 All Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing 332313 Plate Work Manufacturing 423120 Motor Vehicle Supplies and New Parts Merchant Wholesalers 332321 Metal Window and Door Manufacturing 423130 Tire and Tube Merchant Wholesalers 332322 Sheet Metal Work Manufacturing 423140 Motor Vehicle Parts (Used) Merchant 332323 Ornamental and Architectural Metal Work Wholesalers Manufacturing 423210 Furniture Merchant Wholesalers 332431 Metal Can Manufacturing 423220 Home Furnishing Merchant Wholesalers 332510 Hardware Manufacturing 423310 Lumber, Plywood, Millwork, and Wood Panel 332710 Machine Shops Merchant Wholesalers 332812 Metal Coating, Engraving (except Jewelry 423320 Brick, Stone, and Related Construction Material and Silverware), and Allied Services to Merchant Wholesalers Manufacturers 333111 Farm Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing 423330 Roofing, Siding, and Insulation Material Merchant Wholesalers 333314 Optical Instrument and Lens Manufacturing 423390 Other Construction Material Merchant 333319 Other Commercial and Service Industry Wholesalers Machinery Manufacturing 423410 Photographic Equipment and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 57 Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 423420 Office Equipment Merchant Wholesalers 424110 Printing and Writing Paper Merchant 423430 Computer and Computer Peripheral Equipment Wholesalers and Software Merchant Wholesalers 424120 Stationery and Office Supplies Merchant 423440 Other Commercial Equipment Merchant Wholesalers Wholesalers 424130 Industrial and Personal Service Paper Merchant 423450 Medical, Dental, and Hospital Equipment and Wholesalers Supplies Merchant Wholesalers 424210 Drugs and Druggists’ Sundries Merchant Wholesalers 423460 Ophthalmic Goods Merchant Wholesalers 424310 Piece Goods, Notions, and Other Dry Goods 423490 Other Professional Equipment and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers Merchant Wholesalers 424320 Men’s and Boys’ Clothing and Furnishings 423510 Metal Service Centers and Other Metal Merchant Wholesalers Merchant Wholesalers 424330 Women’s, Children’s, and Infants’ Clothing and 423610 Electrical Apparatus and Equipment, Wiring Accessories Merchant Wholesalers Supplies, and Related Equipment Merchant Wholesalers 424340 Footwear Merchant Wholesalers 423620 Electrical and Electronic Appliance, Television, 424410 General Line Grocery Merchant Wholesalers and Radio Set Merchant Wholesalers 424420 Packaged Frozen Food Merchant Wholesalers 423690 Other Electronic Parts and Equipment Merchant 424430 Dairy Product (except Dried or Canned) Wholesalers Merchant Wholesalers 423710 Hardware Merchant Wholesalers 424440 Poultry and Poultry Product Merchant 423720 Plumbing and Heating Equipment and Supplies Wholesalers (Hydronics) Merchant Wholesalers 424450 Confectionery Merchant Wholesalers 423730 Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning 424460 Fish and Seafood Merchant Wholesalers Equipment and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers 424470 Meat and Meat Product Merchant Wholesalers 423740 Refrigeration Equipment and Supplies Merchant 424480 Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Merchant Wholesalers Wholesalers 423810 Construction and Mining (except Oil Well) 424490 Other Grocery and Related Products Merchant Machinery and Equipment Merchant Wholesalers Wholesalers 424610 Plastics Materials and Basic Forms and Shapes 423820 Farm and Garden Machinery and Equipment Merchant Wholesalers Merchant Wholesalers 424690 Other Chemical and Allied Products Merchant 423830 Industrial Machinery and Equipment Merchant Wholesalers Wholesalers 424710 Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals 423840 Industrial Supplies Merchant Wholesalers 424720 Petroleum and Petroleum Products Merchant 423850 Service Establishment Equipment and Supplies Wholesalers (except Bulk Stations and Merchant Wholesalers Terminals) 423860 Transportation Equipment and Supplies (except 424810 Beer and Ale Merchant Wholesalers Motor Vehicle) Merchant Wholesalers 424820 Wine and Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Merchant 423910 Sporting and Recreational Goods and Supplies Wholesalers Merchant Wholesalers 424910 Farm Supplies Merchant Wholesalers 423920 Toy and Hobby Goods and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers 424920 Book, Periodical, and Newspaper Merchant Wholesalers 423930 Recyclable Material Merchant Wholesalers 424930 Flower, Nursery Stock, and Florists’ Supplies 423940 Jewelry, Watch, Precious Stone, and Precious Merchant Wholesalers Metal Merchant Wholesalers 424940 Tobacco and Tobacco Product Merchant 423990 Other Miscellaneous Durable Goods Merchant Wholesalers Wholesalers 58 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 424950 Paint, Varnish, and Supplies Merchant 448110 Men’s Clothing Stores Wholesalers 448120 Women’s Clothing Stores 424990 Other Miscellaneous Nondurable Goods 448130 Children’s and Infants’ Clothing Stores Merchant Wholesalers 448140 Family Clothing Stores 425120 Wholesale Trade Agents and Brokers 448150 Clothing Accessories Stores 441110 New Car Dealers 448190 Other Clothing Stores 441120 Used Car Dealers 448210 Shoe Stores 441221 Motorcycle, ATV, and Personal Watercraft 448310 Jewelry Stores Dealers 448320 Luggage and Leather Goods Stores 441222 Boat Dealers 451110 Sporting Goods Stores 441310 Automotive Parts and Accessories Stores 451120 Hobby, Toy, and Game Stores 441320 Tire Dealers 451130 Sewing, Needlework, and Piece Goods Stores 442110 Furniture Stores 451140 Musical Instrument and Supplies Stores 442210 Floor Covering Stores 442291 Window Treatment Stores 451211 Book Stores 442299 All Other Home Furnishings Stores 451212 News Dealers and Newsstands 443111 Household Appliance Stores 451220 Prerecorded Tape, Compact Disc, and Record Stores 443112 Radio, Television, and Other Electronics Stores 452111 Department Stores (except Discount 443120 Computer and Software Stores Department Stores) 443130 Camera and Photographic Supplies Stores 452112 Discount Department Stores 444110 Home Centers 452910 Warehouse Clubs and Supercenters 444130 Hardware Stores 452990 All Other General Merchandise Stores 444190 Other Building Material Dealers 453110 Florists 444210 Outdoor Power Equipment Stores 453210 Office Supplies and Stationery Stores 444220 Nursery, Garden Center, and Farm Supply 453220 Gift, Novelty, and Souvenir Stores Stores 453310 Used Merchandise Stores 445110 Supermarkets and Other Grocery (except 453910 Pet and Pet Supplies Stores Convenience) Stores 453920 Art Dealers 445120 Convenience Stores 453991 Tobacco Stores 445210 Meat Markets 453998 All Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers (except 445220 Fish and Seafood Markets Tobacco Stores) 445230 Fruit and Vegetable Markets 454111 Electronic Shopping 445291 Baked Goods Stores 454113 Mail-Order Houses 445292 Confectionery and Nut Stores 454210 Vending Machine Operators 445299 All Other Specialty Food Stores 454311 Heating Oil Dealers 445310 Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores 454312 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Bottled Gas) Dealers 446110 Pharmacies and Drug Stores 454390 Other Direct Selling Establishments 446120 Cosmetics, Beauty Supplies, and Perfume Stores 481111 Scheduled Passenger Air Transportation 446130 Optical Goods Stores 481112 Scheduled Freight Air Transportation 446191 Food (Health) Supplement Stores 481211 Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air Transportation 446199 All Other Health and Personal Care Stores 481212 Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air 447110 Gasoline Stations with Convenience Stores Transportation 447190 Other Gasoline Stations 483113 Coastal and Great Lakes Freight Transportation Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 59 Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 483114 Coastal and Great Lakes Passenger 515111 Radio Networks Transportation 515112 Radio Stations 484110 General Freight Trucking, Local 515120 Television Broadcasting 484122 General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance, Less Than Truckload 515210 Cable and Other Subscription Programming 484210 Used Household and Office Goods Moving 517110 Wired Telecommunications Carriers 484220 Specialized Freight (except Used Goods) 517210 Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except Trucking, Local Satellite) 485310 Taxi Service 517911 Telecommunications Resellers 485320 Limousine Service 517919 All Other Telecommunications 485410 School and Employee Bus Transportation 518210 Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services 519120 Libraries and Archives 485991 Special Needs Transportation 519130 Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web 485999 All Other Transit and Ground Passenger Search Portals Transportation 522110 Commercial Banking 487110 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land 522120 Savings Institutions 487210 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water 522130 Credit Unions 487990 Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other 522220 Sales Financing 488119 Other Airport Operations 522291 Consumer Lending 488190 Other Support Activities for Air Transportation 522292 Real Estate Credit 488320 Marine Cargo Handling 522298 All Other Nondepository Credit Intermediation 488390 Other Support Activities for Water Transportation 522310 Mortgage and Nonmortgage Loan Brokers 488410 Motor Vehicle Towing 522390 Other Activities Related to Credit Intermediation 488490 Other Support Activities for Road Transportation 523110 Investment Banking and Securities Dealing 488510 Freight Transportation Arrangement 523120 Securities Brokerage 488991 Packing and Crating 523130 Commodity Contracts Dealing 488999 All Other Support Activities for Transportation 523910 Miscellaneous Intermediation 491110 Postal Service 523920 Portfolio Management 492110 Couriers and Express Delivery Services 523930 Investment Advice 492210 Local Messengers and Local Delivery 523999 Miscellaneous Financial Investment Activities 493110 General Warehousing and Storage 524113 Direct Life Insurance Carriers 493120 Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage 524114 Direct Health and Medical Insurance Carriers 493190 Other Warehousing and Storage 524126 Direct Property and Casualty Insurance Carriers 511110 Newspaper Publishers 524127 Direct Title Insurance Carriers 511120 Periodical Publishers 524128 Other Direct Insurance (except Life, Health, and 511130 Book Publishers Medical) Carriers 511140 Directory and Mailing List Publishers 524210 Insurance Agencies and Brokerages 511191 Greeting Card Publishers 524291 Claims Adjusting 511210 Software Publishers 524292 Third Party Administration of Insurance and 512110 Motion Picture and Video Production Pension Funds 512131 Motion Picture Theaters (except Drive-Ins) 524298 All Other Insurance Related Activities 512191 Teleproduction and Other Postproduction 525920 Trusts, Estates, and Agency Accounts Services 525990 Other Financial Vehicles 512210 Record Production 531110 Lessors of Residential Buildings and Dwellings 512240 Sound Recording Studios 60 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 531120 Lessors of Nonresidential Buildings (except 541430 Graphic Design Services Miniwarehouses) 541490 Other Specialized Design Services 531130 Lessors of Miniwarehouses and Self-Storage 541511 Custom Computer Programming Services Units 541512 Computer Systems Design Services 531190 Lessors of Other Real Estate Property 541513 Computer Facilities Management Services 531210 Offices of Real Estate Agents and Brokers 541519 Other Computer Related Services 531311 Residential Property Managers 541611 Administrative Management and General 531312 Nonresidential Property Managers Management Consulting Services 531320 Offices of Real Estate Appraisers 541612 Human Resources Consulting Services 531390 Other Activities Related to Real Estate 541613 Marketing Consulting Services 532111 Passenger Car Rental 541614 Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics 532120 Truck, Utility Trailer, and RV (Recreational Consulting Services Vehicle) Rental and Leasing 541618 Other Management Consulting Services 532210 Consumer Electronics and Appliances Rental 541620 Environmental Consulting Services 532220 Formal Wear and Costume Rental 541690 Other Scientific and Technical Consulting 532230 Video Tape and Disc Rental Services 532291 Home Health Equipment Rental 541711 Research and Development in Biotechnology 532292 Recreational Goods Rental 541712 Reseach and Development in the Physical, 532299 All Other Consumer Goods Rental Engineering, and Life Sciences (except 532411 Commercial Air, Rail, and Water Transportation Biotechnology) Equipment Rental and Leasing 541720 Research and Development in the Social 532412 Construction, Mining, and Forestry Machinery Sciences and Humanities and Equipment Rental and Leasing 541810 Advertising Agencies 532490 Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and 541820 Public Relations Agencies Equipment Rental and Leasing 541830 Media Buying Agencies 533110 Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets 541840 Media Representatives (except Copyrighted Works) 541850 Display Advertising 541110 Offices of Lawyers 541890 Other Services Related to Advertising 541191 Title Abstract and Settlement Offices 541910 Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling 541199 All Other Legal Services 541921 Photography Studios, Portrait 541211 Offices of Certified Public Accountants 541922 Commercial Photography 541213 Tax Preparation Services 541930 Translation and Interpretation Services 541214 Payroll Services 541940 Veterinary Services 541219 Other Accounting Services 541990 All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical 541310 Architectural Services Services 541320 Landscape Architectural Services 551112 Offices of Other Holding Companies 541330 Engineering Services 551114 Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing 541340 Drafting Services Offices 541350 Building Inspection Services 561110 Office Administrative Services 541360 Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services 561210 Facilities Support Services 541370 Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical) 561311 Employment Placement Agencies Services 561312 Executive Search Services 541380 Testing Laboratories 561320 Temporary Help Services 541410 Interior Design Services 561330 Professional Employer Organizations 541420 Industrial Design Services Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 61 Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 561410 Document Preparation Services 611513 Apprenticeship Training 561422 Telemarketing Bureaus and Other Contact 611519 Other Technical and Trade Schools Centers 611610 Fine Arts Schools 561431 Private Mail Centers 611620 Sports and Recreation Instruction 561439 Other Business Service Centers (including Copy 611630 Language Schools Shops) 611691 Exam Preparation and Tutoring 561440 Collection Agencies 611699 All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction 561492 Court Reporting and Stenotype Services 611710 Educational Support Services 561499 All Other Business Support Services 621111 Offices of Physicians (except Mental Health 561510 Travel Agencies Specialists) 561520 Tour Operators 621112 Offices of Physicians, Mental Health Specialists 561591 Convention and Visitors Bureaus 621210 Offices of Dentists 561599 All Other Travel Arrangement and Reservation 621310 Offices of Chiropractors Services 621320 Offices of Optometrists 561611 Investigation Services 621330 Offices of Mental Health Practitioners (except 561612 Security Guards and Patrol Services Physicians) 561613 Armored Car Services 621340 Offices of Physical, Occupational and Speech 561621 Security Systems Services (except Locksmiths) Therapists, and Audiologists 561622 Locksmiths 621391 Offices of Podiatrists 561710 Exterminating and Pest Control Services 621399 Offices of All Other Miscellaneous Health Practitioners 561720 Janitorial Services 621410 Family Planning Centers 561730 Landscaping Services 621420 Outpatient Mental Health and Substance Abuse 561740 Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning Services Centers 561790 Other Services to Buildings and Dwellings 621491 HMO Medical Centers 561920 Convention and Trade Show Organizers 621492 Kidney Dialysis Centers 561990 All Other Support Services 621493 Freestanding Ambulatory Surgical and 562111 Solid Waste Collection Emergency Centers 562119 Other Waste Collection 621498 All Other Outpatient Care Centers 562211 Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal 621511 Medical Laboratories 562212 Solid Waste Landfill 621610 Home Health Care Services 562213 Solid Waste Combustors and Incinerators 621910 Ambulance Services 562910 Remediation Services 621991 Blood and Organ Banks 562991 Septic Tank and Related Services 621999 All Other Miscellaneous Ambulatory Health Care Services 562998 All Other Miscellaneous Waste Management Services 622110 General Medical and Surgical Hospitals 611110 Elementary and Secondary Schools 622210 Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Hospitals 611210 Junior Colleges 622310 Specialty (except Psychiatric and Substance 611310 Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools Abuse) Hospitals 611420 Computer Training 623110 Nursing Care Facilities 611430 Professional and Management Development 623210 Residential Mental Retardation Facilities Training 623220 Residential Mental Health and Substance Abuse 611511 Cosmetology and Barber Schools Facilities 611512 Flight Training 623311 Continuing Care Retirement Communities 62 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 623312 Homes for the Elderly 722320 Caterers 623990 Other Residential Care Facilities 722330 Mobile Food Services 624110 Child and Youth Services 722410 Drinking Places (Alcoholic Beverages) 624120 Services for the Elderly and Persons with 811111 General Automotive Repair Disabilities 811112 Automotive Exhaust System Repair 624190 Other Individual and Family Services 811113 Automotive Transmission Repair 624210 Community Food Services 811118 Other Automotive Mechanical and Electrical 624221 Temporary Shelters Repair and Maintenance 624229 Other Community Housing Services 811121 Automotive Body, Paint, and Interior Repair and 624230 Emergency and Other Relief Services Maintenance 624310 Vocational Rehabilitation Services 811122 Automotive Glass Replacement Shops 624410 Child Day Care Services 811191 Automotive Oil Change and Lubrication Shops 711110 Theater Companies and Dinner Theaters 811192 Car Washes 711120 Dance Companies 811198 All Other Automotive Repair and Maintenance 711130 Musical Groups and Artists 811211 Consumer Electronics Repair and Maintenance 711190 Other Performing Arts Companies 811212 Computer and Office Machine Repair and Maintenance 711219 Other Spectator Sports 811219 Other Electronic and Precision Equipment 711310 Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Repair and Maintenance Similar Events with Facilities 811310 Commercial and Industrial Machinery and 711320 Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and Equipment (except Automotive and Electronic) Similar Events without Facilities Repair and Maintenance 711510 Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers 811412 Appliance Repair and Maintenance 712110 Museums 811420 Reupholstery and Furniture Repair 712120 Historical Sites 811490 Other Personal and Household Goods Repair 712130 Zoos and Botanical Gardens and Maintenance 712190 Nature Parks and Other Similar Institutions 812111 Barber Shops 713110 Amusement and Theme Parks 812112 Beauty Salons 713120 Amusement Arcades 812113 Nail Salons 713910 Golf Courses and Country Clubs 812191 Diet and Weight Reducing Centers 713930 Marinas 812199 Other Personal Care Services 713940 Fitness and Recreational Sports Centers 812210 Funeral Homes and Funeral Services 713950 Bowling Centers 812310 Coin-Operated Laundries and Drycleaners 713990 All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries 812320 Drycleaning and Laundry Services (except Coin- 721110 Hotels (except Casino Hotels) and Motels Operated) 721191 Bed-and-Breakfast Inns 812331 Linen Supply 721199 All Other Traveler Accommodation 812332 Industrial Launderers 721214 Recreational and Vacation Camps (except 812910 Pet Care (except Veterinary) Services Campgrounds) 812921 Photofinishing Laboratories (except One-Hour) 721310 Rooming and Boarding Houses 812922 One-Hour Photofinishing 722110 Full-Service Restaurants 812930 Parking Lots and Garages 722211 Limited-Service Restaurants 812990 All Other Personal Services 722212 Cafeterias, Grill Buffets, and Buffets 813110 Religious Organizations 722213 Snack and Nonalcoholic Beverage Bars 813211 Grantmaking Foundations 722310 Food Service Contractors 813212 Voluntary Health Organizations Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 63 Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued) 813219 Other Grantmaking and Giving Services 813311 Human Rights Organizations 813312 Environment, Conservation and Wildlife Organizations 813319 Other Social Advocacy Organizations 813410 Civic and Social Organizations 813910 Business Associations 813920 Professional Organizations 813930 Labor Unions and Similar Labor Organizations 813990 Other Similar Organizations (except Business, Professional, Labor, and Political Organizations) 814110 Private Households 64 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Appendix C: Green Job Occupations SOC Code OCCUPATIONAL TITLE GREEN 53-6099.00 Transportation Workers, All Other 121 JOBS 27-3031.00 Public Relations Specialists 121 37-2011.00 Janitors and Cleaners Except 1,197 51-9061.00 Inspectors Testers Sorters 117 Maids and Housekeeping Samplers and Weighers Cleaners 19-2041.00 Environmental Scientists and 114 19-4093.00 Forest and Conservation 601 Specialists Including Health Technicians 49-9099.00 Installation Maintenance and 114 33-9032.00 Security Guards 552 Repair Workers All Other 47-2111.00 Electricians 438 45-2092.02 Farmworkers and Laborers Crop 106 49-9021.01 Heating and Air Conditioning 348 37-1012.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 103 Mechanics and Installers of Landscaping Lawn Service 47-2031.01 Construction Carpenters 306 and Groundskeeping Worke 47-2131.00 Insulation Workers Floor Ceiling 277 41-2011.00 Cashiers 103 and Wall 49-3023.02 Automotive Specialty Technicians 95 37-3011.00 Landscaping and 276 41-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 89 Groundskeeping Workers of Retail Sales Workers 47-4099.01 Solar Photovoltaic Installers 237 53-3032.00 Truck Drivers Heavy and Tractor- 84 41-2031.00 Retail Salespersons 219 Trailer 19-4091.00 Environmental Science and 196 45-4011.00 Forest and Conservation Workers 82 Protection Technicians Including 41-4011.00 Sales Representatives 80 Health Wholesale and Manufacturing Technical and Scientific Products 51-9199.01 Recycling and Reclamation 194 Workers 45-2041.00 Graders and Sorters Agricultural 79 Products 47-4099.02 Solar Thermal Installers and 194 Technicians 15-1041.00 Computer Support Specialists 76 53-7062.00 Laborers and Freight Stock and 191 11-9012.00 Farmers and Ranchers 75 Material Movers Hand 43-3031.00 Bookkeeping Accounting and 73 47-2132.00 Insulation Workers Mechanical 184 Auditing Clerks 47-2061.00 Construction Laborers 173 27-1025.00 Interior Designers 69 47-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 167 11-1021.00 General and Operations 69 of Construction Trades and Managers Extraction Workers 41-9041.00 Telemarketers 66 47-2152.02 Plumbers 167 47-2044.00 Tile and Marble Setters 64 47-4041.00 Hazardous Materials Removal 160 Workers 51-6093.00 Upholsterers 64 49-9042.00 Maintenance and Repair Workers 159 17-1011.00 Architects Except Landscape 62 General and Naval 17-2051.00 Civil Engineers 152 49-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 61 17-2071.00 Electrical Engineers 140 of Mechanics Installers and Repairers 41-3099.00 Sales Representatives Services 126 All Other 13-1199.05 Sustainability Specialists 61 43-9061.00 Office Clerks General 58 Source: DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Hawaiÿi Green Jobs 17-2141.00 Mechanical Engineers 57 Survey, 2010. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 65 Appendix C: Green Job Occupations (continued) 13-1023.00 Purchasing Agents Except 55 47-4099.03 Weatherization Installers and 28 Wholesale Retail and Farm Technicians Products 51-9121.00 Coating Painting and Spraying 28 47-4021.00 Elevator Installers and Repairers 54 Machine Setters Operators and 47-2041.00 Carpet Installers 54 Tenders 47-2073.00 Operating Engineers and 53 19-3051.00 Urban and Regional Planners 27 Other Construction Equipment 51-9199.00 Production Workers, All Other 27 Operators 11-9151.00 Social and Community Service 26 17-2199.03 Energy Engineers 53 Managers 41-4012.00 Sales Representatives 53 15-1099.11 Information Technology Project 26 Wholesale and Manufacturing Managers Except Technical and Scientific Pr 11-1011.00 Chief Executives 26 11-9041.00 Engineering Managers 48 41-2021.00 Counter and Rental Clerks 25 51-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 48 of Production and Operating 47-5021.00 Earth Drillers Except Oil and Gas 25 Workers 47-2141.00 Painters Construction and 24 41-9031.00 Sales Engineers 46 Maintenance 49-9092.00 Commercial Divers 45 51-9032.00 Cutting and Slicing Machine 24 Setters Operators and Tenders 37-3013.00 Tree Trimmers and Pruners 42 37-2021.00 Pest Control Workers 42 47-2211.00 Sheet Metal Workers 23 53-3033.00 Truck Drivers Light or Delivery 42 25-3099.00 Teachers and Instructors All 22 Services Other 51-9197.00 Tire Builders 22 51-9023.00 Mixing and Blending Machine 37 Setters Operators and Tenders 19-1031.01 Soil and Water Conservationists 22 13-1051.00 Cost Estimators 37 43-5021.00 Couriers and Messengers 21 45-2092.01 Nursery Workers 37 23-1011.00 Lawyers 20 45-2093.00 Farmworkers Farm and Ranch 36 19-4011.01 Agricultural Technicians 19 Animals 53-7061.00 Cleaners of Vehicles and 19 49-2092.00 Electric Motor Power Tool and 36 Equipment Related Repairers 11-9021.00 Construction Managers 19 51-7011.00 Cabinetmakers and Bench 35 17-2081.00 Environmental Engineers 19 Carpenters 51-6052.00 Tailors Dressmakers and 19 51-8013.00 Power Plant Operators 34 Custom Sewers 49-9098.00 Helpers--Installation 34 51-4121.06 Welders Cutters and Welder 18 Maintenance and Repair Fitters Workers 43-6011.00 Executive Secretaries and 17 51-5023.00 Printing Machine Operators 34 Administrative Assistants 41-4011.07 Solar Sales Representatives and 33 11-2021.00 Marketing Managers 17 Assessors 13-1073.00 Training and Development 16 47-1011.03 Solar Energy Installation 32 Specialists Managers 25-2032.00 Vocational Education Teachers 16 39-6021.00 Tour Guides and Escorts 29 Secondary School 29-9011.00 Occupational Health and Safety 29 19-2042.00 Geoscientists Except 15 Specialists Hydrologists and Geographers 66 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Appendix C: Green Job Occupations (continued) 39-1021.00 Firstline Supervisors/Personal 15 11-3051.01 Quality Control Systems 6 Service Workers Managers 17-3022.00 Civil Engineering Technicians 14 49-9041.00 Industrial Machinery Mechanics 6 11-9199.11 Brownfield Redevelopment 14 11-3071.02 Storage and Distribution 6 Specialists and Site Managers Managers 51-3022.00 Meat Poultry and Fish Cutters 6 47-2181.00 Roofers 13 and Trimmers 17-3027.00 Mechanical Engineering 13 Technicians 53-7064.00 Packers and Packagers Hand 6 17-1021.00 Cartographers and 6 17-3012.02 Electrical Drafters 13 Photogrammetrists 19-2031.00 Chemists 13 19-2041.02 Environmental Restoration 6 19-4099.01 Quality Control Analysts 12 Planners 51-5022.00 Prepress Technicians and 12 19-3091.02 Archeologists 6 Workers 13-1111.00 Management Analysts 5 11-3051.04 Biomass Production Managers 11 49-9044.00 Millwrights 5 47-4099.00 Construction and Related 11 Workers All Other 53-5021.01 Ship and Boat Captains 5 11-3031.01 Treasurers and Controllers 5 43-5081.03 Stock Clerks- Stockroom 11 Warehouse or Storage Yard 21-1099.00 Community and Social Service 5 Specialists All Other 43-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 10 of Office and Administrative 51-6011.00 Laundry and Dry-Cleaning 5 Support Workers Workers 13-1199.01 Energy Auditors 10 17-3026.00 Industrial Engineering 5 45-1011.07 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 10 Technicians of Agricultural Crop and 21-1093.00 Social and Human Service 5 Horticultural Workers Assistants 17-2199.11 Solar Energy Systems Engineers 10 31-1012.00 Nursing Aides Orderlies and 5 17-1012.00 Landscape Architects 10 Attendants 51-3092.00 Food Batchmakers 8 17-3023.03 Electrical Engineering 4 Technicians 51-9021.00 Crushing Grinding and Polishing 8 Machine Setters Operators and 35-9011.00 Dining Room and Cafeteria 4 Tenders Attendants and Bartender Helpers 27-1011.00 Art Directors 8 37-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 4 13-1041.01 Environmental Compliance 8 of Housekeeping and Janitorial Inspectors Workers 43-6014.00 Secretaries Except Legal 7 27-1019.00 Artists and Related Workers All 4 Medical and Executive Other 43-4171.00 Receptionists and Information 7 49-3031.00 Bus and Truck Mechanics and 4 Clerks Diesel Engine Specialists 11-2022.00 Sales Managers 7 11-9032.00 Education Administrators 4 49-9094.00 Locksmiths and Safe Repairers 7 Elementary and Secondary 15-1099.02 Computer Systems Engineers/ 7 School Architects 27-1027.00 Set and Exhibit Designers 4 11-3021.00 Computer and Information 6 17-3029.00 Engineering Technicians, Except 4 Systems Managers Drafter, All Other 19-1032.00 Foresters 4 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 67 Appendix C: Green Job Occupations (continued) 17-2021.00 Agricultural Engineers 4 11-3042.00 Training and Development 2 25-9021.00 Farm and Home Management 4 Managers Advisors 11-3051.03 Biofuels Production Managers 2 11-3040.00 Human Resources Managers 4 11-9041.01 Biofuels/Biodiesel Technology 2 45-2091.00 Agricultural Equipment Operators 4 and Product Development Managers 19-1031.00 Conservation Scientists 4 19-1031.02 Range Managers 4 13-1199.00 Business Operations Specialists, 2 All Other 41-1012.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers 4 of Non-Retail Sales Workers 13-2099.00 Financial Specialists, All Other 2 11-1011.03 Chief Sustainability Officers 3 15-1031.00 Computer Software Engineers, 2 Applications 15-1032.00 Computer Software Engineers 3 Systems Software 17-2111.01 Industrial Safety and Health 2 Engineers 47-2021.00 Brickmasons and Blockmasons 3 25-1041.00 Agricultural Science Teachers, 2 51-8099.00 Plant and System Operators All 3 Postsecondary Other 49-2094.00 Electrical and Electronics 2 49-3042.00 Mobile Heavy Equipment 3 Repairers Commercial and Mechanics Except Engines Industrial Equipment 23-2011.00 Paralegals and Legal Assistants 3 49-9021.02 Refrigeration Mechanics and 2 43-5071.00 Shipping Receiving and Traffic 3 Installers Clerks 51-8012.00 Power Distributors and 2 11-9199.00 Managers All Other 3 Dispatchers 51-8031.00 Water and Liquid Waste 3 53-7051.00 Industrial Truck and Tractor 2 Treatment Plant and System Operators Operators 11-2011.01 Green Marketers 1 27-1021.00 Commercial and Industrial 3 Designers 19-1023.00 Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists 1 13-1072.00 Compensation Benefits and Job 3 25-9031.00 Instructional Coordinators 1 Analysis Specialists 39-2021.00 Nonfarm Animal Caretakers 1 13-2011.01 Accountants 3 43-4161.00 Human Resources Assistants 1 15-1099.10 Business Intelligence Analysts 3 Except Payroll and Timekeeping 43-4051.00 Customer Service 3 Representatives 25-1194.00 Vocational Education Teachers 3 Postsecondary 27-1024.00 Graphic Designers 3 51-9198.00 Helpers--Production Workers 3 37-2012.00 Maids and Housekeeping 3 Cleaners 47-2071.00 Paving Surfacing and Tamping 3 Equipment Operators 51-9195.03 Stone Cutters and Carvers 3 Manufacturing 53-1021.01 Recycling Coordinators 3 11-9199.10 Wind Energy Project Managers 3 68 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment Appendix D: Survey Instrument HAWAIÿI GREEN JOBS SURVEY Hawai‘i recognizes it is overly dependent on imported oil to meet its energy needs. Recently, the State has taken steps to become more energy self-reliant and to preserve its natural resources for future generations. “Green” jobs may help to halt unemployment during the current economic downturn and contribute to needed economic growth for years to come. The federal American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) has further fueled this interest by funding this survey and workforce retraining for green jobs in Hawai‘i. To support Hawai‘i’s efforts to develop a green economy and workforce that can compete for green jobs, we are conducting a survey of Hawai‘i businesses. The purpose of this survey is to: • estimate the number of jobs where environmental protection or preservation is central, • identify the occupations involved with the emerging green economy, • identify the training needs of a green workforce. What is a green job? A green job makes a positive impact on the environment or energy sustainability. This survey covers five core areas: Generate clean, renewable, sustainable energy Reduce pollution and waste; conserve natural resources Energy efficiency Education, training and support of a green workforce Natural, environmentally-friendly production Three ways to complete this survey: 1 Online: www.GreenJobsHawaii.org 2 Mail: Return the survey in the enclosed envelope 3 Fax: (808) 586-9022 * Please respond within 15 days of the date on the cover letter. Report only for the worksite shown on the label on the back page. We suggest your Operations or Human Resources Manager complete this form. Your responses will be kept confidential. 1. Number of employees at this location (count full and part-time workers equally) _____________ 2. Check þ the green practices your company performs at this location: ¨ Recycle (paper, toner cartridge, cans) ¨ Energy-saving light bults ¨ Use of recycled products (office paper, etc.) ¨ Solar and photovoltaics ¨ Telecommute ¨ Use low VOC paints, stains or sealers ¨ Carpool ¨ Clean with “eco-friendly” products ¨ Fuel efficient and alternative fuel vehicles ¨ Reduce energy use (A/C timer, motion sensor, etc.) ¨ Subsidized bus pass ¨ Water conservation ¨ Bicycle commute program ¨ Other (please describe) 3. Does your company work to PROVIDE goods or services in any of the five core GREEN areas? For more information and examples about these areas, see the back page. ¨ YES è Please complete all sections of this survey. ¨ NO è Please complete this page and continue directly to the back page. Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 69 HAWAIÿI GREEN JOBS SURVEY www.GreenJobsHawaii.org Job Titles & Descriptions Current # of Employees in GREEN Areas Energy Training and Natural, Generate Reduce Efficiency Education, Environmen- Clean, Pollution Job title(s) of workers you employed* in jobs in GREEN areas at this Renewable, and Waste; Support of tally-Friendly Sustainable Conserve Green Production location Energy Natural Workforce from January to March 2010 Resources, Recycle Describe and explain how the position is Estimate the current number of employees in each GREEN area GREEN. Refer to back page for more information and examples. Count full and part-time workers equally. ONLY include jobs where green activities Choose only ONE category per employee. (If employees work in more than were essential to the job. Please PRINT one, choose the area that takes most of their time or is their primary job function.) Job Title: Wind Turbine Technician - 3 Description: Installs and repairs wind turbines E x a m p l e Job Title: Description: Job Title: Description: Job Title: Description: Job Title: Description: Job Title: Description: Job Title: Description: * Exclude consultants, outside contractors, vendors, If you need more space, please attach another sheet. and others not considered employees. 70 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment HAWAIÿI GREEN JOBS SURVEY www.GreenJobsHawaii.org Job Vacancies Qualifications & Employee Training Requirements # of Current Total # of Minimum Formal Training by Certifications or Informal on-the-job Vacancies Workers You Education and Community College Licenses training for this Job Expect in Training or Other External this Position Qualifications Provider in 2012 Select one code List and describe specific types of training (**See 1 - 11 below) (exclusive of a degree program) and certifications and licences required for your green workers Electrician course; 1 10 6 Wind turbine None None technology ** 1 = Professional degree 6 = Associate’s degree 2 = Doctoral degree 7 = Postsecondary vocational award 3 = Master’s degree 8 = Work experience in a related occupation 4 = Bachelor’s or higher degree 9 = More than 1 year on-the-job training plus work experience 10 = 1 to 12 months on-the-job training 5 = Bachelor’s degree 11 = Less than 1 month on-job training Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment 71 HAWAIÿI GREEN JOBS SURVEY Page 4 5. Contact person ________________________________________ Name ________________________________________ Title ________________________________________ Telephone ________________________________________ Email Generate Clean, Renewable, Sustainable Energy Produce, transmit, and store clean, renewable power in a safe and sustainable manner from solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, ocean, and small-scale biopower sources. Example: electricians, electrical engineers and plumbers install solar energy systems. Reduce and Mitigate Pollution and Waste and Conserve Our Natural Resources, Recycle Manage water and other natural resources. Prevent and control emissions and pollution. Treat water and remediate waste. Examples: trained workers safely remediate hazardous materials; air quality monitoring. E nergy Efficiency Reduce energy use. Produce or install energy-efficient products. Provide energy-efficiency services. Retrofit, weatherize, or improve efficiency of buildings. Improve energy distribution (smart grid) and transportation. Examples: engineers develop lighting and other products that curb and monitor energy use while electricians and others install them. E ducation, Training and Support of Green Workforce Provide services to the other four green areas. Help develop our green workforce. Examples: teachers train workers for the clean energy economy; legal services; environmental consultants. Natural, Sustainable, Environmentally-Friendly Production Mitigate harmful environmental impacts of products and processes and use less energy by improving or developing alternative products and methods, including use of natural or recycled materials. Examples: construction workers install green building materials; plumbers and technicians install smart irrigation systems; organic farmers; chemists or product designers and engineers who produce less caustic cleaning products and biodegradable products. These descriptions and examples are NOT comprehensive. Mahalo. Your participation helps Hawai‘i go green! Need assistance? Contact us: Labor Market Information (LMI) Green Jobs Initiative Research & Statistics Office • Hawaiÿi Department of Labor & Industrial Relations 830 Punchbowl Street, Room 304 • Honolulu, HI 96813 Tel: 808-586-9097 • Fax: 808-586-9022 Email: DLIR.RS.GreenJobsHawaii@hawaii.gov • Website: www.GreenJobsHawaii.org 72 Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment The cover art depicts, from left to right: 1) the Kahuku wind energy project, 2) workers in Kona installing photovoltaic panels, 3) youth in a green jobs training program on the Big Island, 4) and taro plants. Taro is grown primarily for the Hawaiian staple of poi. The National Agricultural Statistics Service estimates Hawaiÿi’s taro production at 4.4 million pounds in 2008, mostly on the island of Kauaÿi. Photos courtesy of First Wind, Sunetric, Kupu Hawaiÿi, NorthShoreKauai.com, and Harold Herradura.