Hawaii Green Jobs Report - Hawai i's Green Workforce

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					Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce
A Baseline Assessment

December 2010

State of Hawaiÿi
Department of Labor and Industrial Relations
Research & Statistics Office
                             State of Hawai‘i
                     NEIL ABERCROMBIE, GOVERNOR

                 Department of Labor and Industrial Relations
                     Dwight Takamine, Interim Director
                      Audrey Hidano, Deputy Director

                          Research & Statistics Office
                          Francisco P. Corpuz, Chief

                        Jeffrey Matsu, Lead Researcher
                                 Anders Corr
                                Robin Komoto
                                 Ryan Morita • • (808)586-8999
Table of Contents

   List of Exhibits                                     4

   Acknowledgements                                     5

   Executive Summary                                    7

   Introduction                                         8

   Methodology                                         10

   Current Green Jobs                                  14

   Green Job Vacancies                                 23

   Green Jobs Projected in 2012                        27

   Qualifications and Employee Training Requirements   38

   Green Practices                                     42

   Conclusion                                          47

   References                                          49

   Appendix A: Methodological Details                  50

   Appendix B: NAICS in Sample                         55

   Appendix C: Green Job Occupations                   65

   Appendix D: Survey Instrument                       69
List of Exhibits
TABLES                                                        FIGURES
1.  Green Jobs by Core Area and County . . . .       .   14   1.  Green Labor Life Cycle . . . . . . . . . . .    .   .9
2.  Green Jobs by Core Area and Industry . . .       .   14   2.  Statistical Sampling Methodology. . . . . .     .   13
3.  Green Jobs by County . . . . . . . . . . . .     .   15   3.  Green Jobs by Core Area and Worksite Size       .   15
4.  Green Jobs by Industry and County . . . . .      .   16   4.  Total Employment by County . . . . . . . .      .   15
5.  Top Industries for Green Jobs . . . . . . . .    .   17   5.  Green Jobs by County . . . . . . . . . . . .    .   15
6.  Top Industries for Green Jobs by County . .      .   17   6.  Total Employment by Worksite Size. . . . .      .   18
7.  Green Jobs by Worksite Size . . . . . . . .      .   18   7.  Green Job Vacancies by County . . . . . . .     .   23
8.  Top Green Occupations and                                 8.  Green Job Vacancies as a Share of Total
    SOC Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . 21         Unemployment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . 23
9. Top Occupational Groups with Green Jobs .         . 22     9. Green Job Vacancies by Core Areas
10. Green Job Vacancies by County                                  and County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . 24
    and Worksite Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    . 23     10. Green Job Vacancies by Core Areas
11. Green Job Vacancies by County                                 and Worksite Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . 25
    and Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . 23     11. Green Jobs by Core Area: 2012 . . . . . . .     . 27
12. Top 25 Green Job Vacancies by                             12. Green Job Growth by County: 2010-2012. .        . 27
    SOC Major Groups: 2010 . . . . . . . . . .       264      13. Growth in Green Jobs by Industry:
13. Green Job Projections by County                               2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . 28
    and Industry: 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   . 29     14. Green Job Projections by Industry: 2012 . .     . 31
14. Growth in Green Jobs by County                            15. Absolute Growth in Green Jobs by
    and Industry: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . . .    . 30         Worksite Size: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . .    . 32
15. Green Job Projections by County                           16. Percent Growth in Green Jobs by
    and Worksite Size: 2012 . . . . . . . . . . .    . 32         Worksite Size: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . .    . 32
16. Growth in Green Jobs by County                            17. Formal Green Training. . . . . . . . . . . .    . 38
    and Worksite Size: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . .     . 32
                                                              18. On-the-Job Green Training . . . . . . . . .     . 38
17. Green Job Projections by
                                                              19. Projected Growth Rate of Top-Five Green
    Occupation: 2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . 34
                                                                  Occupations by Education: 2010-2012 . . .       . 40
18. Top 25 Green Occupations by
                                                              20. Green Practices per Worksite . . . . . . . .    . 42
    Growth: 2010-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . .      . 35
19. Green Practices by County
    and Worksite Size, Share of Total . . . . . .    . 43
20. Green Practices by Industry, Share of Total .    . 45
                                                              BOX ITEMS
                                                              1. What is the NAICS? . . . . . . . . . . .      . . . 12
21. Sample Size by Industry . . . . . . . . . . .    . 51
                                                              2. What is the SOC? . . . . . . . . . . . .      . . . 19
                                                              3. The Depth and Breadth of Green Jobs:
                                                                 Janitors, Cleaners, and Security Guards .     . . . 20
                                                              4. New and Emerging Green Occupation:
                                                                 Sustainability Specialist . . . . . . . . .   . . . 30
                                                              5. Industry Focus: Wind Energy . . . . . .       . . . 33
                                                              6. Green Finance: Innovation Spurs Clean
                                                                 Energy Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . .     . 36-37
                                                              7. Leadership in Energy & Environmental
                                                                 Design (LEED) . . . . . . . . . . . . .       . . . 39
                                                              8. Green Certification. . . . . . . . . . . .    . . . 44

The authors would like to acknowledge support from Francisco Corpuz, Chief of the DLIR Research
& Statistics Office. James Hardway and the Workforce Development Council provided a coordinating
role throughout the grant’s procurement and implementation. Peter Quigley at the University of Hawaiÿi
Community Colleges, Michael Hamnett at the Research Corporation of the University of Hawaiÿi, and
members of the Green Workforce Intelligence Network (GWIN), Hawaiÿi Department of Business, Economic
Development and Tourism (DBEDT), Workforce Development Division, and Local Workforce Investment
Boards provided expertise and insights.
Katalina McGlone made significant contributions to survey design, statistical sampling and data collection.
Albert Tou, Sarah Goodale, and Ed Robison from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics shared useful insights in
sampling methodology, as did staff from statistical agencies in states such as Washington, Oregon, California,
and Michigan. Casey Cho and James Doi were instrumental with website and database design. Phyllis
Dayao assisted with the report’s graphical design and layout. Naomi Harada, Holly Nagamine, Allen Choy,
Marc Fabian, Vicki Lau, Jeri Arucan, Jeri Sato, Deana Boswell, Anna Powell, Stan Fichtman, Phyllis Dayao,
Lisa Langit, LoriAnn Nishigaya-Chung, Shannon Lee, and Victor Gong provided assistance during the data
collection phase of the survey.
There are numerous other stakeholders in both the public and private sectors that helped make this report
possible, and we thank them collectively for their invaluable feedback and guidance at critical stages throughout
the project.
Lastly, a very big “thank you” goes to the thousands of Hawaiÿi businesses that participated in this inaugural

This report is intended for educational and informational purposes. References to specific products, services or
companies are for illustrative purposes only, and do not reflect an endorsement by the State of Hawaiÿi or DLIR.

Unless specified within this report, all data and analysis should be sourced as “State of Hawaiÿi, Department of
Labor and Industrial Relations, Research & Statistics Office, ‘Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce Report, 2010’”.

                                                     Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment            5
State of Hawaiÿi: County Profiles



     460 green jobs
     1.9% of county jobs                                               MAUI
     71 additional green
         jobs by 2012
                                   6,866 green jobs
                                   2.0% of county jobs
                                   1,885 additional green
                                       jobs by 2012

                                                            2,597 green jobs
                                                            4.6% of county jobs               HAWAIÿI
                                                            437 additional green
                                                                jobs by 2012

                                                                                   1,222 green jobs
                                                                                   2.5% of total jobs
                                                                                   510 additional green
                                                                                       jobs by 2012

 6     Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Executive Summary
This report provides a comprehensive framework for assessing green jobs in the private sector of the State of
Hawaiÿi. Survey responses, from a stratified random sample of all Hawaiÿi businesses, provided data on 4,008
worksites for the first quarter of 2010. This represents a 44 percent overall response rate.

Green jobs are defined as those that engage in at least one of five core green areas: (1) Generate clean,
renewable, sustainable energy; (2) Reduce pollution and waste, conserve natural resources, recycle; (3) Energy
efficiency; (4) Education, training and support of a green workforce; and (5) Natural, environmentally-friendly

Key findings include:

 •	 Green	jobs	in	the	private	sector	of	Hawai’i	are	estimated	at	11,145,	which	accounts	for	2.4	percent	of	
    total	private	employment.	 Green jobs are identified in 203 occupations across 19 major industry groups.
    Sixty-five percent of Hawaiÿi’s green jobs are found in three major industries – Construction, Professional
    Services, and Administrative & Support, Waste Management & Remediation Services. Five occupations —
    Janitors & Cleaners, Forest & Conservation Technicians, Security Guards, Electricians, and Heating & Air
    Conditioning Mechanics & Installers — account for 28 percent of the green workforce.

 •	 Current	green	job	vacancies	are	estimated	at	670,	which	represent	1.5	percent	of	Hawaiÿi’s	total	
    unemployment. Nearly three-quarters of these vacancies occur in three industries – Construction,
    Agriculture and Professional Services.

 • Businesses anticipate green employment to grow faster than the overall labor market in Hawaiÿi. Between	
   2010	and	2012,	employer	worksites	project	the	number	of	green	jobs	to	increase	by	26	percent	to	
   14,048,	accounting	for	2.9	percent	of	total	employment.	 Occupations expected to experience the most
   growth in green jobs during this period are solar and insulation technicians. All counties report an increase
   in the number of green jobs by 2012, with Oÿahu projecting the largest number (1,885 new green jobs) and
   Hawaiÿi County the highest rate of growth (42 percent).

 •	 Community	colleges	and	trade	schools	fulfill	62	percent	of	the	education	and	training	requirements	
    for	reported	green	jobs. The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification is the
    most commonly cited qualification.

 •	 Businesses	report	an	average	of	3.5	green	practices	per	worksite, with the largest numbers found in
    Maui and Kauaÿi counties. Recycling, use of recycled products, and energy-saving light bulbs are the most
    common practices. Over 90 percent of worksites report at least one green practice.

                                                    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment         7

Context for the Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey

Hawai‘i experiences unique challenges in transitioning
from a State that is 90 percent dependent on imported
oil to one that meets the Hawai‘i Clean Energy
Initiative (HCEI) vision of being 70 percent reliant on
renewable energy by 2030. Promulgated in June 2009,
the HCEI aims to bring together business leaders,
policy makers and a civil society committed to leading
Hawai‘i to energy independence. The HCEI focuses
on two primary objectives to meet this aggressive
energy independence goal:

         Conserve: Use What We Need Efficiently                  Photo courtesy of Tom Burke
         •	 Commit to a more energy-efficient lifestyle in
            our homes and on the road.                           To support the State’s efforts to help build a workforce
         •	 Establish energy-efficient building codes and        with the skills necessary to compete for green jobs,
            lower energy use at work and in our schools.         the DLIR conducted a statistical survey of Hawai‘i
                                                                 businesses over a two-month period, May to July
         Convert: Harness What We Have Wisely                    2010. The purpose of this Survey was three-fold,
         •	 Stop building fossil fuel plants.                    to: (1) estimate the number of jobs that significantly
         •	 Generate 40 percent of energy locally by 2030.       contribute to environmental protection or preservation;
         •	 Harness energy from solar, wind, ocean,              (2) identify the occupations involved with the
            geothermal, and biomass resources.                   emerging green economy; and (3) identify the training
         •	 Establish a sustainable alternative-fuel strategy.   needs of a green workforce. Businesses were also
         •	 Modernize the power-grid system.1                    asked to provide information on their green practices,
                                                                 irrespective of whether or not green jobs were
The Department of Labor and Industrial Relations                 reported.
(DLIR) has actively sought to become a more
effective partner in this endeavor. Recognizing the              This Survey addresses three programmatic areas: (1)
rapidly evolving needs of the clean energy sector and            collection of data necessary to guide the planning of
the limitations of existing labor market information             training programs for the short-term skills needed
(LMI), Hawai‘i was one of several states selected                for emerging green industries; (2) development
by the US Department of Labor’s Employment                       of LMI tools and enhancements that facilitate
& Training Administration to receive an LMI                      the reemployment of an increasing number of
Improvement Grant funded through the American                    displaced workers; and (3) assistance to clean energy
Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). It is this                 stakeholders to understand the capacity of the State’s
funding that made possible the data collection and               LMI system and its central role in building a skilled
subsequent assessment of the inaugural Hawai‘i Green             work force.
Jobs Survey (“Survey”).
                                                                 To develop a more comprehensive picture of the
                                                                 greening economy and workforce, we employed

     8      Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
a survey that was supplemented with analysis of                    underscore future data collection and labor market
LMI and other resources. This initiative relies on                 research that track green jobs and their respective
the support and feedback of a Green Workforce                      industries. Policy makers, business leaders and the
Intelligence Network (GWIN), a collaborative and                   public can utilize this “green” intelligence to help
expandable consortium of government, industry and                  guide their strategic decision-making in areas such as
education representatives, which builds upon the                   investment, education and workforce development.
statewide Energy Sector Work Group for Workforce
Development. Given Hawai‘i ’s unique isolation                     Practical applications from this baseline assessment
from other energy and grid systems, labor markets,                 are broad and far-reaching. Career counselors
and education and workforce development systems,                   and other service providers rely on industry and
the GWIN steering committee consulted regularly                    occupation-based data to meet the needs of different
with counterparties in other states and regions                    clients, from displaced engineers who require training
regarding issues, best practices and innovations in                in green applications to lower-skilled job-seekers
workforce development and LMI. Throughout the                      who require basic training to obtain entry-level jobs
implementation phase of the Survey, an industry and                in the green sector. Information on green jobs and
LMI user-driven improvement process has been a                     the requisite skills companies seek when filling them
strategic consideration.                                           can also be used by leaders in the field of education
                                                                   to better identify relevant degrees, certifications and
While a general understanding of what is meant by                  training programs. Universities, community colleges,
“green jobs” and a “green workforce” permeates                     and trade and vocational schools are important
various discussion forums, there is no widely accepted             partners in bridging job-seekers and employers with
standard definition. To address this deficiency, the               innovative programs and curricula that address the
Survey provides parameters defining occupations                    needs of a rapidly evolving green economy. Within
and economic activities that qualify for inclusion.                this context, the private sector becomes a vested
This working definition formed an objective basis                  stakeholder by providing the demand for a pool of
for measuring the current number of green jobs, the                skilled workers to grow its businesses. The education
qualifications and training necessary to compete for               sector, in turn, generates revenue from expanded
these positions, the green practices employers have                services (Figure 1). Such symbiosis spurs activity and
adopted, and the trends that are shaping the industry.             innovation in the broader economy.
Responses from all businesses were later vetted by a
staff panel with a voting procedure to ensure overall              Ultimately, the Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey aims to lay
compliance. While no approach is absolute, adherence               the foundation upon which future initiatives can be
to a well-defined and consistent definition is needed              built. Rather than being a terminus, it is the starting
for a more transparent interpretation of the data.                 point from which the State of Hawai‘i can structure
                                                                   future endeavors that facilitate the expansion of green
Survey data form the basis of the baseline estimation              industries across the islands.
presented in this report. From a functional                        Figure	1.	 Green	Labor	Life	Cycle
perspective, the DLIR will use this as a benchmark in
two related areas, to: (1) project future employment
in green jobs at the 2, 5 and 10-year horizons; and (2)
form a skills-gap assessment2 focusing on training
capacity and demographic characteristics, including
the skills of existing and potential green workers.
The baseline generated from this analysis will also

 A skills-gap assessment seeks to address the disparity between
a worker’s current skills and those required to fill a green job
through education and vocational training.

                                                               Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment        9
Defining Green Jobs

There is no standard definition of what constitutes
a “green” job. At the national level, the US Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS) recently released what it
considers to be a final definition of green jobs based
upon public comments solicited during a six-month
period, March to September 2010. According to
this definition, “green jobs are either: (1) jobs in
businesses that produce goods or provide services
that benefit the environment or conserve natural
resources, or (2) jobs in which workers’ duties involve
making their establishment’s production processes
more environmentally friendly or use fewer natural
resources.” 3 The BLS will apply this definition for              Photo Courtesy of 21st Century Technologies Hawaiÿi

data collection beginning in FY 2011.
                                                                  the design of a robust scientific survey instrument and
                                                                  sampling procedure.
Meanwhile, many states have already completed or
are currently undertaking surveys to measure green
jobs and related economic activity. Policy direction                We define five core areas as green:
and objectives specific to each state ultimately                    ¾ Generate clean, renewable, sustainable energy
determine the scope of what is considered green,
but the Workforce Information Council (WIC), a
                                                                    ¾ Reduce pollution and waste; conserve natural
                                                                       resources; recycle
consortium of state and federal statistical agencies,
has proposed its own working definition: “A green                   ¾ Energy efficiency
job is one in which the work is essential to products               ¾ Educational, training and support of a green
or services that improve energy efficiency, expand the                 workforce
use of renewable energy, or support environmental                   ¾ Natural, environmental-friendly production
                                                                  For the purposes of this report, we consider a green	
In designing this survey and conducting its analyses,             job to be one that engages in economic activity that
the DLIR sought a definition that was neither overly              makes a positive impact on the environment or energy
specific to be exclusionary nor so broad as to make               sustainability, either on a full- or part-time basis.
it not useful. Given the nascence in data collection
related to this area of the economy, and a recognition              • Generate Clean, Renewable, Sustainable
that an understanding of green jobs is in many ways                   Energy refers to jobs in research, development,
shaped by the results of an initial assessment, we                    production, storage and distribution, and
chose to supplement a broad definition with a vetting                 maintenance of energy (electricity and fuel) from
procedure. This approach provided a framework for                     renewable resources such as solar, wind, hydro,
                                                                      geothermal, ocean, and biofuels. Clean energy
    Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 182.
                                                                      must have a positive net energy yield, relatively
    Workforce Information Council Green Jobs Study Group, Final       reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and be produced
    Report, October 2009.                                             and distributed in a sustainable and safe manner.

    10    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
 • Reduce Pollution and Waste refers to the                on a part-time basis, it is considered green whenever
   prevention and control of commercial,                   that responsibility occurs on a recurring basis. This
   transportation and industrial emissions and             recognizes that many green functions may be of a
   pollution; environmental cleanup; water treatment;      secondary or tertiary nature.
   and waste product management and treatment.
                                                           Broadly considered, a distinction is made between jobs
   Conserve natural resources	refers to managing
                                                           that are simply performed outdoors or with nature and
   water and other finite resources more effectively.      those that significantly contribute to environmental
   This includes land management, sustainable              protection or preservation. For example, professions
   forestry and wildlife conservation. Recycling           such as groundskeepers, landscapers and tree
   refers to re-use of materials in the production         trimmers are considered green only if a portion of
   process. This area includes companies that collect      their regular responsibilities is ostensibly green, such
   aluminum, paper, glass, and other recyclable            as composting. Lawn maintenance and soil tilling
   materials.                                              alone would not suffice. Alternatively, a pest-control
                                                           technician who provides a green alternative using
 • Energy Efficiency refers to reducing the amount         organic or bio-friendly chemicals would be considered
   of energy used to produce a unit of output. These       green.
   jobs refer to the production, construction and
   installation of energy-efficient products, such as      Other examples of green jobs include: (1)
   Energy Star appliances and more efficient lighting.     in manufacturing, a chemist who produces
   This category also includes jobs related to bicycles    environmentally-sound packaging, equipment and
   and public transportation, and energy-efficiency        cleaning products that are less caustic than traditional
   services such as retrofitting and weatherization of     products; (2) in construction, a worker who produces
   buildings.                                              or installs green building materials such as alternative
                                                           cement and manufactured wood products made from
 • Education, Training and Support of Green                scraps, or a consultant who provides green building
   Workforce	refers to the provision of services           design and construction services; (3) in agriculture,
                                                           a technician who installs smart irrigation systems, a
   to the other four green areas. This category
                                                           farmer who uses organic and sustainable methods,
   includes activities to increase public awareness        or a biologist who researches alternative pest control
   of environmental issues, activities to develop          methods; and (4) in materials, a product designer or
   and enforce environmental regulations, and the          engineer who develops biodegradable products, or
   provision of training in green technologies and         a chemical engineer who researches a new chemical
   practices to develop Hawai‘i’s green workforce.         catalyst to decompose waste and reduce toxins
 • Natural, Sustainable, Environmentally-Friendly
   Production	refers to practices that reduce              Green practices are not equivalent to green jobs.
   the environmental impact resulting from the             While green practice data was collected in the Survey,
   production of any good or service. Included             it is reported separately and includes responses from
                                                           all worksites, regardless of whether a green job is
   are alternative methods for production, and
   products that require less energy, emit fewer
   greenhouse gases or otherwise reduce impact on          For example, worksites that use recycled toner
   the environment. Examples are net-zero energy           cartridges and paper, or food service establishments
   buildings that use solar panels or photovoltaic         that recycle cans and bottles, are practitioners of
   cells, and businesses that generate energy from         green practices but do not fit the definition of green
   recycling waste created during a manufacturing          jobs unless they fulfill one of the five core areas noted
   process.                                                above. Moreover, if an economic activity is known to
                                                           be environmentally harmful, then any job associated
Support staff positions are included as green jobs         directly with it would not be classified as green.
only when a business is 100 percent green. When
a job containing green responsibilities is performed

                                                       Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment         11
Statistical Sampling
                                                           What	is	the	NAICS?
The data presented here is based on a survey
                                                           The North American Industry Classification System
conducted from May to July 2010 of a stratified
                                                           (NAICS) is a system for classifying establishments
random sample of 9,146 worksites drawn from the
                                                           by type of economic activity for statistical purposes.
Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW)            Its purposes are: (1) to facilitate the collection,
database. The QCEW contains data on approximately          tabulation, presentation, and analysis of data relating
37,674 private Hawai‘i worksites that report to the        to establishments, and (2) to promote uniformity and
State’s Unemployment Insurance Division.                   comparability in the presentation and analysis of
                                                           statistical data describing the economy.
To ensure a representative sample, the State
Department of Labor and Industrial Relations (DLIR)        NAICS is used by federal statistical agencies that
mailed the survey to a stratified random sample of         collect or publish data by industry. It is also widely
the QCEW, including all four counties – Honolulu           used by State agencies, trade associations, private
                                                           businesses, and other organizations. At the heart of
(O‘ahu), Hawai’i, Maui, and Kaua‘i. O‘ahu accounts
                                                           NAICS is a production-based concept of classification;
for about two-thirds of all QCEW worksites, so the
                                                           that is, NAICS classifies each establishment into a
first level of stratification was by county (Figure 2).    detailed industry based in the production processes
                                                           it uses. The NAICS system provides five levels of
Within each county, a cross-section of employers was       classification on detailed codes that have a maximum
randomly selected such that small (1-9 employees),         of six digits. The classification levels are Sector,
medium (10-49 employees) and large worksites (50           Subsector, Industry Group, NAICS Industry, and U.S.
or more employees) would be represented. In order          Industry.
to obtain complete data on worksites with potentially
very large numbers of green employees, all large           This report focuses on data analysis at the Sector
worksites were sampled. This decreased the variance        (2-digit NAICS) level. Including Government (which
                                                           is not included herein), there are 20 Sectors in NAICS.
in our random sample of small and medium-sized
worksites, thus increasing the power of the sample.
                                                           Source: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Executive
                                                           Office of the President.
The sample was further stratified to reflect a cross-
section of industries, including traditional industries   was pursued with non-responders, which yielded an
and those thought likely to have a large representation   additional 1,723 responses (Wave 2). This brought
of green jobs. All 19 private sectors in the North        the total survey response to 4,008 of the original 9,146
American Industry Classification System (NAICS, see       sampled worksites, or a final response rate of 43.8
inset) were randomly sampled. Public Administration       percent.
(NAICS 92) was not sampled, but we plan to include
the public sector in the future.                          Upon examination of the data, non-response bias was
                                                          detected between Wave 1 and Wave 2 responders.
                                                          To address this bias, a logistic regression was used
Survey Response and Estimation                            to estimate propensity scores for prediction of likely
                                                          responders and non-responders within the unsampled
Businesses could respond to the survey via internet,      data. In the final estimation procedure, Wave 1
mail, fax, or telephone within a ten-day period of the    sample weights were increased to estimate the number
deadline. (Businesses that mailed responses prior         of green jobs for likely responders, and likewise,
to a ten-day grace period following the deadline are      the weight of Wave 2 sample data was increased to
referred to as Wave 1). Based on this criterion, 2,285    estimate the number of green jobs for likely non-
surveys were received, yielding an initial response       responders. This method yields an unbiased estimate
rate of 25 percent. An aggressive follow-up strategy      of total green jobs.

 12    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Figure	2.	 Statistical	Sampling	Methodology

                                              Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment   13
Current Green Jobs
Green Jobs by Core Areas

There are an estimated 11,145 green jobs in Hawaii
for the first quarter of 2010, composing 2.4 percent of
total private sector employment.
Green jobs are classified into five core areas. These
areas are defined based on how a particular green job
best makes a positive impact on the environment or
energy sustainability. Table 1 shows the number of
green jobs estimated for each of these core areas with
respect to geographic location.

Table	1.	 Green	Jobs	by	Core	Area	and	County

                                                          Photo Courtesy of Kauaÿi County Recycling

                                                          At the state level of aggregation, the largest core area
                                                          of green employment is Reduce Pollution & Waste;
                                                          Conserve Natural Resources; Recycle. Forty percent

Table	2.	 Green	Jobs	by	Core	Area	and	Industry

 14    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
of green jobs in the State are associated with this      Figure	3.	 Green	Jobs	by	Core	Area	and	Worksite	Size
type of green activity. The second leading core area
is Energy Efficiency, with 23 percent of green jobs.
The next largest areas are Natural Environmentally-
Friendly Production with approximately one in five
green jobs, Generate Clean, Renewable, Sustainable
Energy with 11 percent of green jobs, and Education,
Training, and Support of a Green Workforce, which
accounts for only about 7 percent of green jobs.
At the county level, Reducing Pollution, Conservation,
and Recycling is the leading category for O‘ahu
(50 percent), Kaua‘i (43 percent) and Hawai‘i (36
percent), while in Maui, Natural Environmentally-
Friendly Production accounts for 53 percent of all
green jobs.                                            Figure	4.	 Total	Employment	by	County
Most green jobs in medium and large worksites are
in the Reducing Pollution category, at 44 percent and
43 percent, respectively. Meanwhile, the core area
of Energy Efficiency accounted for one-third of green
jobs reported by small worksites, followed by Reduce
Pollution at 28 percent (Figure 3).
The largest number of green jobs is in the Reduce
Pollution core area (Table 2), but there are a
few notable exceptions in certain industries. In
Agriculture, 62 percent of green jobs are categorized
in the Natural Production area, while in the Utilities
sector, 51 percent are in Generate Energy and 29
percent are in Reduce Pollution. Energy Efficiency
is the leading core area for Professional, Scientific
and Technical Services (59 percent) and Construction
employment (38 percent).
                                                         Figure	5.	 Green	Jobs	by	County

Green Jobs by County

Based on survey data, green jobs represent 2.4 percent
of total employment in the State of Hawai‘i. With the
exception of Maui, the share of total jobs reported as
green by each county did not differ markedly from the

Table	3.	 Green	Jobs	by	County

                                                    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment            15
Table	4.	 Green	Jobs	by	Industry	and	County

                                   16         Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Table	5.	 Top	Industries	for	Green	Jobs

statewide figure (Table 3). While the share of green        Green Jobs by Industry
jobs in other counties is within the range of 1.9 percent
to 2.5 percent, Maui reported an outsized 4.6 percent.
Maui accounts for 12 percent of the State’s total           Construction is the fifth-largest private-industry sector
employment, yet its green jobs comprise 23 percent          as of the fourth quarter of 2009. Not coincidentally,
of the State’s total. Meanwhile, Kaua‘i and Hawai‘i         Construction has the largest number of green jobs
counties’ share of total and green jobs relative to the     at 3,327, or 30 percent of the State’s total green jobs
State are comparable. In Kaua‘i, this equates to four       (Table 4 and Table 5). Green jobs represent 11 percent
percent of green and five percent of total jobs in the      of that industry’s total employment. Construction led
State. Hawai‘i County has 11 percent for both green         in O‘ahu and Hawai‘i, reporting 2,246 and 488 green
and total jobs. In contrast, O‘ahu supports 62 percent      jobs, respectively (Table 4). Over one of every eight
of the State’s green jobs, against a 72 percent share of    Construction jobs in Hawai‘i County is green.
total employment (Figure 4 and Figure 5). Kaua‘i’s
green jobs as a share of total jobs are the smallest at     The next largest industries with green jobs are in
1.9 percent.                                                Administrative & Support & Waste Management
                                                            & Remediation Services (ASWMRS); Professional,
                                                            Scientific, & Technical Services; Wholesale Trade;
                                                            and Retail Trade. Seventy-percent of all green jobs
                                                            are concentrated within these five industries. While
                                                            O‘ahu County reported the largest number of green
Table	6.	 Top	Industries	for	Green	Jobs	by	County

                                                      Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment          17
Table	7.	 Green	Jobs	by	Worksite	Size                       Figure	6.	 Total	Employment	by	Worksite	Size

jobs in ASWMRS, Maui holds a disproportionately
larger share of its green work force in this industry
(Table 4).
Given Oÿahu’s large number of technical and research
institutions, a disproportionate share of its green jobs
are in the Professional, Scientific & Technical Services
industry, at 11 percent versus eight percent for the
State (Table 6).                                            Green Jobs by Worksite Size

In contrast to other counties, Maui has most of its         To report at the county level, it was necessary that the
green jobs in the Administrative and Support and            Survey query businesses based on the actual location
Waste Management and Remediation Services sector.           of its employees whenever possible. Worksites were
This sector includes 1,219 green jobs (Table 6),            categorized as small (1-9 employees), medium (10-49
                                                            employees) or large (50+ employees).
which makes 28 percent of the total sector in Maui
green. Maui worksites reported the greatest number          Large employer worksites comprise over half of total
of green jobs in this sector as: Janitors and Cleaners,     employment, yet only one-third of green jobs are at
Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers, Recycling           the biggest employers (Table 7). In contrast, medium-
and Reclamation Workers, Pest Control Workers,              size worksites have the greatest number and share of
Commercial Divers, Sales Representatatives, Ship            total green jobs at 42 percent. Both medium and small
and Boat Captains, Environmental Science and                worksites report a greater share of green jobs relative
Protection Technicians, Energy Engineers, and Retail        to total employment despite a less prominent role in
Salespersons.                                               the overall labor market (Figure 6). According to
                                                            Survey estimates, 3.2 percent of total employment at
Relative to other counties, Hawai‘i County has a            medium and 3.7 percent of total employment at small
large number of green jobs in Agriculture, Forestry,        worksites is green compared to just 1.5 percent at
Fishing, & Hunting. In this industry, the county is         large worksites (Table 7).
estimated to have 183 green jobs, which accounts for
15 percent of its green workforce and eight percent of
its total employment (Table 6).
                                                            Green Jobs by Occupation
Despite reporting fewer green jobs overall, Kaua‘i
supports a relatively significant number in Arts,           Survey data estimate 11,145 green jobs in the State
Entertainment and Recreation when compared to other         of Hawai’i. These jobs are distributed across 203
counties and the State. Kaua‘i reports over 87 green        occupations and classified under the Standard
jobs in this industry, which represents 19 percent of its   Occupational Classification (see inset).
green workforce and approximately 9 percent of the
sector’s total employment within the county (Table 6).      The SOC system reflects 23 major groups5. In the

                                                             US Office of Management & Budget, Standard Occupational
                                                            Classification Manual 2010.

 18    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey, green jobs were found
to be represented in all but one group, Military            What	is	the	SOC?
Specific Occupations. We identify job titles with
fifty or more reported green jobs, and the top five         The Standard Occupational Classification (SOC)
major occupational groups (Table 8 and Table 9).            system is used by federal statistical agencies to
Construction and Extraction reports the largest             classify workers into occupational categories
number of green jobs, which at 2,690 jobs is 61
                                                            for the purpose of collecting, calculating or
percent larger than that of the second largest sector,
Building and Grounds Cleaning and Maintenance.              disseminating data. All workers are classified into
As reflected in the job titles associated with these        one of 840 detailed occupations according to their
occupational groups, many are skilled trades such as        occupational definition.
electricians, heating and air conditioner mechanics,
and forest and conservation technicians. Some of            To facilitate classification, detailed occupations
these are quite new to the labor market, such as            are combined to form 461 broad occupations,
Sustainability Specialists. The Sales and Related           97 minor groups and 23 major groups. Detailed
category features jobs that facilitate the sales and        occupations in the SOC with similar job duties,
distribution of green products and services.                and in some cases skills, education and/or training,
The depth and breadth of green jobs is thought-             are grouped together.
provoking. While there are occupations such as solar
photovoltaic installers, recycling and reclamation
workers, environmental science and protection               This report focuses on data analysis at the detailed
technicians, and hazardous materials removal                occupational level, although some data at the
workers that are tasked with predominantly green            major group level will be reported as well.
responsibilities, others are far less so. Occupations
that are green on occasion include architects,
                                                            Source: U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Executive
electricians and plumbers.                                  Office of the President.

Based on our working definition, a green job does
not require its primary function or responsibility to
be green. In many cases, the provisioning of a green       SOC occupational group based on the Occupational
good or service can be limited to a more secondary or      Employment Survey (Table 8). To identify more
tertiary role. Moreover, these jobs appear throughout      promising job opportunities, growth projections are
the economy in occupations that are not routinely          also provided on this basis.
associated with green activity, such as with janitors
and security guards (see inset article). Our survey
data indicates that there are very few jobs dedicated
entirely to environmental preservation or energy

While the SOC provides a useful conceptual
framework for categorizing the assortment of reported
job titles, it may limit the identification of new or
emerging green occupations. Based on a multi-stage
screening process, however, no new job titles were
identified among survey responses. Furthermore, there
did not appear to be an overt inclination for businesses
to over-report green jobs; any potential overestimation
was minimized with follow-up interviews.

Wage data were beyond the scope of this survey, but
for informational purposes these are reported by major

                                                     Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment             19
 The	Depth	and	Breadth	of	Green	Jobs:
 Janitors, Cleaners and Security Guards

 Hawaiÿi’s unique combination of industries, natural assets and environmentally-aware population
 leads to some surprising conclusions with regard to the large number of janitors, cleaners and security
 guards considered “green”. Job title descriptions submitted by businesses to the Hawaiÿi Green Jobs
 Survey provide evidence of an emerging industry of janitors, cleaners and security guards that are
 making a significant contribution to green practices and employment in the State of Hawaiÿi. The SOC
 occupational groups of Janitors & Cleaners and Security Guards are among the Survey’s top-five green
 occupations when measured in total numbers (Table 8).

 While tourism is not classified as a NAICS industry, this broad services-based sector spans several
 major industry groups which collectively employ a large number of local workers. According to
 our research, a growing number of cleaning providers have incorporated eco-friendly products as a
 significant feature of their services. This has been coupled with the provisioning of extensive employee
 training and certification in areas such as water conservation, recycling and proper waste disposal.
 Given the principal and recurring nature of these responsibilities in such cases, this report treats these
 two occupations – janitors and cleaners – as green jobs and lists them under the core green area of
 Natural, Sustainable and Environmentally-Friendly Production. Based on survey data, of the estimated
 13,250 janitors and cleaners in Hawaiÿi, nine percent undergo special green training. These credentials
 are actively marketed by both employers and employees.

 While the majority of security guards are tasked with protecting real estate, capital assets and public
 safety, an increasing number are also responsible for pollution deterrence, environmental regulation
 enforcement and the safeguarding of hazardous materials from the general public. As a result, select
 positions within the Security Guard occupational group can be categorized under the core green area
 of Reduce Pollution and Waste; Conserve Our Natural Resources; Recycle. Based on this definition,
 survey data estimate that 5.4 percent of the 10,250 security guards in Hawaiÿi are green.

 One respondent to the Survey, a security company, notes clients with special “green” requirements.
 For example, a landfill hires security guards to monitor the quantity of dust pollution, and notify
 management when mitigation measures are required. This landfill also requires that the security
 guards check truck compliance with solid waste rules, such as regulations against dumping hazardous
 materials. Furthermore, the security guards limit the number of trucks so that the facility does not
 exceed its capacity. Other examples are piers and shippers. Security guards at these sites report to
 facility safety officers, following established protocols to monitor the water and containers for toxic
 spills and broken safety equipment that could lead to spills. The security guards also check hazardous
 materials documentation on the piers, which includes individual safety papers and the correct placarding
 of containers. In the event of a spill or other accident, these workers are responsible for cooperating
 with the coast guard to quickly staunch the flow and mitigate damages. According to a representative
 of this company, “I think green security guards will only increase, because people really care about that
 stuff now.”

20   Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Table	8.	 Top	Green	Occupations	and	Related	SOC	Characteristics

                                                       Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment   21
Table	9.	 Top	Occupational	Groups	with	Green	Jobs

 22    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Green Job Vacancies

Vacancies by County

Survey data estimate 670 green job vacancies in the
State of Hawai’i. With its significant job base relative
to other counties, O‘ahu accounts for well over
half of these green vacancies, followed by Hawai’i,
Maui and Kaua‘i (Figure 7). Total green vacancies
across counties represent about 1.5 percent of total
unemployment in the State in the first quarter of 2010.
Hawai‘i County reports the largest share of green job
vacancies when compared to overall unemployment
(Figure 8). Relative to other counties, Hawai‘i has the
potential to employ a disproportionately larger share
of its inactive workforce in green occupations.

Figure	7.	 Green	Job	Vacancies	by	County
                                                              Workers at Kahuku Wind Project. Photo Courtesy of First Wind.

                                                              Vacancies by Industry and Worksite Size

                                                              When examining green job vacancies by NAICS
                                                              industry, we find that over 74 percent are concentrated
                                                              among three major industry groups: (1) Construction,
                                                              (2) Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting, and
                                                              (3) Professional, Scientific & Technical Services.
                                                              O‘ahu and Maui counties held the most vacancies
                                                              in Construction, while Hawai‘i and Kaua‘i reported
                                                              likewise in Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and
                                                              Hunting and Administrative & Support & Waste

                                                              Figure	8.	 Green	Vacancies	as	a	Share	of	Total	

Table	10.	Green	Job	Vacancies	by	County	&	Worksite	Size

                                                          Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment                    23
Table	11.	Green	Job	Vacancies	by	County	and	Industry
Industry Sector                                                Hawai’i      Kaua’i      Maui        O’ahu       Total
Construction                                                     18           3           61         192         273
Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, & Hunting                        117          3           0           4          124
Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services                    1           0           0          95          97
Other Services                                                   51           3           2           0          56
Administrative & Support & Waste Mgmt & Remediation Services     10           4           7          21          42
Wholesale Trade                                                   0           1           0          33          34
Utilities                                                         0           0           3          12          15
Manufacturing                                                     2           0           6           6          14
Educational Services                                              0           0           6           0           6
Health Care and Social Assistance                                 0           0           0           2           2
Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation                               0           2           0           0           2
Retail Trade                                                      0           2           0           0           2
Mining                                                            0           0           0           0           0
Transportation and Warehousing                                    0           0           0           0           0
Information                                                       0           0           0           0           0
Finance and Insurance                                             0           0           0           0           0
Real Estate and Rental and Leasing                                0           0           0           0           0
Management of Companies & Enterprises                             0           0           0           0           0
Accommodation and Food Services                                   0           0           0           0           0
Total                                                            199          18          87         366         670

Management & Remediation Services, respectively.               Figure	9.	 Green	Job	Vacancies	by	Core	Areas	&	County

Small and medium-size employer worksites account
for 90 percent of all green job vacancies (Table 10).
This may be a function of larger businesses being
better capitalized and more able to attract and retain
skilled talent, especially during periods of economic
uncertainty. According to Survey data, 89 percent of
green job vacancies can be found in the five largest
NAICS industry sectors, with 84 percent in Oÿahu and
Hawaiÿi counties (Table 10 and Table 11).

Among the large firms, 57 percent of all green
job vacancies can be attributed to two sectors:
(1) Administrative, Support, Waste Management
& Remediation Services, and (2) Construction.                  and Professional, Scientific & Technical Services
Moreover, 52 percent of O‘ahu’s green vacancies are            industries account for 61 percent of green job
in Construction.                                               vacancies for small businesses.
For mid-size employers, 82 percent of vacancies
are concentrated in Construction and Agriculture,
Forestry, Fishing & Hunting, while the Construction

  24        Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
In contrast, industries that contribute the least           Figure	10.	Green	Job	Vacancies	by	Core	Areas	&	Worksite	
vacancies in the green labor market are Mining,                        Size
Transportation and Warehousing, Information,
Finance and Insurance, Real Estate and Rental and
Leasing, Management of Companies & Enterprises,
and Accommodation and Food Services (Table
11). This might suggest that the greening of these
industries is mature or has not yet fully begun. In
particular, given the limited opportunities for the
excavation of minerals and metals in Hawai’i, we
would not expect to see a large number of green job
vacancies in the Mining sector. From an operational
perspective, low vacancy levels in functional areas
such as leadership (Management), capital (Finance)
and risk mitigation (Insurance) are likely because: (1)
these industries account for fewer jobs relative to the
overall economy; (2) these jobs are less likely to be       Vacancies by Occupation
recognized as “green” given that they cover a wider
spectrum of administrative and generalist activities;       Table 12 depicts present estimated green job vacancies
and (3) some of the positions may be of a broader           by occupational title relative to the total estimated
nature (e.g., chief operating officer or chairman of the    green jobs in 2010 and those projected in 2012. The
                                                            top-seven occupations -- Sales Engineers, Solar
                                                            Photovoltaic Installers, Graders and Sorters of
Vacancies by Core Green Areas                               Agricultural Products, First-Line Supervisors and
                                                            Managers of Production and Operating Workers,
                                                            Electricians, Retail Salespersons, and Janitors and
When the data are assessed by core green areas,
most of the job vacancies appear within Generating          Cleaners -- include 50 percent of the total green job
Clean, Renewable, Sustainable Energy and Natural            vacancies.
Environmentally Friendly Production. This is
particularly the case in O‘ahu, with 219 vacancies in       The three occupations of Sales Engineers, Solar
the category. Ninety-five of the County of Hawai‘i’s        Energy System Engineers, and First-Line Supervisors
199 green vacancies are in the Natural Production           each have large numbers of vacancies, including
category (Figure 9).                                        relative to total current jobs. Their vacancies are
                                                            between one to two times their total current green
Reviewing job vacancies across firm size, medium-           jobs. These figures may be a result of both an
size worksites account for substantially more green         anticipated expansion of these occupations and the
vacancies than small and large worksites. In the
                                                            lack of a skilled and qualified labor pool from which
Generating Clean, Renewable, Sustainable Energy
category, for example, data show that medium-size           to fill the positions.
firms hold 163 green vacancies. Medium-size firms
also account for the majority (98) of vacancies within      Examination of the 2012 projected green jobs figures
the Natural Environmentally Friendly Production             is instructional in showing change for each of the
category, representing 87 percent of the vacancies in       three occupational categories. The data shows that in
this category (Figure 10). Interestingly, almost all of     all three occupations, projected job increases ranged
these vacancies also originated within the Agriculture,     from 196 percent to over 485 percent. These findings
Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting category.                    suggest that the present high vacancy rates in these
                                                            jobs may not only be a function of lack of qualified
                                                            potential employees, but also of expected expansion of
                                                            green jobs in the near future.

                                                        Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment          25
Table	12.	Top	25	Green	Job	Vacancies	by	SOC	Major	Groups:	2010

The functions of several of the job titles likely overlap.
For example, the top green job with respect to
absolute vacancies, Solar Photovoltaic Installers, may
overlap with other jobs that could provide the same
services, such as Solar Energy Systems Engineers,
Solar Sales Representatives and Assessors, Solar
Energy Installation Managers, Electricians, and Solar
Thermal Installers and Technicians. Summed together,
these occupations make 114 green vacancies, the
greatest number of vacancies by a factor of 1.6.

 26    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
    Green Jobs Projected in 2012

Hawai‘i businesses anticipate solid growth of
green jobs to the year 2012. Survey data show that
employment in green-related occupations is expected
to grow from 11,145 in 2010 to 14,048 in 2012, an
increase of 26 percent over two years.
Such growth considerably exceeds the 1.0 percent
increase projected for statewide employment during
the same period.6 Furthermore, green jobs are
expected to grow from a 2.4 percent share of total state
employment in 2009 to 2.9 percent by 2012. This
accelerating trend is consistent with findings from a
preliminary assessment of Hawai‘i ’s green workforce
showing an increase in green jobs between 1998 and

Figure	11.	Green	Jobs	by	Core	Area:	2012

                                                                                  Photo Courtesy of Green Earth Cleaners on Maui

                                                                                  More than half of projected green jobs are found in
                                                                                  two core green areas, Pollution Reduction and Energy
                                                                                  Efficiency (Figure 11). Most of the projected increase
                                                                                  in green employment, however, is associated with
                                                                                  the generation of clean energy. The Generate Clean,
                                                                                  Renewable, Sustainable Energy core area is expected
                                                                                  to experience an increase of 1,119 new jobs (88
                                                                                  percent) between 2010 and 2012.

                                                                                  Figure	12.	Green	Job	Growth	by	County:	2010-2012

  DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Long-Term Industry Projections, State,
2008-2018, 2010.
  Workforce Development Council, DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Green
Workforce Report: Initial Labor Market Analysis Report, October 2009. Projected
annually, the green job rate of increase is 12.7 percent from 2010 to 2012.

                                                                            Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment         27
Figure	13.	Growth	in	Green	Jobs	by	Industry,	2010-2012

Job Projections by County

Survey data indicate growth in green jobs across all
major counties. Consistent with its current status as
the State’s largest provider of green employment,
O‘ahu reports the most sizable green workforce at
8,750 jobs in 2012 (Table 13). This will be a 28
percent increase, or a net 1,885 additional green
workers, compared to current levels. Further
underscoring the anticipated demand for skilled
green labor is the 42 percent increase in the County
of Hawai’i. While this amounts to a smaller overall
number of new jobs given that county’s lower
employment base, it is the largest overall rate of
growth within the State and adds 510 green jobs to the
State’s economy (Figure 12).

Solid gains are also expected in Maui and Kaua‘i, with
businesses reporting an over 15 percent increase in
the number of green jobs over the next two years. By
                                                          Photo Courtesy of Kupu Hawaiÿi on the Big Island.
2012, these two counties are projected to support a
total of 3,035 and 531 green jobs, respectively.

 28    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Table	13.	Green	Jobs	Projections	by	County	and	Industry:	2012
                                                                        Green Jobs in 2012
Industry                                                        O’ahu    Hawai’i     Maui      Kaua’i        Total

Construction                                                    3,392      585       724        94           4,796
Administrative & Support & Waste Mgmt & Remediation Services    1,597      81        1,298      189          3,164
Professional, Scientific, & Technical Services                  1,069      62        177        13           1,321
Wholesale Trade                                                  690       185        26        14           916
Other Services                                                   623       124       111        48           907
Retail Trade                                                     559       43        134         9           745
Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, & Hunting                        37        393        51        15           495
Manufacturing                                                    250       28        111        10           398
Accommodation and Food Services                                  36        132        78        30           276
Utilities                                                        135       15         58        18           226
Health Care and Social Assistance                                120        0         82         0           202
Arts, Entertainment, and Recreation                              42         0         52        88           182
Transportation and Warehousing                                   175        0         0          0           175
Educational Services                                             15        83         37         2           136
Real Estate and Rental and Leasing                                5         1         91         0            98
Information                                                       0         0         6          0            7
Mining                                                            3         0         0          0            3
Finance and Insurance                                             0         0         0          0            0
Management of Companies & Enterprises                             0         0         0          0            0
Total                                                           8,750     1,732      3,035      531      14,048

                                                          Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment         29
Table	14.	Growth	in	Green	Jobs	by	County	and	Industry:	2010-2012

   New	and	Emerging	Green	Occupation:	Sustainability	Specialist
   The green economy has generated a number of                   Hiring managers are interested in individuals
   new professional, technical and administrative jobs           with skill sets comparable to other corporate
   whose principal responsibilities are to monitor and           professionals, which include excellent written and
   lead an establishment’s green efforts. One prime              oral communication skills, project management
   example is the emerging occupation of Sustainability          experience and data analysis expertise. An
   Specialist. The Hawaiÿi Green Jobs Survey helped              undergraduate degree in engineering, environmental
   identify several, predominantly large, firms that             studies or the natural sciences is also considered
   offer such career opportunities in industries ranging         beneficial.
   from professional services to food services. In
   2010, there were an estimated 61 Sustainability               To produce students capable of entering career
   Specialists in the State of Hawaiÿi, with a projected         pathways in energy and environmental sustainability,
   growth rate of 26 percent by 2012. Based on O*NET             grass root initiatives such as Sustainable Saunders
   definitions, a Sustainability Specialist “address(es)         at the University of Hawaiÿi aim to integrate the
   organizational sustainability issues, such as waste           educational curriculum with campus-based projects
   stream management, green building practices, and              and internships.2 This holistic approach allows
   green procurement plans” by undertaking prescribed            students from multiple disciplines to work together
   tasks to:                                                     on current sustainability issues, while developing the
                                                                 skills and acumen necessary to transition successfully
      • Develop sustainability project goals, objectives,        into the green workforce upon graduation. Moreover,
        initiatives, or strategies in collaboration with         such programs serve as a useful conduit transmitting
        other sustainability professionals;                      the skills-needs of potential employers with front-
      • Monitor or track sustainability indicators, such         line education providers.
        as energy usage, natural resources usage, waste
        generation, and recycling;
      • Assess or propose sustainability initiatives,
        considering factors such as cost effectiveness,
        technical feasibility, and acceptance.1       

 30    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Figure	14.	Green	Job	Projections	by	Industry:	2012

                                                     Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment   31
Job Projections by Industry                                   Table	15.	Green	Job	Projections	by	County	and	Worksite	
                                                              Size:	2012

By 2012, the Construction and Administrative and
Waste Services sectors are expected to yield the
greatest number of green jobs at 4,796 and 3,164,
respectively (Table 13). Construction will include
34 percent of all green jobs in 2012 (Figure 14) and
experience 44 percent growth between 2010 and 2012,
creating 1,468 new green jobs, the largest increase in
absolute terms (Table 14).
                                                              Table	16.	Growth	in	Green	Jobs	by	County	and	Worksite	
Agriculture and Forestry is projected to experience           Size:	2010-2012
a 78 percent increase in its green employment, the
largest growth reported by any industry group during
this two-year period (Figure 13). Additional high-
growth industries for green jobs are Accommodation
and Food Services (59 percent) and Professional,
Scientific and Technical Services (40 percent).

                                                              Job Projections by Worksite Size
Figure	15.	Absolute	Growth	in	Green	Jobs	by	Worksite	Size:	
                                                              Between 2010 and 2012, most of the increase in
                                                              green employment is expected to occur at small and
                                                              medium-size employer worksites (Figure 15). Mid-
                                                              size businesses report an estimated 1,520 additional
                                                              green jobs by 2012, an increase of 33 percent (Figure
                                                              16). An even greater 36 percent rate of growth is
                                                              projected for small businesses, which will bring total
                                                              green employment by small businesses to 3,925 jobs
                                                              (Table 15). In contrast, hiring at large worksites will
                                                              likely grow at a more moderate pace of nine percent,
                                                              amounting to a green workforce of 3,970 or 340 new
                                                              green jobs by 2012 (Table 16).

Figure	16.	Growth	in	Green	Jobs	by	Worksite	Size:	2010-2012   Job Projections by Occupation

                                                              Survey data show that the top three occupations with
                                                              respect to absolute growth prospects in green jobs are
                                                              Solar Photovoltaic Installers, Sales Engineers and
                                                              Electricians (Table 18). In addition, Upholsterers,
                                                              who recycle furniture, are estimated to increase by
                                                              145 positions by 2012. By 2012, employment in these
                                                              areas is estimated to increase by 1,022 positions, or
                                                              142 percent.

 32    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Other occupational groups that are likely to offer      occupational groups of Heating and Air Conditioning
a large number of total green jobs in 2012 include      Mechanics and Installer; Insulation Workers, Floor,
janitors and cleaners (1,248 jobs), forest and          Ceiling and Wall; Insulation Workers Mechanical;
conservation technicians (662 jobs), and electricians   and Solar Thermal Installers and Technicians likely
(647 jobs) (Table 17).                                  provide similar functions of energy conservation,
                                                        through the installation of improved insulation for
Through the Hawai‘i Clean Energy Initiative, the State both cooling and more efficient water heating. If
of Hawai‘i is pursuing a major push to improve home     consolidated into a single category, this job type would
energy conservation through encouraging the use of      yield 338 new green jobs by 2012, for a total of 1,368
energy-efficient appliances, building components and    positions, by far the greatest number of projected
energy-efficient home design. LEED certification        green jobs in 2012.
(see inset article) is a major aspect of this endeavor,
training architects, designers and contractors in       Another example of a functional overlap is the SOC
new technologies and methods to design energy-          major group First-Line Supervisors and Managers.
efficient homes and worksites. In addition to solar     Green jobs in these categories include the management
appliances such as water heaters, improved insulation   of any type of green job, including diverse green
is important for energy efficiency and the passive      occupations in the agricultural, construction, janitorial,
cooling of homes and work places.                       sales, and office environments. These First-Line
                                                        Supervisors are likely fulfilling similar functions.
Several SOC job categories will likely have             When combined, they account for 752 green jobs,
overlapping green functions and training requirements ranking green supervisors in the top-five largest green
with other SOC job categories. Two of the most          occupations projected for 2012 (Table 17).
important green functions relate to harnessing solar
energy and improving insulation. Management
of green jobs also has much skill-overlap. The

 Industry	Focus:	Wind	Energy

 Wind energy is a developing industry in the State of         In addition to the Kahuku site, 21 megawatts worth of wind
 Hawaiÿi, generating a large number of green jobs during      turbines are being installed in Maui. This new capacity
 the construction phase of a project and additional jobs      will supplement the existing 61 megawatts of wind power
 during maintenance.                                          from three large-scale farms on the Big Island (operated
                                                              by Hawaiÿi Electric Light Company and Apollo Energy
 For example, 12 wind turbines with a total capacity of       Corporation) and Maui (operated by First Wind).
 30 megawatts of power are currently being installed
 in Kahuku, Oÿahu. According to First Wind, the               Combined, approximately 112 megawatts of wind power
 site’s developer, this project is expected to create 200     are either on-line or currently under construction in the
 construction jobs, mostly in excavation, reinforced steel    State. Moreover, these projects are likely to yield 25 long-
 framing, cement, and erecting of towers by specialty         term infrastructure maintenance jobs. Smaller-scale wind
 cranes. These jobs are likely to last six to nine months     energy initiatives, for example at the Parker Ranch on the
 during construction. After construction, there will be six   Big Island, also add green jobs to the local economy.2
 to ten jobs required for long-term maintenance of the
 facility. In addition, approximately eight administrative    1
 staff are located at First Wind’s Oÿahu office.                First Wind, “Press Release: First Wind Begins Construction of
                                                              Oahu-based Kahuku Wind Project,” July 13, 2010; Honolulu Star
                                                              Advertiser, “Kahuku wind farm lands $117M loan guarantee”,
 This project is expected to yield enough renewable energy    7/28/2010; First Wind, personal communication, November 16,
 to power nearly 7,700 homes in Hawaiÿi, and recently         2010.
 received a $117 million loan guarantee from the U.S.         2
                                                                Honolulu Star Advertiser, “Oÿahu wind farm stays on track,”
 Department of Energy.1                                       October 9, 2010.

                                                          Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment              33
Table	17.	Green	Job	Projections	by	Occupation:	2012

Occupation                                                                       Green Jobs: 2012

Janitors and Cleaners Except Maids and Housekeeping Cleaners                          1,248
Solar Photovoltaic Installers                                                          684
Electricians                                                                           647
Forest and Conservation Technicians                                                    622
Security Guards                                                                        552
Heating and Air Conditioning Mechanics and Installers                                  403
Construction Carpenters                                                                345
Insulation Workers Floor Ceiling and Wall                                              337
Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers                                                 336
Solar Thermal Installers and Technicians                                               297
Insulation Workers Mechanical                                                          297
Retail Salespersons                                                                    290
Sales Engineers                                                                        267
Laborers and Freight Stock and Material Movers Hand                                    247
Recycling and Reclamation Workers                                                      225
Environmental Science and Protection Technicians Including Health                      215
First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Construction Trades and Extraction Workers          214
Upholsterers                                                                           209
Maintenance and Repair Workers General                                                 194
Plumbers                                                                               185
Graders and Sorters Agricultural Products                                              181

First-Line Supervisors/Managers of Landscaping Lawn Service and Groundskeeping

Construction Laborers                                                                  173
Civil Engineers                                                                        169
Computer Support Specialists                                                           167

 34     Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Table	18.	Top	25	Green	Occupations	by	Growth:	2010-2012

                          Sorting invasive limu on the Big Island. Photo Courtesy of Kupu Hawaiÿi

                                                                  Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment   35
Green	Finance:	Innovation	Spurs	Clean	Energy	Projects

Obtaining adequate levels of financing can be a major obstacle for property owners seeking to implement
clean energy and/or energy efficiency projects. Institutional investors, however, are generally not well
suited to finance small, disaggregated projects, and are likely to avoid projects with high risks for default.1
One innovative solution to this size and duration mismatch is the use of Property Assessed Clean Energy
(PACE) bonds, which are legislated in 24 states including Hawaiÿi.

According to a report by researchers at the University of California at Berkeley, “renewable energy
(projects)… generate more jobs per unit of energy delivered than the fossil fuel-based sectors” while
freeing “money otherwise spent on energy cost(s) and redirect(ing) it to stimulate the economy through
additional job creation.” PACE bonds bridge the gap between the needs of prospective property owners
and institutional investors. As illustrated in the model below, a municipality floats PACE bonds that are
purchased by institutional investors seeking bonds backed by property taxes.2 Property owners obtain a
loan from the municipality to finance a green project, and the loan is later repaid through the assessment of
a special property tax equal to 1/20th of the loan amount plus interest and payable over the following 20

For example, Company X owns a mid-rise commercial building and pays $10,000 per month in utilities.
Company X completes an energy audit and learns that it can save $5,000 per month in utilities by investing
$200,000 in clean energy and energy efficiency (e.g., solar photovoltaic, energy efficient lighting and
HVAC). Company X borrows $200,000 at a 10 percent rate and 20-year term from the County’s PACE
program, allowing it to complete the green retrofit. Company X then repays the loan by making a special
property tax surcharge payment of $1,950 per month. This is a financially prudent investment -- from day
one, Company X realizes a $3,050 monthly return (i.e., $5,000 energy savings minus $1,950 property tax

PACE bonds allow for a scaling-up of clean energy initiatives, and provide a wide array of social,
environmental and financial benefits. From a societal perspective, local governments are able to
stimulate the economy and create new green jobs, moving the state closer to a sustainable energy future.
Environmentally, an expansion in the depth and breadth of clean energy projects will serve to decrease our
dependence on fossil fuels and lower overall carbon emission levels. Financially, property owners realize an
immediate positive return, and institutional investors have access to an asset that provides relatively steady
returns with diminished risk of default.

 Harvard Business Review, “The HBR List: Breakthrough Ideas for 2010,” January-February, 2010.
 Max Wei, Shana Patadia, Daniel M. Kammen. “Putting renewable and energy efficiency to work: How many jobs can the clean
energy industry generate in the US?” Energy Policy 38.2 (2010).

36   Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
                                                Economic Stimulus & Job Creation

(1)    Municipal government floats PACE bonds that are purchased by institutional investors. Funds from this transaction are
  then used to make loans to property owners who complete energy efficient projects.
(2)    Property owner makes payment for special property tax assessment. Payments pass through to an institutional investor.
(3)    Property owner hires an entity (the direct employer) to design, manufacture, construct, and install the clean energy
  project. Direct employers hire employees and make purchases from both upstream and downstream suppliers (the indirect
  employers) to complete the project. Indirect employers, such as a silicon manufacturer for photovoltaic panels, then
  purchases supplies and hires its own employees. Finally, additional economic activity is generated when employees of
  direct and indirect employers spend money at downstream employer establishments such as fast food and retail stores.2

                                                           Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment                37
Qualifications and Employee Training Requirements

Green jobs in Hawaiÿi require employees with a wide
variety of qualifications, certifications and educational
backgrounds. While more than half of Hawaiÿi
businesses reporting a green job did not respond to
this section of the survey, several noteworthy themes
emerge when existing data are categorized into three
broad areas: (1) minimum education, (2) formal
certifications or licenses, and (3) informal on-the-job
training (OJT).

Of those businesses that responded to the
Qualifications and Training section of the Survey,
more than 70 percent indicate some form of minimum
education or training requirement. The most
frequently cited of these are community colleges
and trade schools, which suggest that specialized
training is sought for many green jobs (Figure 17).         Photo Courtesy of Kupu Hawaiÿi on the Big Island.

While university education is the second highest-
ranked source for fulfilling such requirements, many
employers with current or prospective green jobs view
                                                            When queried specifically on certification or
a formal degree as neither essential nor an impediment
                                                            licensure, 64 percent of responding businesses cited
to placement in many of these occupations.
                                                            it as a requirement. Of these, the most commonly
Incidentally, only 15 percent of businesses require a
bachelor’s degree or higher, and these are likely to
be concentrated in scientific, technical or managerial      Figure	18.	On-the-Job	Green	Training

Figure	17.	Formal	Green	Training

 38    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
cited requirement is the Leadership in Energy and
Environmental Design (LEED) certification, referred         Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design
to in 11 percent of responses. Examples of such             (LEED)
occupations include architects, civil engineers,
construction managers, cost estimators, and electrical      LEED is an internationally-recognized green
engineers. Based on survey data, green jobs generally       building certification system, providing third-party
require some type of license (23 percent) as opposed        verification that a building or community was
to certification (16 percent).                              designed, built, and maintained using strategies
                                                            intended to improve performance in metrics such
The third area of analysis, informal OJT, received          as energy savings, water efficiency, CO2 emissions
318 responses. Of these, 83 percent indicated OJT as        reduction, improved indoor environmental quality,
a requirement, with 17 percent indicating no required       and stewardship of resources.
OJT. The two most cited durations for OJT were
0-12 months and 1-5 years, each of which represents         Developed by the U.S. Green Building Council,
seven percent of the total responses (Figure 22).           LEED is intended to provide building owners and
This suggests that employers view informal training         operators with a concise framework for identifying
at the workplace as an important component of               and implementing practical and measurable green
green workforce development, more so than formal            building design, construction, operations and
education, certifications or licenses. This is also         maintenance.
broadly in line with our findings that green jobs tend
to be a greening of existing jobs rather than new jobs      Source: U.S. Green Building Council
requiring altogether new skills.

Educational Requirements for Green
Trades and Professions

Categorizing occupations by education and training
requirements yields additional insights (Figure 19).
Based on information produced by the BLS, we divide
these requirements into three tiers: “high” education/
training includes jobs that require work experience
plus a four-year college degree, professional degree
or graduate school; “medium” includes jobs that
require an associate’s degree, work experience in a
related occupation, post-secondary vocational training,
                                                          Photo Courtesy of 21st Century Technologies Hawaiÿi
or extensive OJT; “low” includes occupations that
require minimal or moderate OJT.
                                                          three tiers, the top-five occupations are estimated to
The number of new green jobs in the medium                collectively account for 63 percent of new green jobs
tier is higher than that of either the high- or low-      by 2012.
education categories. By 2012, the five highest-ranked
occupations in the medium-education category are          Analysis of survey data by occupation shows
expected to generate a total of 928 new green jobs. In    that Solar Photovoltaic Installers are expected to
contrast, the low- and high-education categories will     experience the greatest overall increase in green jobs
yield 422 and 491 new jobs, respectively. Across all      (Figure 19). Based on employer responses, workers in

                                                     Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment           39
                                                   Figure	19.	Projected	Growth	Rate	of	the	Top	5	Green	Occupations	by	Education,	2010-2012

Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
this job group will need a moderate level of education                  In the high-education/training category, Sales
and training, such as: contractor licenses, specific                    Engineers are expected to experience the largest
photovoltaic training, electrician courses, associate’s                 overall increase, in both absolute and percentage
degree, journeyman electrician’s license, or significant                terms. Computer Support Specialists are projected
OJT.                                                                    to more than double to 91 positions, and these jobs
                                                                        typically require a bachelor’s degree and computer
Electricians, also in the middle tier, have similar                     certifications. High-level Solar Energy Systems
training requirements and are likewise projected                        Engineers are projected to increase by 46 positions, or
to experience high growth, both in absolute and                         460 percent.
percentage terms. Requirements include an associate’s
degree, certificate of achievement, electrical                          For “green collar” laborers in the low-tier,
journeyman’s license, apprenticeship, work experience                   Upholsterers, Graders and Sorters of Agricultural
in a related occupation, five years of OJT, or some                     Products, and Insulation Workers are projected
combination thereof. The Honolulu Community                             to experience the greatest growth in absolute and
College’s Electrical Installation & Maintenance                         percentage terms. Retail Salespersons will also
Technology program, which offers both associate’s                       experience job growth. Requirements specific
degrees and certificates of achievement, was                            to this occupation include work experience in a
specifically mentioned by survey respondents.                           related occupation, less than two years of OJT, and
                                                                        occasional certification such as for food handling,
Heating & Air Conditioning Mechanics and Installers                     vendor products, general sales, or forklifts. In contrast,
are the largest projected growth category of insulation-                Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers generally
related green jobs, and typically require an associate’s                require less than one year of OJT and no certifications.
degree or certificate of achievement, and less than                     Specific skills, such as training in precision irrigation
two years of OJT. Coursework and an apprenticeship                      with pop up multi-directional precision spray nozzles,
in refrigeration, plumbing, air-conditioning, sheet                     is considered beneficial.
metal, or basic electrical are useful. North American
Technician Excellence (NATE) and Environmental                          Survey data confirm the general finding that most
Protection Agency 608 Refrigerant certifications were                   future employee training requirements for green jobs
cited by survey respondents, which include training to                  will be fulfilled at community colleges and trade
protect the ozone layer.                                                schools, supplemented with extensive OJT. Green jobs
                                                                        intersect a wide array of skill and knowledge areas that
While occupations requiring mid-level education/                        will require workers who can successfully adapt to the
training are likely to experience the most sizeable                     changing needs of today’s economy.
growth in new green jobs during the two-year period
between 2010 and 2012, the other two tiers also
contain jobs with high levels of projected growth.

                       Photo Courtesy of Peter Liu,

                                                                    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment         41
Green Practices
The primary distinction between a green practice
and a green job is that the latter engages in economic
activity that is favorable to the environment or energy
sustainability and central or essential to business
operations. It is not necessary for a business to offer
green jobs for green practices to be in place. For
example, a cleaning company that advertises the
routine use of eco-friendly cleaning products could
consider employees specifically engaged in such
activities as occupants of green jobs. Presumably,
these workers are required to make use of green
products for which customers pay a nominal premium.
If, on the other hand, this business does not advertise
or commit itself to the usage of green products on
a recurring basis, then its workers would generally
be classified as practitioners of green behavior in
non-green jobs. While the distinction is not always       Kaläheo Elementary School. Photo Courtesy of Kauaÿi Recycling

obvious or clear, it is the guiding definition of this
report.                                                   of businesses recycling and nearly 60 percent using
                                                          recycled products (Table 19). Such activity is not
Based on survey data, green practices are common          limited to the recycling of cans, bottles and paper.
in the State of Hawaiÿi. Ninety-three percent             Worksites report the recycling of an array of products
of respondents report at least one green practice         ranging from oil, grease, solvents, tires, plastic
performed at their business worksite; 51 percent report   buckets, cork, batteries, and electronic equipment.
two to four such practices. Overall, the frequency of     Other examples include the conversion of cooking oil
green practices is normally distributed with an average   to bio-diesel, and one hotelier reports delivering food
of 3.5 per business (Figure 20).                          waste to contractors for the production of methane
                                                          gas. Another company cites mercury recycling with
Recycling is ubiquitous and by far the most common        a mercury-capture filter, which not only recaptures
green practice in Hawaiÿi, with more than 80 percent      mercury for future use but also reduces mercury
                                                          effluent, a major threat to marine habitat, fisheries and
Figure	20.	Green	Practices	per	Worksite                   human health.8
                                                          The conservation of energy is also frequently reported
                                                          by businesses, with over one-half using energy-
                                                          saving light bulbs and nearly 40 percent making
                                                          conscious efforts to reduce energy usage. Several
                                                          worksites have been particularly proactive in this

                                                           Refer to
                                                          recycling99.pdf for recycling companies in the State of
                                                          Hawaii. Mercury pollution information is from the University
                                                          of Wisconsin-Madison, “Mercury Pollution Threatens Health
                                                          Worldwide, Scientists Say,” Science Daily, August 11, 2006.

 42    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Table	19.	Green	Practices	by	County	and	Worksite	Size,	Share	of	Total

regard, adopting technologies such as timers or other             Analysis of survey data by county shows that Maui
automatic-shutoff systems on high-energy appliances.              and Kauaÿi counties report the largest average number
Indeed, energy conservation measures can range                    of green practices per worksite (Table 19). Worksites
from complex to pragmatic. Survey respondents cite                in these two counties report a relatively strong
the use of electronic ballasts in fluorescent lighting,           commitment to recycling, use of recycled products,
variable-frequency drive motors for air-conditioning              reduced energy consumption, water conservation, and
and booster pumps, and even wind generators.9 For                 commuting via carpool or bicycle.
natural cooling and lighting, some companies report
the use of skylights, fans and even black-out drapes.             Businesses in Oÿahu and Kauaÿi counties cite close
One business reported simply turning off the lights for           cooperation with local energy companies to moderate
half the day.                                                     energy usage during periods of energy shortages. For
                                                                  example, one company reports participation in the
Twenty-eight percent of respondents clean with eco-               Hawaiian Electric Company’s (HECO) Energy Scouts
friendly products, and nearly as much (25 percent)                program. Members of this initiative allow HECO
practice water conservation. For example, one                     to control 50-10,000 kW of their energy use on an
company reports the installation of rain sensors on               as-needed basis. If alerted by HECO of a systemic
its irrigation systems, while another uses reclaimed              energy shortage, Energy Scouts are compensated to cut
water for irrigating a golf course. In the transportation         energy demand by either activating backup generators
area, telecommuting and carpooling were listed as a               or decreasing the use of high-energy appliances.10
green practices by more than 10 percent of responding             Across employer worksite size categories, more than
businesses (Table 19). Several companies reported                 75 percent recycle, over one-half use energy-saving
“walk to work” programs.                                          light bulbs and recycled products, and roughly one-
                                                                  quarter clean with eco-friendly products and conserve
                                                                  water (Table 19). On average, larger businesses are
                                                                  more likely to adopt green practices with a higher
 Variable frequency drives (VFD) vary the quantity of air
pumped, for example through an air-conditioning unit, depending
on system demand.                                                 10

                                                            Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment             43
                                                   Green	Certification
    Several organizations certify green products and services. Green Seal is a non-profit organization
    that certifies a broad range of products and services, including cleaning products and hotels; they also
    partner with large institutional purchasers to develop green purchasing plans. The U.S. Green Building
    Council (USGBC) certifies construction companies that build according to sustainability requirements.
    USGBC developed the LEED building requirements, and LEED-certified buildings must be cleaned
    with products that are either certified by Green Seal or compliant with California environmental codes.
    Several additional entities encourage green practices in the hotel industry. These include the Green
    Hotels Association, EcoGreen Hotel, Green Globe, and the Tourism Sustainability Council, which
    provide green guidelines and certify particular hotels as green. EnergyStar is a government-sponsored
    program that certifies appliances as energy-efficient, and Green Shield certifies pest control practices and
    Sources: Honolulu Star-Advertiser, “Check Labels to See What ‘Green’ Means,” October 25, 2010. Other resources include,,,,, and,+certification.

frequency than their smaller counterparts. Large
worksites performed an average of four green
practices, compared with 3.5 and 3.2 for medium
and small-size worksites, respectively (Table 19).
For example, 91 percent of large employers recycle
compared with just over three-quarters for small
worksites; 54 percent report energy-use reduction
compared to about one-third for small and mid-size
worksites. Moreover, 12 percent of large businesses
provide their employees with subsidized bus passes,
compared with just three percent for smaller ones.

Large worksites may provide support for more green
practices for a number of reasons, such as the ability
to better mobilize employee adherence to green
policies and practices. Given the size and number
of personnel available at larger businesses, it may
also be more likely that at least some segment of the
overall workforce prescribes to a green practice. For
example, the probability that a worksite with 1,000
employees supports at least one worker who recycles
is likely to be higher than that for a small-size business
of ten. The high occurrence of green practices at small          Photo Courtesy of Peter Liu,
firms, coupled with the constricted distribution of the
average number of green practices across all firms (3.2
to 4), suggests that green practices at even the largest
firms are practiced by a large proportion of employees.

 44    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
                                                   Table	20.	Green	Practices	by	Industry,		Share	of	Total
                                                                                                                                      Use Low                      Fuel Ef-
                                                                                                                                        VOC                         ficient
                                                                                                                      Solar            Paints,         Clean w/    & Alter-          Subsi-           Bicycle
                                                                                                      Energy   Use     and             Stains,            Eco-      native Reduce    dized     Water   Com-
                                                   Industry (Average Number of Green                  Saving Recycled Photo- Telecom- or Seal-          friendly     Fuel   Energy    Bus     Conser- mute
                                                   Practices)                                 Recycle Bulbs Products voltaics mute       ers   Carpool Products    Vehicles Use       Pass     vation Program   Other
                                                   Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing & Hunting    64%      47%      46%    18%      8%      8%      7%      26%         3%     28%       0%       38%     1%       17%
                                                   Mining (1.0)                                 44          11   11      11       0       0        0       0          0      22        0        0       0        0
                                                   Utilities (3.3)                              83          54   54       9      11       14       3      20         11      31        9        23      3        6
                                                   Construction (3.4)                           81          45   53      16       7       13      16      27          8      35        2        26      1        5
                                                   Manufacturing (3.4)                          82          54   55       7      10       12      10      32          8      36        1        26      1        9
                                                   Wholesale Trade (3.0)                        82          40   57       8      13       3        9      25          6      27        2        20      1        7
                                                   Retail Trade (3.8)                           85          61   65       7      13       5       11      31          6      45       10        26      3        9
                                                   Transportation and Warehousing (3.2)         87          47   66       3      18       6        9      18          5      34        4        15      0        5
                                                   Information (3.1)                            87          40   58      10      12       2        6      19          2      38        6        19      4        4
                                                   Finance and Insurance (3.4)                  89          52   65       3      10       3        9      14          7      46       29        13      0        2
                                                   Real Estate and Rental and Leasing           82          63   55      14      14       10       8      29          8      48        8        27      1        3
                                                   Professional, Scientific & Technical         86          48   57       8      23       5        9      20          8      33        8        20      3        4
                                                   Services (3.3)
                                                   Management of Companies &                    89          50   64       7      18       9        7      25          7      45       21        27      0        2
                                                   Enterprises (3.7)
                                                   Administrative & Support & Waste             75          47   55       9      10       4       14      31          9      31        5        28      3        6
                                                   Mgmt & Remediation Services (3.3)
                                                   Educational Services (3.6)                   83          54   61      12      11       10      16      35          6      41        9        19      4        4
                                                   Health Care & Social Assistance (3.5)        90          54   61       9      14       8       12      24          6      36       10        17      2        4
                                                   Arts, Entertainment & Recreation (4.1)       83          57   58      13      19       12      12      42         12      50        5        35      1        14
                                                   Assomodation & Food Services (4.0)           83          69   62       5       7       11      16      35          6      51        2        37      2        11
                                                   Other Services (except Public Admin)         77          58   58       6       9       14       9      30          6      38        3        30      1        5

Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Green Practices by Industry                                services can be efficiently performed from home
By major industry group, the Arts, Entertainment,
& Recreation and Accommodation & Food Services
industries report the highest average number of green      Diversity of Green Practices
practices at 4.1 and 4.0, respectively (Table 20).
Accommodation & Food Services ranked first in the          In addition to the green practices listed on the survey
overall use of energy saving light bulbs (69 percent)      instrument, businesses were allowed to customize
and reducing energy usage (51 percent), and second in      their responses. These diverse and sometimes creative
cleaning with eco-friendly products (35 percent) and       practices include the use of chlorine-free paper from
water conservation (37 percent). The significance of       sustainable forests, bio-degradable organic eating
this finding is that Accommodation & Food Services is      utensils and containers made from vegetable matter,
the largest private industry employer in the State, and    rechargeable batteries, LEED-certified buildings,
these businesses generally require large amounts of        low-sulfur diesel, heat reclamation from refrigeration
energy to operate.                                         and air-conditioning for hot water supply, and locally-
                                                           sourced procurements. Several companies report
Agriculture is another sector heavily dependent on         providing reusable eating implements, including
natural resources, with survey data reporting the          dishes, silverware, water bottles, and coffee cups,
highest share for water conservation and usage of          all of which eliminate or reduce waste byproducts.
solar and photovoltaic systems at 38 percent and 18        Other businesses limit copier and printer use while
percent, respectively. Given the central role that water   encouraging electronic communications and record-
plays in irrigation systems, there remain significant      keeping. Interestingly, one company supports an
opportunities for further conservation efforts among       executive mandate requiring “paperless” meetings.
the State’s farming sector.                                In the agriculture and landscaping sectors, green
                                                           practices include composting, use of native species
Recycling is popular and widely practiced throughout       to preserve biodiversity, and the venerable practice of
the State, with a majority of industries reporting         “giving food scraps to the pigs.”
participation rates in excess of 80 percent. Ninety        Opportunities to “go green” are abundant. Initiatives
percent of reporting worksites in the Health Care          to locate eco-friendly or eco-friendlier alternatives
& Social Assistance industry recycle compared              may require creativity, but can be practical and low-
to just over 40 percent in Mining. Meanwhile,              cost as well.
Transportation & Warehousing had the highest share
of worksites utilizing recycled products (66 percent),
which is most likely due to the use of recycled
cardboard containers and other moving materials. At
least half of the remaining industries used recycled

Finance & Insurance and Management of Companies
& Enterprises lead in the practice of subsidized bus
passes at 29 percent and 21 percent, respectively. This
relatively high participation rate is likely the result
of being located in the urban core. The Professional,
Scientific, and Technical Services industry reports the
highest rate of telecommuting (23 percent), which
is likely due to recent technological advances, lower
communication costs and the fact that many of these

 46    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
The green economy in Hawaiÿi is sizable and
positioned to grow rapidly. Fueling this trend is
consumer demand for goods and services that are
carbon-neutral or low impact on the environment.
Businesses are responding to this niche market by
developing production processes and delivery systems
that consider factors beyond profit maximization.
While these intentions may be well placed, our
knowledge of the environment and the role that
humans play in it remains limited and is still evolving.
Technologies that can reduce our ecological footprint
also require costly research and, in some cases,
                                                                   Photo Courtesy of Kauaÿi County Recycling
complex infrastructure. To effectively respond to
these challenges, policy makers and community
                                                                   or unemployment. The associated costs, both direct
leaders must cultivate an educated and skilled
                                                                   and indirect, can be significant, particularly during the
workforce capable of meeting the needs of a clean-
                                                                   current period of post-recession economic recovery.
energy economy.
                                                                   Success will require active coordination among all
                                                                   stakeholders. Educators and training providers must
Data from the inaugural Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey
                                                                   provide timely and relevant curricula; policy makers
indicate that green jobs are expected to increase from a
                                                                   will need to provide support in the form of funding
2.4 percent share of total private employment in 2010
                                                                   and a strategic plan that can deliver on its ambitious
to 2.9 percent by 2012. Such growth will bring on line
                                                                   HCEI goals; business leaders should continue to
2,903 new green jobs statewide, a 26 percent increase
                                                                   actively incorporate greener practices and processes
in just two years. This contrasts with a one percent
                                                                   into their production platforms; and workers or those
average increase in total State employment over the
                                                                   seeking employment will need to update existing skills
same period.11 Given our findings that green jobs exist
                                                                   and competencies to maintain their competitiveness.
in a large array of industries, ranging from traditional
                                                                   This report provides the first comprehensive
sectors such as agriculture and construction to high
                                                                   assessment of Hawaii’s green workforce.
technology ventures in bio-fuels and hydrothermal,
a growth rate differential of this magnitude can have
                                                        Employment patterns and vacancy trends are analyzed
profound social and economic implications
                                                        at the state and county levels across all major groups
                                                        of industries, occupations and worksite sizes. Green
Labor market participants will require the tools and
                                                        is an evolving concept that is better understood
resources to transition to a greener economy. This will
                                                        when considered within the context of a larger labor
include retraining on-the-job or through certification
                                                        market information (LMI) system. Connecting the
and licensing. Enrollment in formal degree programs
                                                        data collected on green jobs with broader LMI-use
may be necessary if workers are to pursue entirely new
                                                        dynamics and best practices will be an essential
careers, either by choice or through underemployment
                                                        next step. Such efforts are currently underway, and
                                                        encompass two additional areas:
  DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Long-Term Industry
Projections, State, 2008-2018, 2010. The overall increase is
based on first quarter 2010 non-government employment of
467,443 and projected 2012 employment of 476,835.

                                                               Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment        47
(1)     Detailed projections on green jobs across
major industry and occupational groups. Econometric
models will be used to generate a near- and long-term
assessment of Hawaii’s future employment needs
based on current trends, conditions, and policies and
incentives impacting green investments.

(2) Skills gap analyses that assess the skill and
competency requirements of green industries
and occupations; demographic characteristics of
existing and potential green workers; and, current
and prospective educational resources and training
capacity. The goal will be to strengthen the linkages
between job seekers, employers, and education and
training providers.

Establishing a process to standardize the definitions,
concepts and technical issues related to green jobs
will facilitate the sharing of information across states
and regions. This leverages existing data, and helps
to develop a more comprehensive understanding of
occupation and industry relationships. The US Bureau
of Labor Statistics (BLS) has already solicited public
feedback and finalized a working definition for green
jobs at the national level.12 Based on this definition,
the BLS intends to collect occupational employment
and wage data through its existing Occupational
Employment Statistics survey. Modalities to track
emerging green businesses and potential new
occupations would also be useful to more formally
integrate green sectors with the wider economy. This
will require coordination with the Occupational
Information Network (O*NET) program, and possible
changes to the NAICS and SOC.

The State of Hawai‘i is making significant progress
toward a more energy independent and secure future.
While the challenges are numerous, measuring
the depth and breadth of the green workforce is a
necessary first step. The Hawai‘i Green Jobs Survey
provides the foundation upon which stakeholders
across government, business and civil society can
build a sustainable, greener economy.

     Federal Register, Vol. 75, No. 202.

     48    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment

California Community Colleges, Centers for Economic Excellence, Economic and Workforce Development
       Program. Understanding the Green Economy in California: A Community College Perspective. June
Michigan Department of Energy, Labor & Economic Growth. Bureau Of Labor Market Information & Strategic
      Initiatives. Michigan Green Jobs Report: Occupations & Employment in the New Green Economy, 2009.
North Carolina State University. National Center for O*NET Development. Greening of the World of Work:
       Implications for O*NET-SOC and New and Emerging Occupations. February 2009.
Oregon Employment Department. Workforce and Economic Research Division. The Greening of Oregon’s
      Workforce: Jobs, Wages, and Training. June 2009.
Pew Charitable Trusts. The Clean Energy Economy – Repowering Jobs, Business and Investments Across
      America. June 2009.
State of Hawai‘i Department of Labor & Industrial Relations (DLIR). Research & Statistics Office. Employment
        Forecasts for the Short-Term Future, 2009-2011. September 2010.
State of Hawai‘i DLIR. Research & Statistics Office. 2009 Employment and Payrolls in Hawai‘i . October
State of Hawai‘i DLIR. Research & Statistics Office. Hawai‘i Green Workforce Report: Initial Labor Market
        Analysis for the State of Hawai‘i . October 2009.
State of Hawai‘i DLIR. Research & Statistics Office. Occupational Wages and Employment in Hawai‘i , 2009.
        August 2010.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration. Measuring the Green Economy. April
University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Political Economy Research Institute. Job Opportunities for the Green
       Economy: A state-by-state picture of occupations that gain from green investments. June 2008.
Washington State Employment Security Department. Labor Market and Economic Analysis. 2008 Washington
      State Green Economy Jobs. January 2009.
Workforce Information Council. Measurement and Analysis of Employment in the Green Economy. October

                                                   Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment      49
 Appendix A: Methodological Details
The data presented here is predominantly based on a                  Fishing & Hunting (11); Mining (21); Construction
survey conducted from May to July 2010 of a random                   (23); Manufacturing (31-33); Wholesale Trade (42);
sample of 9,146 worksites drawn from the Quarterly                   Retail Trade (44-45); Transportation and Warehousing
Census of Employment and Wages (QCEW) database,                      (48-49); Utilities (22); Information (51); Finance and
which contains data on approximately 37,674                          Insurance (52); Real Estate and Rental and Leasing
private Hawai‘i worksites that report to the State’s                 (53); Professional, Scientific & Technical Services
Unemployment Insurance Division.                                     (54); Management of Companies and Enterprises
                                                                     (55); Administrative & Support & Waste Management
To ensure a representative sample, the Hawai‘i                       & Remediation Services (56); Education Services
Department of Labor and Industrial Relations (DLIR)                  (61); Health Care and Social Assistance (62); Arts
mailed the survey to a cross-section (stratified sample)             Entertainment and Recreation (71); Accommodation
of the QCEW, including samples from all four                         and Food Services (72); and Other Services (except
counties -- O‘ahu, Hawai’i, Maui and Kaua‘i. It was                  Public Administration) (81). Public Administration
important to stratify the sample by county to ensure                 (92) was not sampled, but the public sector will be
that the uneven distribution of businesses across the                included in future samples (Table 21).
state did not adversely skew the sample.13
                                                                     The initial response to the survey mailing was 2,285
Within each county, a cross-section of worksites was                 completed surveys (referred to subsequently as Wave
randomly chosen such that small (1-9 employees),                     1) which arrived within a 10-day grace period of the
medium (10-49 employees), and large worksites (50                    June 4th deadline. The initial response rate was thus
or more employees) would be represented. In order                    24.98 percent. An aggressive follow-up strategy was
to obtain complete data on worksites with potentially                implemented with non-responders, which yielded
very large numbers of green employees, or very                       an additional 1,723 completed surveys (referred to
small numbers of green employees relative to their                   subsequently as Wave 2). This brought the total
total number of employees, all large worksites were                  response to 4,008 of the original 9,146 sampled
sampled. This decreased the variance in the random                   worksites, or a response rate of 43.82 percent.
sample of small and medium-sized worksites, thus
increasing the power of the random sample.                           Upon examination of the data, non-response bias was
                                                                     detected between Wave 1 and Wave 2 responders.
The sample was further stratified in order to get a                  To address this bias, a logistic regression was used
cross-section of industries operating in Hawai‘i,                    to estimate propensity scores for prediction of likely
including traditional industries and those thought                   responders and non-responders within the unsampled
likely to have a large representation of green jobs.                 data. In the final estimation, the weight of Wave 1
By increasing the sample in NAICS codes likely                       sample data was increased to estimate the number
to contain large numbers of green jobs, these high-                  of green jobs for likely responders, and likewise,
variance strata were better covered and the power of                 the weight of Wave 2 sample data was increased to
the overall sample increased.                                        estimate the number of green jobs for likely non-
                                                                     responders. This method yielded an unbiased estimate
All 23 private sectors in the North American Industry                of total green jobs.
Classification System (NAICS, see inset) were
randomly sampled, including: Agriculture, Forestry,

     Katalina McGlone contributed to the drafting of this section.

     50    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Data                                                       Table	21.	Sample	Size	by	Industry
                                                                                                         # of
                                                                                                        sites Share of
The QCEW database formed the survey universe.                     NAICS                                Sampled Total
The QCEW includes extensive descriptive detail               11    Agriculture                           177     1.9%
on every employer that reports to Hawai‘i’s                  21    Mining                                16      0.2%
Unemployment Insurance (UI) Division. UI coverage            22    Utilities                             65      0.7%
is mandatory for most employers. At the time the             23    Construction                         1,135 12.4%
sample was drawn, the latest available QCEW
                                                           31-33 Manufacturing                           413     4.5%
database was used, which was for the 3rd quarter of
                                                             42    Wholesale Trade                       523     5.7%
2009. To get the most detailed county data possible,
private employer QCEW records at the worksite level        44-45 Retail Trade                           1,174 12.8%
were used. Not sampled were employers with zero            48-49 Transportation/Warehousing              274     3.0%
employees in the 3rd month of the quarter (6,310 in          51    Information                           149     1.6%
September), or with no specific county designation           52    Finance & Insurance                   286     3.1%
(1,020 in September). These exclusions yielded               53    Real Estate & Rental & Leasing        344     3.8%
a revised survey universe totaling 30,484 records            54    Professional, Scientific, & Technical 1,038   11.3%
(Figure 2).                                                        Services
                                                             55    Management of Companies &             118     1.3%
While most businesses in Hawai‘i correctly                         Enterprises
disaggregated their reports by worksite in the QCEW          56    Administrative/Support/Waste          715     7.8%
database, a small subset reported for all their Hawai‘i            Mgmt/Remediation Services
locations at once. We saw no reason to think that            61    Educational Services                  241     2.6%
systematic bias would result from the foregoing and          62    Health Care & Social Assistance       678     7.4%
most businesses have only one worksite. Therefore,
                                                             71    Arts, Entertainment, & Recreation     179     2.0%
we assumed that all businesses reported by worksite.
                                                             72    Accomodation & Food Services          836     9.1%
While we use the technical term “worksite” in the
report, the data would be nearly identical if based on       81    Other Services                        785     8.6%
“businesses” or “employers” as the unit of analysis.               TOTAL                                9,146 100.0%

                                                           The statistical program SPSS drew a disproportionate
Sample selection                                           stratified random sample, which means businesses
                                                           were drawn from some strata at a different proportion
DLIR chose the sample size based on available              compared to others. Two principles guided the
resources. Neyman methods and a Monte Carlo                proportions used to select the sample from various
simulation to determine the required sample for            strata:
significance testing showed that a larger sample               1) Ensure adequate representation from the
approaching the universe of data would be optimal.
                                                                  smaller counties, businesses, and NAICS
This large sample is preferable given: 1) the strong
positive skew of the distribution of the quantity of              codes.
jobs, 2) the mean of total green jobs in the sample is
                                                               2) Draw more heavily from strata thought to
near 0 at 0.34, and 3) when compared to the mean, the
variance is relatively high at 28.55 jobs. The suggested          be more likely to contain the main variable
comprehensive survey of green jobs could be obtained              of interest -- green jobs (“green” and “green
with a rolling sample such that all companies were                2-digit NAICS” categories, and larger
sampled at least once every 3-5 years.                            businesses). This provided more coverage of
                                                                  strata with most of the green jobs.

                                                      Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment            51
The stratified random sample, divided by county,           of green industries on O‘ahu and 45 percent from the
size, “green or non-green,” and NAICS, required            neighbor islands. For employment size 2, 45 percent
calculation of 312 non-certainty sample cells. Records     of green industries on O‘ahu were sampled, compared
were randomly sampled without replacement. A               to 55 percent from the neighbor islands. For size 1,
stratified sample guards against an unrepresentative       non-green, 15 percent were sampled from all counties.
sample that does not have adequate representation of       For size 2 non-green, 20 percent were sampled from
various important strata (e.g., neighbor island counties   all counties.
and small-size businesses). Furthermore, data
generated from a random sample can be generalized
from the sample to the larger population.
By giving a larger-than-proportionate sample size in
one or more subgroups, a stratified sample ensures that
sufficient sample data is obtained to support a separate   County
analysis of any subgroup, such as by county, industry
                                                           The sample was stratified by Hawai‘i ’s four counties:
size, and 2-digit NAICS codes. For example, because
                                                           Honolulu (O‘ahu), Hawai‘i , Maui, and Kaua‘i. It was
fewer businesses were in the neighbor island counties
                                                           important to stratify the sample by county to ensure
than O‘ahu, worksites were over-sampled to ensure
                                                           that there was adequate geographic representation in
adequate numbers for meaningful reporting. Also
                                                           the sample from all four counties. O‘ahu has about
over-sampled were businesses from the green NAICS
                                                           two-thirds of the QCEW worksites.
codes, because they had more chance to contribute to
the main variable of interest – green jobs. Worksites      Worksite Size
with greater than 50 employees were sampled with
100 percent certainty because they were more likely        Hawai‘i’s businesses were categorized by number of
to have some green jobs than were smaller businesses.      employees into three groups: 1-9, 10-49, and 50+.
Oversampling from green NAICS codes mitigated the          Because there were a disproportionate number of
effects of higher expected variance in these strata.       business worksites across employment size categories,
                                                           it was important to stratify the sample by number of
The sample was primarily from the City and County          employees. Based on the hypothesis that the larger
of Honolulu (n = 5,559, 60.8 percent), followed by         the firm, the more likely the firm is to have at least
Hawai‘i (n = 1,447, 15.8 percent), Maui (n = 1,392,        one green job, larger firms were sampled with higher
15.2 percent) and Kaua‘i (n = 748, 8.2 percent). The       probability of being selected. All of the largest firms
majority of the worksites had 1 – 9 employees (n           (50+ employees) were included in the sample, that
= 5,044, 55.1 percent). The other size categories          is they were sampled with 100 percent certainty.
were 10 – 49 employees (n = 2,445, 26.7 percent)           Because the smallest firms (1-9 employees) have a
and businesses with 50+ employees; the latter were         smaller probability of having at least one green job,
sampled with certainty, that is, 100 percent were in       they were sampled at a lower proportion. Thus, even
the sample (n = 1,657, 18.1 percent). Businesses from      though the smallest businesses comprised about three-
entire 4-digit NAICS industry codes which were more        quarters of Hawai‘i worksites, they were only about
likely to have some green activities at the 6-digit        one-half of the sample.
level were considered green (n = 4,394, 48 percent).
Businesses with non-green NAICS codes comprised
52 percent of the sample (n = 4,752). All sample
universe worksites in strata with 15 or fewer worksites    Green / Non-green
were selected with certainty. If the strata had fewer
than 10 worksites after proportioning, then all were       Because of the limited resources available to conduct
selected from the cell.	                                   a survey, industries with a higher incidence of green
                                                           jobs were sampled with higher probability. These
Analysts iterated through cell proportion modifications    select green industries were referenced as such in the
until an optimal mix of overall sample size and            State of Hawai‘i Workforce Report produced by the
individual cell sample coverage was reached. For           Hawai‘i Workforce Development Council, which was
employment size class 1 (1-9), we sampled 30 percent       guided by the PEW Charitable Trusts report.

 52    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
After critical review of remaining NAICS by both           2) Divide data into Wave 1 (data received prior to
the Hawai‘i Labor Market Research Section and the             June 14) and Wave 2 (data received on or after
Hawai‘i Green Jobs Initiative Team, several additional        June 14). The cut-off date, June 14, was chosen
industries were designated as green. All told, there          because it provided respondents with a ten-day
were 113 NAICS 4-digit level industry codes that              grace period, and coincided with the start of an
Hawai‘i classified as green. However, it should be            intensive campaign to improve response using
noted that ALL the remaining non-green industries at          phone calls, emails, postcard reminders, and
the 2-digit NAICS level were sampled, though at a             additional survey mailings to nonrespondents.
much lower rate than those in the 4-digit NAICS green
industries.                                                3) Make histograms and determine summaries
                                                              comparing Wave 1 covariates (NAICS, Size,
For purposes of stratification, “green” means that at         Green, etc) to Wave 2 covariates, and do a Z-test to
least a small number of codes at the 6-digit level in         determine whether systematic bias in Wave 1 and
that particular 2-digit NAICS were likely green. The          Wave 2 data is likely. The Z-test showed with 90
entire 4-digit NAICS was categorized green, even              percent certainty that bias existed between Wave
though most of the jobs within those codes are likely         1 and Wave 2 in terms of size category. This non-
to be non-green.                                              response bias will be corrected in estimation of
                                                              green jobs in the universe below.
                                                           4) Load data from QCEW universe
Industry (NAICS )
                                                                  a. Use file “UNIVERSEEQUI093.csv”
Not including Public Administration, there are 23
2-digit NAICS codes that cover 19 industrial sectors.      5) Estimate logit model from the sample data
Of these 2-digit NAICS, 16 contained the presence of          stratified between Wave 1 and Wave 2 data to use
at least some green 4-digit NAICS codes. Because the          for the propensity to respond variable (propensity
remainder of these 16 NAICS are not classified green,         score) in the universe of data. Wave 1 sample data
it is required that there be two separate sampling cells      will then be used to infer green jobs in the universe
for each individual 2-digit NAICS, green and non-             of likely responders, and Wave 2 sample data will
green. In addition, there were seven 2-digit NAICS            be used to infer green jobs in the universe of likely
that had no “green” 4-digit NAICS. Thus, these                non-responders. This procedure removes any non-
individual 2-digit NAICS strata only require one cell,        response bias that may exist.
non-green, for purposes of sample selection. For the
sample size of each NAICS strata, see Table 21.                   a. Linear model: logit(y=BX+e)
                                                                      Logit(Responder = B(Green+C2.NAICS+
                                                                      County+Size)+e), where B is a vector of
Estimation                                                            Four coefficients estimated by logistic
After random sampling and data collection, the
following estimation procedure was followed.                      b. The model resulting from the Wave 1 and
                                                                     Wave 2 sample data is used to predict
1) Sum across Green job descriptions in the sample                   which unsampled observations would
   data and remove non-unique survey IDs (multiple                   have been likely to respond or not respond
   job descriptions for one employer)                                (given their covariates – Green, NAICS,
                                                                     County, and Size). This is the unsampled
       a. Out of business worksites (OOBs) are                       worksite’s “propensity” to respond. Those
          counted as 0 jobs for purposes of summing                  with the highest propensity to respond
          and weighting of green jobs for all                        (with cutoff propensity = x) are coded
          categories. For example, if ½ of a sample                  as Responders. The cutoff propensity is
          cell is composed of OOBs, then infer ½                     determined such that the proportion of
          OOBs in the universe cell (0 jobs for half                 responders in the universe of data equals
          of the cell population).                                   the proportion of responders in the sample,

                                                     Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment         53
           and such that green jobs for each strata in
           the universe is estimated with at least 25
           percent of the inference resulting from data
           from each response category (Wave 1 and
           Wave 2).
6) Stratify both sample and universe data on Green,
   NAICS, County Code, Size, and Responder status.
       a. Calculate number of companies per bin for
          both sample and universe of data
       b. Calculate number of green jobs per bin for
          the sample data
7) Calculate weights per bin, w_b, whereby w_b
   multiplied by the number of green jobs in the
   sample bin will be the best unbiased estimate for
   the number of green jobs per universe bin.
8) Apply the method above to all jobs data, including
   current jobs, current vacancies, and jobs projected
   in 2012.
9) Calculate change in green jobs between 2010 and
   2012 per strata as projected green jobs in 2012
   minus current green jobs in 2010.

 54   Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Appendix B: NAICS in Sample
NAICS      2007 NAICS TITLES                                    212325   Clay and Ceramic and Refractory Minerals
111150     Corn Farming                                                  Mining
111211     Potato Farming                                       212399   All Other Nonmetallic Mineral Mining
111219     Other Vegetable (except Potato) and Melon            213112   Support Activities for Oil and Gas Operations
                                                                221112   Fossil Fuel Electric Power Generation
111335     Tree Nut Farming
                                                                221119   Other Electric Power Generation
111336     Fruit and Tree Nut Combination Farming
                                                                221210   Natural Gas Distribution
111339     Other Noncitrus Fruit Farming
                                                                221310   Water Supply and Irrigation Systems
111411     Mushroom Production
                                                                221320   Sewage Treatment Facilities
111419     Other Food Crops Grown Under Cover
                                                                221330   Steam and Air-Conditioning Supply
111421     Nursery and Tree Production
                                                                236115   New Single-Family Housing Construction
111422     Floriculture Production
                                                                         (except Operative Builders)
111930     Sugarcane Farming
                                                                236116   New Multifamily Housing Construction (except
111998     All Other Miscellaneous Crop Farming                          Operative Builders)
112111     Beef Cattle Ranching and Farming                     236117   New Housing Operative Builders
112120     Dairy Cattle and Milk Production                     236118   Residential Remodelers
112310     Chicken Egg Production                               236210   Industrial Building Construction
112420     Goat Farming                                         236220   Commercial and Institutional Building
112511     Finfish Farming and Fish Hatcheries                           Construction
112512     Shellfish Farming                                    237110   Water and Sewer Line and Related Structures
112519     Other Aquaculture                                             Construction
112910     Apiculture                                           237120   Oil and Gas Pipeline and Related Structures
112920     Horses and Other Equine Production
                                                                237130   Power and Communication Line and Related
113210     Forest Nurseries and Gathering of Forest
                                                                         Structures Construction
                                                                237210   Land Subdivision
113310     Logging
                                                                237310   Highway, Street, and Bridge Construction
114111     Finfish Fishing
114112     Shellfish Fishing                                    237990   Other Heavy and Civil Engineering Construction
115114     Postharvest Crop Activities (except Cotton           238110   Poured Concrete Foundation and Structure
           Ginning)                                                      Contractors
115115     Farm Labor Contractors and Crew Leaders              238120   Structural Steel and Precast Concrete
115116     Farm Management Services
                                                                238130   Framing Contractors
115210     Support Activities for Animal Production
                                                                238140   Masonry Contractors
115310     Support Activities for Forestry
                                                                238150   Glass and Glazing Contractors
211111     Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction
                                                                238160   Roofing Contractors
212319     Other Crushed and Broken Stone Mining and
           Quarrying                                            238170   Siding Contractors

212321     Construction Sand and Gravel Mining                  238190   Other Foundation, Structure, and Building
                                                                         Exterior Contractors
                                                                238210   Electrical Contractors and Other Wiring
                                                                         Installation Contractors
Source: DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Hawaiÿi Green Jobs
Survey, 2010.

                                                           Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment          55
Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
238220     Plumbing, Heating, and Air-Conditioning         312120   Breweries
           Contractors                                     312130   Wineries
238290     Other Building Equipment Contractors            312140   Distilleries
238310     Drywall and Insulation Contractors              313311   Broadwoven Fabric Finishing Mills
238320     Painting and Wall Covering Contractors          313312   Textile and Fabric Finishing (except Broadwoven
238330     Flooring Contractors                                     Fabric) Mills
238340     Tile and Terrazzo Contractors                   314121   Curtain and Drapery Mills
238350     Finish Carpentry Contractors                    314129   Other Household Textile Product Mills
238390     Other Building Finishing Contractors            314912   Canvas and Related Product Mills
238910     Site Preparation Contractors                    314999   All Other Miscellaneous Textile Product Mills
238990     All Other Specialty Trade Contractors           315211   Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Apparel
311111     Dog and Cat Food Manufacturing                           Contractors
311212     Rice Milling                                    315212   Women’s, Girls’, and Infants’ Cut and Sew
                                                                    Apparel Contractors
311311     Sugarcane Mills
                                                           315222   Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Suit, Coat, and
311330     Confectionery Manufacturing from Purchased
                                                                    Overcoat Manufacturing
                                                           315223   Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Shirt (except
311340     Nonchocolate Confectionery Manufacturing
                                                                    Work Shirt) Manufacturing
311421     Fruit and Vegetable Canning
                                                           315225   Men’s and Boys’ Cut and Sew Work Clothing
311423     Dried and Dehydrated Food Manufacturing                  Manufacturing
311511     Fluid Milk Manufacturing                        315232   Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Blouse and
311513     Cheese Manufacturing                                     Shirt Manufacturing
311520     Ice Cream and Frozen Dessert Manufacturing      315233   Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Dress
311611     Animal (except Poultry) Slaughtering                     Manufacturing
311612     Meat Processed from Carcasses                   315239   Women’s and Girls’ Cut and Sew Other
                                                                    Outerwear Manufacturing
311613     Rendering and Meat Byproduct Processing
                                                           315291   Infants’ Cut and Sew Apparel Manufacturing
311711     Seafood Canning
                                                           315999   Other Apparel Accessories and Other Apparel
311712     Fresh and Frozen Seafood Processing                      Manufacturing
311811     Retail Bakeries                                 321113   Sawmills
311812     Commercial Bakeries                             321114   Wood Preservation
311821     Cookie and Cracker Manufacturing                321214   Truss Manufacturing
311823     Dry Pasta Manufacturing                         321911   Wood Window and Door Manufacturing
311911     Roasted Nuts and Peanut Butter Manufacturing    321918   Other Millwork (including Flooring)
311919     Other Snack Food Manufacturing                  321999   All Other Miscellaneous Wood Product
311920     Coffee and Tea Manufacturing                             Manufacturing
311930     Flavoring Syrup and Concentrate Manufacturing   322299   All Other Converted Paper Product
311941     Mayonnaise, Dressing, and Other Prepared
           Sauce Manufacturing                             323110   Commercial Lithographic Printing
311942     Spice and Extract Manufacturing                 323112   Commercial Flexographic Printing
311991     Perishable Prepared Food Manufacturing          323113   Commercial Screen Printing
311999     All Other Miscellaneous Food Manufacturing      323114   Quick Printing
312111     Soft Drink Manufacturing                        323115   Digital Printing
312112     Bottled Water Manufacturing                     323119   Other Commercial Printing
312113     Ice Manufacturing                               324110   Petroleum Refineries
                                                           324121   Asphalt Paving Mixture and Block Manufacturing

 56      Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
                                                                    Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
325120   Industrial Gas Manufacturing                      334413   Semiconductor and Related Device
325188   All Other Basic Inorganic Chemical                         Manufacturing
         Manufacturing                                     334511   Search, Detection, Navigation, Guidance,
325314   Fertilizer (Mixing Only) Manufacturing                     Aeronautical, and Nautical System and
                                                                    Instrument Manufacturing
325412   Pharmaceutical Preparation Manufacturing
                                                           334517   Irradiation Apparatus Manufacturing
325611   Soap and Other Detergent Manufacturing
                                                           335121   Residential Electric Lighting Fixture
325620   Toilet Preparation Manufacturing                           Manufacturing
326111   Plastics Bag and Pouch Manufacturing              335991   Carbon and Graphite Product Manufacturing
326121   Unlaminated Plastics Profile Shape                336350   Motor Vehicle Transmission and Power Train
         Manufacturing                                              Parts Manufacturing
326160   Plastics Bottle Manufacturing                     336611   Ship Building and Repairing
326199   All Other Plastics Product Manufacturing          336612   Boat Building
326212   Tire Retreading                                   337110   Wood Kitchen Cabinet and Countertop
327112   Vitreous China, Fine Earthenware, and Other                Manufacturing
         Pottery Product Manufacturing                     337122   Nonupholstered Wood Household Furniture
327122   Ceramic Wall and Floor Tile Manufacturing                  Manufacturing
327212   Other Pressed and Blown Glass and Glassware       337125   Household Furniture (except Wood and Metal)
         Manufacturing                                              Manufacturing
327215   Glass Product Manufacturing Made of               337211   Wood Office Furniture Manufacturing
         Purchased Glass                                   339113   Surgical Appliance and Supplies Manufacturing
327320   Ready-Mix Concrete Manufacturing                  339115   Ophthalmic Goods Manufacturing
327331   Concrete Block and Brick Manufacturing            339116   Dental Laboratories
327332   Concrete Pipe Manufacturing                       339911   Jewelry (except Costume) Manufacturing
327390   Other Concrete Product Manufacturing              339914   Costume Jewelry and Novelty Manufacturing
327991   Cut Stone and Stone Product Manufacturing         339920   Sporting and Athletic Goods Manufacturing
327999   All Other Miscellaneous Nonmetallic Mineral
                                                           339950   Sign Manufacturing
         Product Manufacturing
                                                           339992   Musical Instrument Manufacturing
332311   Prefabricated Metal Building and Component
         Manufacturing                                     339999   All Other Miscellaneous Manufacturing
332313   Plate Work Manufacturing                          423120   Motor Vehicle Supplies and New Parts Merchant
332321   Metal Window and Door Manufacturing
                                                           423130   Tire and Tube Merchant Wholesalers
332322   Sheet Metal Work Manufacturing
                                                           423140   Motor Vehicle Parts (Used) Merchant
332323   Ornamental and Architectural Metal Work
                                                           423210   Furniture Merchant Wholesalers
332431   Metal Can Manufacturing
                                                           423220   Home Furnishing Merchant Wholesalers
332510   Hardware Manufacturing
                                                           423310   Lumber, Plywood, Millwork, and Wood Panel
332710   Machine Shops
                                                                    Merchant Wholesalers
332812   Metal Coating, Engraving (except Jewelry
                                                           423320   Brick, Stone, and Related Construction Material
         and Silverware), and Allied Services to
                                                                    Merchant Wholesalers
333111   Farm Machinery and Equipment Manufacturing        423330   Roofing, Siding, and Insulation Material
                                                                    Merchant Wholesalers
333314   Optical Instrument and Lens Manufacturing
                                                           423390   Other Construction Material Merchant
333319   Other Commercial and Service Industry                      Wholesalers
         Machinery Manufacturing                           423410   Photographic Equipment and Supplies Merchant

                                                       Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment         57
Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
423420   Office Equipment Merchant Wholesalers              424110   Printing and Writing Paper Merchant
423430   Computer and Computer Peripheral Equipment                  Wholesalers
         and Software Merchant Wholesalers                  424120   Stationery and Office Supplies Merchant
423440   Other Commercial Equipment Merchant                         Wholesalers
         Wholesalers                                        424130   Industrial and Personal Service Paper Merchant
423450   Medical, Dental, and Hospital Equipment and                 Wholesalers
         Supplies Merchant Wholesalers                      424210   Drugs and Druggists’ Sundries Merchant
423460   Ophthalmic Goods Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424310   Piece Goods, Notions, and Other Dry Goods
423490   Other Professional Equipment and Supplies                   Merchant Wholesalers
         Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424320   Men’s and Boys’ Clothing and Furnishings
423510   Metal Service Centers and Other Metal                       Merchant Wholesalers
         Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424330   Women’s, Children’s, and Infants’ Clothing and
423610   Electrical Apparatus and Equipment, Wiring                  Accessories Merchant Wholesalers
         Supplies, and Related Equipment Merchant
         Wholesalers                                        424340   Footwear Merchant Wholesalers
423620   Electrical and Electronic Appliance, Television,   424410   General Line Grocery Merchant Wholesalers
         and Radio Set Merchant Wholesalers                 424420   Packaged Frozen Food Merchant Wholesalers
423690   Other Electronic Parts and Equipment Merchant      424430   Dairy Product (except Dried or Canned)
         Wholesalers                                                 Merchant Wholesalers
423710   Hardware Merchant Wholesalers                      424440   Poultry and Poultry Product Merchant
423720   Plumbing and Heating Equipment and Supplies                 Wholesalers
         (Hydronics) Merchant Wholesalers                   424450   Confectionery Merchant Wholesalers
423730   Warm Air Heating and Air-Conditioning              424460   Fish and Seafood Merchant Wholesalers
         Equipment and Supplies Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424470   Meat and Meat Product Merchant Wholesalers
423740   Refrigeration Equipment and Supplies Merchant
                                                            424480   Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Merchant
423810   Construction and Mining (except Oil Well)
                                                            424490   Other Grocery and Related Products Merchant
         Machinery and Equipment Merchant
                                                            424610   Plastics Materials and Basic Forms and Shapes
423820   Farm and Garden Machinery and Equipment
                                                                     Merchant Wholesalers
         Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424690   Other Chemical and Allied Products Merchant
423830   Industrial Machinery and Equipment Merchant
                                                            424710   Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals
423840   Industrial Supplies Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424720   Petroleum and Petroleum Products Merchant
423850   Service Establishment Equipment and Supplies
                                                                     Wholesalers (except Bulk Stations and
         Merchant Wholesalers
423860   Transportation Equipment and Supplies (except
                                                            424810   Beer and Ale Merchant Wholesalers
         Motor Vehicle) Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424820   Wine and Distilled Alcoholic Beverage Merchant
423910   Sporting and Recreational Goods and Supplies
         Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424910   Farm Supplies Merchant Wholesalers
423920   Toy and Hobby Goods and Supplies Merchant
         Wholesalers                                        424920   Book, Periodical, and Newspaper Merchant
423930   Recyclable Material Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424930   Flower, Nursery Stock, and Florists’ Supplies
423940   Jewelry, Watch, Precious Stone, and Precious
                                                                     Merchant Wholesalers
         Metal Merchant Wholesalers
                                                            424940   Tobacco and Tobacco Product Merchant
423990   Other Miscellaneous Durable Goods Merchant

 58   Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
                                                                    Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
424950   Paint, Varnish, and Supplies Merchant             448110   Men’s Clothing Stores
         Wholesalers                                       448120   Women’s Clothing Stores
424990   Other Miscellaneous Nondurable Goods              448130   Children’s and Infants’ Clothing Stores
         Merchant Wholesalers
                                                           448140   Family Clothing Stores
425120   Wholesale Trade Agents and Brokers
                                                           448150   Clothing Accessories Stores
441110   New Car Dealers
                                                           448190   Other Clothing Stores
441120   Used Car Dealers
                                                           448210   Shoe Stores
441221   Motorcycle, ATV, and Personal Watercraft
                                                           448310   Jewelry Stores
                                                           448320   Luggage and Leather Goods Stores
441222   Boat Dealers
                                                           451110   Sporting Goods Stores
441310   Automotive Parts and Accessories Stores
                                                           451120   Hobby, Toy, and Game Stores
441320   Tire Dealers
                                                           451130   Sewing, Needlework, and Piece Goods Stores
442110   Furniture Stores
                                                           451140   Musical Instrument and Supplies Stores
442210   Floor Covering Stores
442291   Window Treatment Stores                           451211   Book Stores
442299   All Other Home Furnishings Stores                 451212   News Dealers and Newsstands
443111   Household Appliance Stores                        451220   Prerecorded Tape, Compact Disc, and Record
443112   Radio, Television, and Other Electronics Stores
                                                           452111   Department Stores (except Discount
443120   Computer and Software Stores                               Department Stores)
443130   Camera and Photographic Supplies Stores           452112   Discount Department Stores
444110   Home Centers                                      452910   Warehouse Clubs and Supercenters
444130   Hardware Stores                                   452990   All Other General Merchandise Stores
444190   Other Building Material Dealers                   453110   Florists
444210   Outdoor Power Equipment Stores                    453210   Office Supplies and Stationery Stores
444220   Nursery, Garden Center, and Farm Supply           453220   Gift, Novelty, and Souvenir Stores
                                                           453310   Used Merchandise Stores
445110   Supermarkets and Other Grocery (except
                                                           453910   Pet and Pet Supplies Stores
         Convenience) Stores
                                                           453920   Art Dealers
445120   Convenience Stores
                                                           453991   Tobacco Stores
445210   Meat Markets
                                                           453998   All Other Miscellaneous Store Retailers (except
445220   Fish and Seafood Markets
                                                                    Tobacco Stores)
445230   Fruit and Vegetable Markets
                                                           454111   Electronic Shopping
445291   Baked Goods Stores
                                                           454113   Mail-Order Houses
445292   Confectionery and Nut Stores
                                                           454210   Vending Machine Operators
445299   All Other Specialty Food Stores
                                                           454311   Heating Oil Dealers
445310   Beer, Wine, and Liquor Stores
                                                           454312   Liquefied Petroleum Gas (Bottled Gas) Dealers
446110   Pharmacies and Drug Stores
                                                           454390   Other Direct Selling Establishments
446120   Cosmetics, Beauty Supplies, and Perfume
         Stores                                            481111   Scheduled Passenger Air Transportation
446130   Optical Goods Stores                              481112   Scheduled Freight Air Transportation
446191   Food (Health) Supplement Stores                   481211   Nonscheduled Chartered Passenger Air
446199   All Other Health and Personal Care Stores
                                                           481212   Nonscheduled Chartered Freight Air
447110   Gasoline Stations with Convenience Stores
447190   Other Gasoline Stations
                                                           483113   Coastal and Great Lakes Freight Transportation

                                                      Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment         59
Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
483114     Coastal and Great Lakes Passenger                   515111   Radio Networks
                                                               515112   Radio Stations
484110     General Freight Trucking, Local
                                                               515120   Television Broadcasting
484122     General Freight Trucking, Long-Distance, Less
           Than Truckload                                      515210   Cable and Other Subscription Programming
484210     Used Household and Office Goods Moving              517110   Wired Telecommunications Carriers
484220     Specialized Freight (except Used Goods)             517210   Wireless Telecommunications Carriers (except
           Trucking, Local                                              Satellite)
485310     Taxi Service                                        517911   Telecommunications Resellers
485320     Limousine Service                                   517919   All Other Telecommunications
485410     School and Employee Bus Transportation              518210   Data Processing, Hosting, and Related Services
                                                               519120   Libraries and Archives
485991     Special Needs Transportation
                                                               519130   Internet Publishing and Broadcasting and Web
485999     All Other Transit and Ground Passenger                       Search Portals
                                                               522110   Commercial Banking
487110     Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Land
                                                               522120   Savings Institutions
487210     Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Water
                                                               522130   Credit Unions
487990     Scenic and Sightseeing Transportation, Other
                                                               522220   Sales Financing
488119     Other Airport Operations
                                                               522291   Consumer Lending
488190     Other Support Activities for Air Transportation
                                                               522292   Real Estate Credit
488320     Marine Cargo Handling
                                                               522298   All Other Nondepository Credit Intermediation
488390     Other Support Activities for Water Transportation
                                                               522310   Mortgage and Nonmortgage Loan Brokers
488410     Motor Vehicle Towing
                                                               522390   Other Activities Related to Credit Intermediation
488490     Other Support Activities for Road Transportation
                                                               523110   Investment Banking and Securities Dealing
488510     Freight Transportation Arrangement
                                                               523120   Securities Brokerage
488991     Packing and Crating
                                                               523130   Commodity Contracts Dealing
488999     All Other Support Activities for Transportation
                                                               523910   Miscellaneous Intermediation
491110     Postal Service
                                                               523920   Portfolio Management
492110     Couriers and Express Delivery Services
                                                               523930   Investment Advice
492210     Local Messengers and Local Delivery                 523999   Miscellaneous Financial Investment Activities
493110     General Warehousing and Storage                     524113   Direct Life Insurance Carriers
493120     Refrigerated Warehousing and Storage                524114   Direct Health and Medical Insurance Carriers
493190     Other Warehousing and Storage
                                                               524126   Direct Property and Casualty Insurance Carriers
511110     Newspaper Publishers
                                                               524127   Direct Title Insurance Carriers
511120     Periodical Publishers
                                                               524128   Other Direct Insurance (except Life, Health, and
511130     Book Publishers                                              Medical) Carriers
511140     Directory and Mailing List Publishers               524210   Insurance Agencies and Brokerages
511191     Greeting Card Publishers                            524291   Claims Adjusting
511210     Software Publishers                                 524292   Third Party Administration of Insurance and
512110     Motion Picture and Video Production                          Pension Funds
512131     Motion Picture Theaters (except Drive-Ins)          524298   All Other Insurance Related Activities
512191     Teleproduction and Other Postproduction             525920   Trusts, Estates, and Agency Accounts
           Services                                            525990   Other Financial Vehicles
512210     Record Production                                   531110   Lessors of Residential Buildings and Dwellings
512240     Sound Recording Studios

 60      Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
                                                                     Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
531120   Lessors of Nonresidential Buildings (except        541430   Graphic Design Services
         Miniwarehouses)                                    541490   Other Specialized Design Services
531130   Lessors of Miniwarehouses and Self-Storage         541511   Custom Computer Programming Services
                                                            541512   Computer Systems Design Services
531190   Lessors of Other Real Estate Property
                                                            541513   Computer Facilities Management Services
531210   Offices of Real Estate Agents and Brokers
                                                            541519   Other Computer Related Services
531311   Residential Property Managers
                                                            541611   Administrative Management and General
531312   Nonresidential Property Managers                            Management Consulting Services
531320   Offices of Real Estate Appraisers
                                                            541612   Human Resources Consulting Services
531390   Other Activities Related to Real Estate
                                                            541613   Marketing Consulting Services
532111   Passenger Car Rental
                                                            541614   Process, Physical Distribution, and Logistics
532120   Truck, Utility Trailer, and RV (Recreational                Consulting Services
         Vehicle) Rental and Leasing
                                                            541618   Other Management Consulting Services
532210   Consumer Electronics and Appliances Rental
                                                            541620   Environmental Consulting Services
532220   Formal Wear and Costume Rental
                                                            541690   Other Scientific and Technical Consulting
532230   Video Tape and Disc Rental                                  Services
532291   Home Health Equipment Rental                       541711   Research and Development in Biotechnology
532292   Recreational Goods Rental                          541712   Reseach and Development in the Physical,
532299   All Other Consumer Goods Rental                             Engineering, and Life Sciences (except
532411   Commercial Air, Rail, and Water Transportation              Biotechnology)
         Equipment Rental and Leasing                       541720   Research and Development in the Social
532412   Construction, Mining, and Forestry Machinery                Sciences and Humanities
         and Equipment Rental and Leasing                   541810   Advertising Agencies
532490   Other Commercial and Industrial Machinery and      541820   Public Relations Agencies
         Equipment Rental and Leasing                       541830   Media Buying Agencies
533110   Lessors of Nonfinancial Intangible Assets          541840   Media Representatives
         (except Copyrighted Works)
                                                            541850   Display Advertising
541110   Offices of Lawyers
                                                            541890   Other Services Related to Advertising
541191   Title Abstract and Settlement Offices
                                                            541910   Marketing Research and Public Opinion Polling
541199   All Other Legal Services
                                                            541921   Photography Studios, Portrait
541211   Offices of Certified Public Accountants
                                                            541922   Commercial Photography
541213   Tax Preparation Services
                                                            541930   Translation and Interpretation Services
541214   Payroll Services
                                                            541940   Veterinary Services
541219   Other Accounting Services
                                                            541990   All Other Professional, Scientific, and Technical
541310   Architectural Services                                      Services
541320   Landscape Architectural Services                   551112   Offices of Other Holding Companies
541330   Engineering Services                               551114   Corporate, Subsidiary, and Regional Managing
541340   Drafting Services                                           Offices
541350   Building Inspection Services                       561110   Office Administrative Services
541360   Geophysical Surveying and Mapping Services         561210   Facilities Support Services
541370   Surveying and Mapping (except Geophysical)         561311   Employment Placement Agencies
         Services                                           561312   Executive Search Services
541380   Testing Laboratories                               561320   Temporary Help Services
541410   Interior Design Services                           561330   Professional Employer Organizations
541420   Industrial Design Services

                                                        Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment             61
Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
561410     Document Preparation Services                      611513   Apprenticeship Training
561422     Telemarketing Bureaus and Other Contact            611519   Other Technical and Trade Schools
           Centers                                            611610   Fine Arts Schools
561431     Private Mail Centers                               611620   Sports and Recreation Instruction
561439     Other Business Service Centers (including Copy     611630   Language Schools
                                                              611691   Exam Preparation and Tutoring
561440     Collection Agencies
                                                              611699   All Other Miscellaneous Schools and Instruction
561492     Court Reporting and Stenotype Services
                                                              611710   Educational Support Services
561499     All Other Business Support Services                621111   Offices of Physicians (except Mental Health
561510     Travel Agencies                                             Specialists)
561520     Tour Operators                                     621112   Offices of Physicians, Mental Health Specialists
561591     Convention and Visitors Bureaus                    621210   Offices of Dentists
561599     All Other Travel Arrangement and Reservation       621310   Offices of Chiropractors
           Services                                           621320   Offices of Optometrists
561611     Investigation Services                             621330   Offices of Mental Health Practitioners (except
561612     Security Guards and Patrol Services                         Physicians)
561613     Armored Car Services                               621340   Offices of Physical, Occupational and Speech
561621     Security Systems Services (except Locksmiths)               Therapists, and Audiologists
561622     Locksmiths                                         621391   Offices of Podiatrists
561710     Exterminating and Pest Control Services            621399   Offices of All Other Miscellaneous Health
561720     Janitorial Services
                                                              621410   Family Planning Centers
561730     Landscaping Services
                                                              621420   Outpatient Mental Health and Substance Abuse
561740     Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning Services                     Centers
561790     Other Services to Buildings and Dwellings          621491   HMO Medical Centers
561920     Convention and Trade Show Organizers               621492   Kidney Dialysis Centers
561990     All Other Support Services                         621493   Freestanding Ambulatory Surgical and
562111     Solid Waste Collection                                      Emergency Centers
562119     Other Waste Collection                             621498   All Other Outpatient Care Centers
562211     Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal             621511   Medical Laboratories
562212     Solid Waste Landfill                               621610   Home Health Care Services
562213     Solid Waste Combustors and Incinerators            621910   Ambulance Services
562910     Remediation Services                               621991   Blood and Organ Banks
562991     Septic Tank and Related Services                   621999   All Other Miscellaneous Ambulatory Health Care
562998     All Other Miscellaneous Waste Management
           Services                                           622110   General Medical and Surgical Hospitals
611110     Elementary and Secondary Schools                   622210   Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Hospitals
611210     Junior Colleges                                    622310   Specialty (except Psychiatric and Substance
611310     Colleges, Universities, and Professional Schools            Abuse) Hospitals
611420     Computer Training                                  623110   Nursing Care Facilities
611430     Professional and Management Development            623210   Residential Mental Retardation Facilities
           Training                                           623220   Residential Mental Health and Substance Abuse
611511     Cosmetology and Barber Schools                              Facilities
611512     Flight Training                                    623311   Continuing Care Retirement Communities

 62      Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
                                                                     Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
623312   Homes for the Elderly                              722320   Caterers
623990   Other Residential Care Facilities                  722330   Mobile Food Services
624110   Child and Youth Services                           722410   Drinking Places (Alcoholic Beverages)
624120   Services for the Elderly and Persons with          811111   General Automotive Repair
         Disabilities                                       811112   Automotive Exhaust System Repair
624190   Other Individual and Family Services               811113   Automotive Transmission Repair
624210   Community Food Services                            811118   Other Automotive Mechanical and Electrical
624221   Temporary Shelters                                          Repair and Maintenance
624229   Other Community Housing Services                   811121   Automotive Body, Paint, and Interior Repair and
624230   Emergency and Other Relief Services                         Maintenance
624310   Vocational Rehabilitation Services                 811122   Automotive Glass Replacement Shops
624410   Child Day Care Services                            811191   Automotive Oil Change and Lubrication Shops
711110   Theater Companies and Dinner Theaters              811192   Car Washes
711120   Dance Companies                                    811198   All Other Automotive Repair and Maintenance
711130   Musical Groups and Artists                         811211   Consumer Electronics Repair and Maintenance
711190   Other Performing Arts Companies                    811212   Computer and Office Machine Repair and
711219   Other Spectator Sports
                                                            811219   Other Electronic and Precision Equipment
711310   Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and
                                                                     Repair and Maintenance
         Similar Events with Facilities
                                                            811310   Commercial and Industrial Machinery and
711320   Promoters of Performing Arts, Sports, and
                                                                     Equipment (except Automotive and Electronic)
         Similar Events without Facilities
                                                                     Repair and Maintenance
711510   Independent Artists, Writers, and Performers
                                                            811412   Appliance Repair and Maintenance
712110   Museums
                                                            811420   Reupholstery and Furniture Repair
712120   Historical Sites
                                                            811490   Other Personal and Household Goods Repair
712130   Zoos and Botanical Gardens                                  and Maintenance
712190   Nature Parks and Other Similar Institutions        812111   Barber Shops
713110   Amusement and Theme Parks                          812112   Beauty Salons
713120   Amusement Arcades                                  812113   Nail Salons
713910   Golf Courses and Country Clubs                     812191   Diet and Weight Reducing Centers
713930   Marinas                                            812199   Other Personal Care Services
713940   Fitness and Recreational Sports Centers            812210   Funeral Homes and Funeral Services
713950   Bowling Centers                                    812310   Coin-Operated Laundries and Drycleaners
713990   All Other Amusement and Recreation Industries      812320   Drycleaning and Laundry Services (except Coin-
721110   Hotels (except Casino Hotels) and Motels                    Operated)
721191   Bed-and-Breakfast Inns                             812331   Linen Supply
721199   All Other Traveler Accommodation                   812332   Industrial Launderers
721214   Recreational and Vacation Camps (except            812910   Pet Care (except Veterinary) Services
         Campgrounds)                                       812921   Photofinishing Laboratories (except One-Hour)
721310   Rooming and Boarding Houses                        812922   One-Hour Photofinishing
722110   Full-Service Restaurants                           812930   Parking Lots and Garages
722211   Limited-Service Restaurants                        812990   All Other Personal Services
722212   Cafeterias, Grill Buffets, and Buffets             813110   Religious Organizations
722213   Snack and Nonalcoholic Beverage Bars               813211   Grantmaking Foundations
722310   Food Service Contractors                           813212   Voluntary Health Organizations

                                                        Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment          63
Appendix B: NAICS in Sample (continued)
813219   Other Grantmaking and Giving Services
813311   Human Rights Organizations
813312   Environment, Conservation and Wildlife
813319   Other Social Advocacy Organizations
813410   Civic and Social Organizations
813910   Business Associations
813920   Professional Organizations
813930   Labor Unions and Similar Labor Organizations
813990   Other Similar Organizations (except Business,
         Professional, Labor, and Political Organizations)
814110   Private Households

 64   Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Appendix C: Green Job Occupations
SOC Code OCCUPATIONAL TITLE                          GREEN      53-6099.00 Transportation Workers, All Other   121
                                                      JOBS      27-3031.00 Public Relations Specialists        121
37-2011.00 Janitors and Cleaners Except                1,197    51-9061.00 Inspectors Testers Sorters          117
           Maids and Housekeeping                                          Samplers and Weighers
                                                                19-2041.00 Environmental Scientists and        114
19-4093.00 Forest and Conservation                       601               Specialists Including Health
                                                                49-9099.00 Installation Maintenance and        114
33-9032.00 Security Guards                               552
                                                                           Repair Workers All Other
47-2111.00 Electricians                                  438
                                                                45-2092.02 Farmworkers and Laborers Crop       106
49-9021.01 Heating and Air Conditioning                  348
                                                                37-1012.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers     103
           Mechanics and Installers
                                                                           of Landscaping Lawn Service
47-2031.01 Construction Carpenters                       306               and Groundskeeping Worke
47-2131.00 Insulation Workers Floor Ceiling              277    41-2011.00 Cashiers                            103
           and Wall                                             49-3023.02 Automotive Specialty Technicians     95
37-3011.00 Landscaping and                               276    41-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers      89
           Groundskeeping Workers                                          of Retail Sales Workers
47-4099.01 Solar Photovoltaic Installers                 237    53-3032.00 Truck Drivers Heavy and Tractor-     84
41-2031.00 Retail Salespersons                           219               Trailer
19-4091.00 Environmental Science and                     196    45-4011.00 Forest and Conservation Workers      82
           Protection Technicians Including                     41-4011.00 Sales Representatives                80
           Health                                                          Wholesale and Manufacturing
                                                                           Technical and Scientific Products
51-9199.01 Recycling and Reclamation                     194
           Workers                                              45-2041.00 Graders and Sorters Agricultural     79
47-4099.02 Solar Thermal Installers and                  194
           Technicians                                          15-1041.00 Computer Support Specialists         76
53-7062.00 Laborers and Freight Stock and                191    11-9012.00 Farmers and Ranchers                 75
           Material Movers Hand                                 43-3031.00 Bookkeeping Accounting and           73
47-2132.00 Insulation Workers Mechanical                 184               Auditing Clerks
47-2061.00 Construction Laborers                         173    27-1025.00 Interior Designers                   69
47-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers               167    11-1021.00 General and Operations               69
           of Construction Trades and                                      Managers
           Extraction Workers
                                                                41-9041.00 Telemarketers                        66
47-2152.02 Plumbers                                      167
                                                                47-2044.00 Tile and Marble Setters              64
47-4041.00 Hazardous Materials Removal                   160
           Workers                                              51-6093.00 Upholsterers                         64
49-9042.00 Maintenance and Repair Workers                159    17-1011.00 Architects Except Landscape          62
           General                                                         and Naval
17-2051.00 Civil Engineers                               152    49-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers      61
17-2071.00 Electrical Engineers                          140               of Mechanics Installers and
41-3099.00 Sales Representatives Services                126
           All Other                                            13-1199.05 Sustainability Specialists           61
                                                                43-9061.00 Office Clerks General                58
Source: DLIR Research & Statistics Office, Hawaiÿi Green Jobs   17-2141.00 Mechanical Engineers                 57
Survey, 2010.

                                                          Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment     65
Appendix C: Green Job Occupations (continued)
13-1023.00 Purchasing Agents Except              55   47-4099.03 Weatherization Installers and       28
           Wholesale Retail and Farm                             Technicians
           Products                                   51-9121.00 Coating Painting and Spraying       28
47-4021.00 Elevator Installers and Repairers     54              Machine Setters Operators and
47-2041.00 Carpet Installers                     54              Tenders
47-2073.00 Operating Engineers and               53   19-3051.00 Urban and Regional Planners         27
           Other Construction Equipment               51-9199.00 Production Workers, All Other       27
                                                      11-9151.00 Social and Community Service        26
17-2199.03 Energy Engineers                      53              Managers
41-4012.00 Sales Representatives                 53   15-1099.11 Information Technology Project      26
           Wholesale and Manufacturing                           Managers
           Except Technical and Scientific Pr
                                                      11-1011.00 Chief Executives                    26
11-9041.00 Engineering Managers                  48
                                                      41-2021.00 Counter and Rental Clerks           25
51-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers       48
           of Production and Operating                47-5021.00 Earth Drillers Except Oil and Gas   25
           Workers                                    47-2141.00 Painters Construction and           24
41-9031.00 Sales Engineers                       46              Maintenance

49-9092.00 Commercial Divers                     45   51-9032.00 Cutting and Slicing Machine         24
                                                                 Setters Operators and Tenders
37-3013.00 Tree Trimmers and Pruners             42
37-2021.00 Pest Control Workers                  42   47-2211.00 Sheet Metal Workers                 23
53-3033.00 Truck Drivers Light or Delivery       42   25-3099.00 Teachers and Instructors All        22
           Services                                              Other
                                                      51-9197.00 Tire Builders                       22
51-9023.00 Mixing and Blending Machine           37
           Setters Operators and Tenders              19-1031.01 Soil and Water Conservationists     22
13-1051.00 Cost Estimators                       37   43-5021.00 Couriers and Messengers             21
45-2092.01 Nursery Workers                       37   23-1011.00 Lawyers                             20
45-2093.00 Farmworkers Farm and Ranch            36   19-4011.01 Agricultural Technicians            19
           Animals                                    53-7061.00 Cleaners of Vehicles and            19
49-2092.00 Electric Motor Power Tool and         36              Equipment
           Related Repairers                          11-9021.00 Construction Managers               19
51-7011.00 Cabinetmakers and Bench               35   17-2081.00 Environmental Engineers             19
           Carpenters                                 51-6052.00 Tailors Dressmakers and             19
51-8013.00 Power Plant Operators                 34              Custom Sewers
49-9098.00 Helpers--Installation                 34   51-4121.06 Welders Cutters and Welder          18
           Maintenance and Repair                                Fitters
                                                      43-6011.00 Executive Secretaries and           17
51-5023.00 Printing Machine Operators            34              Administrative Assistants
41-4011.07 Solar Sales Representatives and       33   11-2021.00 Marketing Managers                  17
                                                      13-1073.00 Training and Development            16
47-1011.03 Solar Energy Installation             32              Specialists
           Managers                                   25-2032.00 Vocational Education Teachers       16
39-6021.00 Tour Guides and Escorts               29              Secondary School
29-9011.00 Occupational Health and Safety        29   19-2042.00 Geoscientists Except                15
           Specialists                                           Hydrologists and Geographers

 66    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
                                                     Appendix C: Green Job Occupations (continued)
39-1021.00 Firstline Supervisors/Personal    15   11-3051.01 Quality Control Systems                 6
           Service Workers                                   Managers
17-3022.00 Civil Engineering Technicians     14   49-9041.00 Industrial Machinery Mechanics          6

11-9199.11 Brownfield Redevelopment          14   11-3071.02 Storage and Distribution                6
           Specialists and Site Managers                     Managers
                                                  51-3022.00 Meat Poultry and Fish Cutters           6
47-2181.00 Roofers                           13              and Trimmers
17-3027.00 Mechanical Engineering            13
           Technicians                            53-7064.00 Packers and Packagers Hand              6
                                                  17-1021.00 Cartographers and                       6
17-3012.02 Electrical Drafters               13
19-2031.00 Chemists                          13
                                                  19-2041.02 Environmental Restoration               6
19-4099.01 Quality Control Analysts          12              Planners
51-5022.00 Prepress Technicians and          12
                                                  19-3091.02 Archeologists                           6
                                                  13-1111.00 Management Analysts                     5
11-3051.04 Biomass Production Managers       11
                                                  49-9044.00 Millwrights                             5
47-4099.00 Construction and Related          11
           Workers All Other                      53-5021.01 Ship and Boat Captains                  5
                                                  11-3031.01 Treasurers and Controllers              5
43-5081.03 Stock Clerks- Stockroom           11
           Warehouse or Storage Yard              21-1099.00 Community and Social Service            5
                                                             Specialists All Other
43-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers   10
           of Office and Administrative           51-6011.00 Laundry and Dry-Cleaning                5
           Support Workers                                   Workers
13-1199.01 Energy Auditors                   10   17-3026.00 Industrial Engineering                  5
45-1011.07 First-Line Supervisors/Managers   10              Technicians
           of Agricultural Crop and               21-1093.00 Social and Human Service                5
           Horticultural Workers                             Assistants
17-2199.11 Solar Energy Systems Engineers    10   31-1012.00 Nursing Aides Orderlies and             5
17-1012.00 Landscape Architects              10              Attendants
51-3092.00 Food Batchmakers                   8   17-3023.03 Electrical Engineering                  4
51-9021.00 Crushing Grinding and Polishing    8
           Machine Setters Operators and          35-9011.00 Dining Room and Cafeteria               4
           Tenders                                           Attendants and Bartender
27-1011.00 Art Directors                      8
                                                  37-1011.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers         4
13-1041.01 Environmental Compliance           8              of Housekeeping and Janitorial
           Inspectors                                        Workers
43-6014.00 Secretaries Except Legal           7   27-1019.00 Artists and Related Workers All         4
           Medical and Executive                             Other
43-4171.00 Receptionists and Information      7   49-3031.00 Bus and Truck Mechanics and             4
           Clerks                                            Diesel Engine Specialists
11-2022.00 Sales Managers                     7
                                                  11-9032.00 Education Administrators                4
49-9094.00 Locksmiths and Safe Repairers      7              Elementary and Secondary
15-1099.02 Computer Systems Engineers/        7              School
           Architects                             27-1027.00 Set and Exhibit Designers               4
11-3021.00 Computer and Information           6   17-3029.00 Engineering Technicians, Except         4
           Systems Managers                                  Drafter, All Other
                                                  19-1032.00 Foresters                               4

                                             Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment   67
Appendix C: Green Job Occupations (continued)
17-2021.00 Agricultural Engineers                 4   11-3042.00 Training and Development             2
25-9021.00 Farm and Home Management               4              Managers
           Advisors                                   11-3051.03 Biofuels Production Managers         2
11-3040.00 Human Resources Managers               4   11-9041.01 Biofuels/Biodiesel Technology        2
45-2091.00 Agricultural Equipment Operators       4              and Product Development
19-1031.00 Conservation Scientists                4
19-1031.02 Range Managers                         4   13-1199.00 Business Operations Specialists,     2
                                                                 All Other
41-1012.00 First-Line Supervisors/Managers        4
           of Non-Retail Sales Workers                13-2099.00 Financial Specialists, All Other     2

11-1011.03 Chief Sustainability Officers          3   15-1031.00 Computer Software Engineers,         2
15-1032.00 Computer Software Engineers            3
           Systems Software                           17-2111.01 Industrial Safety and Health         2
47-2021.00 Brickmasons and Blockmasons            3
                                                      25-1041.00 Agricultural Science Teachers,       2
51-8099.00 Plant and System Operators All         3
                                                      49-2094.00 Electrical and Electronics           2
49-3042.00 Mobile Heavy Equipment                 3
                                                                 Repairers Commercial and
           Mechanics Except Engines
                                                                 Industrial Equipment
23-2011.00 Paralegals and Legal Assistants        3
                                                      49-9021.02 Refrigeration Mechanics and          2
43-5071.00 Shipping Receiving and Traffic         3              Installers
                                                      51-8012.00 Power Distributors and               2
11-9199.00 Managers All Other                     3              Dispatchers
51-8031.00 Water and Liquid Waste                 3
                                                      53-7051.00 Industrial Truck and Tractor         2
           Treatment Plant and System
                                                      11-2011.01 Green Marketers                      1
27-1021.00 Commercial and Industrial              3
           Designers                                  19-1023.00 Zoologists and Wildlife Biologists   1
13-1072.00 Compensation Benefits and Job          3   25-9031.00 Instructional Coordinators           1
           Analysis Specialists                       39-2021.00 Nonfarm Animal Caretakers            1
13-2011.01 Accountants                            3   43-4161.00 Human Resources Assistants           1
15-1099.10 Business Intelligence Analysts         3              Except Payroll and Timekeeping
43-4051.00 Customer Service                       3
25-1194.00 Vocational Education Teachers          3
27-1024.00 Graphic Designers                      3
51-9198.00 Helpers--Production Workers            3
37-2012.00 Maids and Housekeeping                 3
47-2071.00 Paving Surfacing and Tamping           3
           Equipment Operators
51-9195.03 Stone Cutters and Carvers              3
53-1021.01 Recycling Coordinators                 3
11-9199.10 Wind Energy Project Managers           3

 68    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
Appendix D: Survey Instrument

                         HAWAIÿI GREEN JOBS SURVEY
                         Hawai‘i recognizes it is overly dependent on imported oil to meet its energy needs.
                         Recently, the State has taken steps to become more energy self-reliant and to preserve
                         its natural resources for future generations. “Green” jobs may help to halt unemployment
                         during the current economic downturn and contribute to needed economic growth for
                         years to come. The federal American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA)
                         has further fueled this interest by funding this survey and workforce retraining for green
      jobs in Hawai‘i.

      To support Hawai‘i’s efforts to develop a green economy and workforce that can compete for green jobs,
      we are conducting a survey of Hawai‘i businesses. The purpose of this survey is to:
          •	 estimate the number of jobs where environmental protection or preservation is central,
          •	 identify the occupations involved with the emerging green economy,
          •	 identify the training needs of a green workforce.

      What is a green job?
      A green job makes a positive impact on the environment or energy sustainability.
      This survey covers five core areas:

         Generate clean, renewable, sustainable energy
         Reduce pollution and waste; conserve natural resources
         Energy efficiency
         Education, training and support of a green workforce
         Natural, environmentally-friendly production
    Three ways to complete this survey:
    1 Online: 2 Mail: Return the survey in the enclosed envelope 3 Fax: (808) 586-9022

                            * Please respond within 15 days of the date on the cover letter.

   Report only for the worksite shown on the label on the back page.

   We suggest your Operations or Human Resources Manager complete this form.
   Your responses will be kept confidential.

   1. Number of employees at this location (count full and part-time workers equally) _____________

   2. Check þ the green practices your company performs at this location:

     ¨	Recycle (paper, toner cartridge, cans)            ¨   Energy-saving light bults
     ¨ Use of recycled products (office paper, etc.)     ¨   Solar and photovoltaics
     ¨ Telecommute                                       ¨   Use low VOC paints, stains or sealers
     ¨ Carpool                                           ¨   Clean with “eco-friendly” products
     ¨ Fuel efficient and alternative fuel vehicles      ¨   Reduce energy use (A/C timer, motion sensor, etc.)
     ¨ Subsidized bus pass                               ¨   Water conservation
     ¨ Bicycle commute program                           ¨   Other (please describe)

   3. Does your company work to PROVIDE goods or services in any of the five core GREEN areas?
      For more information and examples about these areas, see the back page.
      ¨	 YES è Please complete all sections of this survey.
      ¨	 NO è Please complete this page and continue directly to the back page.

                                                       Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment               69
      HAWAIÿI GREEN JOBS SURVEY                                                       

     Job Titles & Descriptions                              Current # of Employees in GREEN Areas

                                                                          Energy Training and Natural,
                                                       Generate Reduce Efficiency Education, Environmen-
                                                        Clean,  Pollution
     Job title(s) of workers you employed*
     in jobs in   GREEN        areas at this          Renewable,       and Waste;                      Support of       tally-Friendly
                                                      Sustainable       Conserve                        Green            Production
                     location                           Energy           Natural                       Workforce
          from January to March 2010                                   Resources,

Describe and explain how the position is                Estimate the current number of employees in each GREEN area
               GREEN.                                           Refer to back page for more information and examples.
                                                                         Count full and part-time workers equally.
     ONLY include jobs where green activities         Choose only ONE category per employee. (If employees work in more than
     were essential to the job. Please PRINT                                                one,
                                                        choose the area that takes most of their time or is their primary job function.)

Job Title:     Wind Turbine Technician -                     3
Description: Installs and repairs wind turbines    E x a m p l e
Job Title:

Job Title:

Job Title:

Job Title:

Job Title:

Job Title:

     * Exclude consultants, outside contractors, vendors,               If you need more space, please attach another sheet.
       and others not considered employees.

70    Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
    HAWAIÿI GREEN JOBS SURVEY                                                   

  Job Vacancies                    Qualifications & Employee Training Requirements

# of Current     Total # of         Minimum           Formal Training by          Certifications or     Informal on-the-job
 Vacancies     Workers You        Education and       Community College              Licenses                 training
for this Job     Expect in          Training           or Other External
               this Position      Qualifications           Provider

                                 Select one code                    List and describe specific types of training
                               (**See 1 - 11 below)                      (exclusive of a degree program) and
                                                            certifications and licences required for your green workers

                                                      Electrician course;
     1              10                  6             Wind turbine             None                    None

                               ** 1 = Professional degree           6 = Associate’s degree
                                  2 = Doctoral degree               7 = Postsecondary vocational award
                                  3 = Master’s degree               8 = Work experience in a related occupation
                                  4 = Bachelor’s or higher degree   9 = More than 1 year on-the-job training
                                       plus work experience         10 = 1 to 12 months on-the-job training
                                  5 = Bachelor’s degree             11 = Less than 1 month on-job training

                                                       Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment                   71
     HAWAIÿI GREEN JOBS SURVEY                                                                        Page 4

                                                   5. Contact person

 Generate Clean, Renewable, Sustainable Energy
 Produce, transmit, and store clean, renewable power in a safe and sustainable manner from solar, wind,
 hydro, geothermal, ocean, and small-scale biopower sources.
 Example: electricians, electrical engineers and plumbers install solar energy systems.

 Reduce and Mitigate Pollution and Waste and Conserve Our Natural Resources, Recycle
 Manage water and other natural resources. Prevent and control emissions and pollution. Treat water
 and remediate waste. Examples: trained workers safely remediate hazardous materials; air quality

 E   nergy Efficiency
 Reduce energy use. Produce or install energy-efficient products. Provide energy-efficiency services.
 Retrofit, weatherize, or improve efficiency of buildings. Improve energy distribution (smart grid) and
 transportation. Examples: engineers develop lighting and other products that curb and monitor energy
 use while electricians and others install them.

 E  ducation, Training and Support of Green Workforce
 Provide services to the other four green areas. Help develop our green workforce.
 Examples: teachers train workers for the clean energy economy; legal services; environmental

 Natural, Sustainable, Environmentally-Friendly Production
 Mitigate harmful environmental impacts of products and processes and use less energy by improving or
 developing alternative products and methods, including use of natural or recycled materials.
 Examples: construction workers install green building materials; plumbers and technicians install smart
 irrigation systems; organic farmers; chemists or product designers and engineers who produce less
 caustic cleaning products and biodegradable products.

                                              These descriptions and examples are NOT comprehensive.

                         Mahalo. Your participation helps Hawai‘i go green!

 Need assistance? Contact us:

     Labor Market Information (LMI) Green Jobs Initiative
     Research & Statistics Office • Hawaiÿi Department of Labor & Industrial Relations
     830 Punchbowl Street, Room 304 • Honolulu, HI 96813
     Tel: 808-586-9097 • Fax: 808-586-9022
     Email: • Website:

72   Hawaiÿi’s Green Workforce: A Baseline Assessment
The cover art depicts, from left to right: 1) the Kahuku wind energy project, 2) workers in Kona installing photovoltaic panels, 3)
youth in a green jobs training program on the Big Island, 4) and taro plants. Taro is grown primarily for the Hawaiian staple of poi.
The National Agricultural Statistics Service estimates Hawaiÿi’s taro production at 4.4 million pounds in 2008, mostly on the island of
Kauaÿi. Photos courtesy of First Wind, Sunetric, Kupu Hawaiÿi,, and Harold Herradura.