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					  GLOBALIZATION AND THE
FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION


      M. Aman Wirakartakusumah



        Universitas Airlangga
       Surabaya 27 Maret 2004

                                 1
GLOBALIZATION

• Modern world with myriad phenomena
• Greater global economic connectedness
• Economic phenomenon-economic integration powered
   by Neo-liberal politics, electronics, instantaneous
   communications and multinational corporations
• Flows of capital, people, information and culture
• Internationalization of commerce, capital and labor
• Post industrial and knowledge-based society
• Constant creation of new forms of technology

                                                         2
GLOBALIZATION, COMPETITION AND
COMPETITIVENESS
• Globalization of commerce, advances in communication
     technology, access and availability of information
•   Growing commercial and social interrelationship
•   Competition among Institutions, Firms and Nations
•   Competitiveness: ability to stay in business and achieve
     some desired result (profit, price, quality)
•   National economic performance~national competitiveness
•   Competitiveness: growth of labor productivity and raising
     living standards
DOWNSIDES OF GLOBALIZATION
• Potential of creating severe gap between rich and poor
  countries
• Divide the world into centers and peripheries
    Centers grow stronger, peripheries marginalized
• Global higher education dominated by world class
  universities in industrialized countries
    Norms, values, language, scientific innovation and
    knowledge products of countries in the center crowd
    out other ideas and practices
• Globalization in higher education exacerbates
  dramatic inequalities among the world’s universities     4
“COMMERCIALIZATION” OF KNOWLEDGE

• Knowledge from study and research is seen as a “private
  good”
• Provision of knowledge = commercial transaction
• Provider public fund or State unable to provide resources for
  higher education and research
• Universities expected to generate more funding
• Initiation of selling of knowledge products, partnership private
  sectors, increase in student fees
• Universities sell skill/training, awarding degrees or certificates
                                                                       5
HIGHER EDUCATION ROLE and POSITION
• Historically international in their academic and
intellectual orientation
• Science and rationality of knowledge across the national
and territorial limitation
• Asset that contribute to national economic and social
well-being
• Equipped labor force with skills, innovation, productivity,
enriching quality of life

                                                                6
HIGHER EDUCATION ROLE and POSITION
•Universities are the instruments of the State, government
exert regulatory authority on the university systems, use
the university to build up national capacity
• Tensions between the State and global forces,
governments and universities: i.e. Bologna convention
• Globalization tends to increase convergence of
international and supranational on higher education policy
• Less public funding, more enrollment, more private
investment, little transnational standardization and quality
assurance
                                                               7
QUESTIONS FOR GLOBALIZATION AND
HIGHER EDUCATION
• Will globalization make universities even more instruments
of government to generate comparative advantage ~ nation’s
competitiveness?
• Will globalization lead to commercialization and
corporatization of universities, increasing in multinational
interests?
• Will some universities be state-driven and others globally-
driven?
• Will state becoming hands-off enablers, become weaker and
more dependent on private and corporate actors?                 8
PORTRAITS OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Strengths
• Increase of Gross Enrollment Ratio of aged 18-30 to university
• Contribute to national economy, labor force
• Research outputs and outcomes: cited publication, patents, Nobel
  prize
• Partnership with private sectors: spin-off industry, start-up company
• Professional development of employees
• Knowledge transfer and innovation management
• New approach in meeting student’s demand: new courses, part time
  study, extension, further education, distance learning
                                                                          9
PORTRAITS OF HIGHER EDUCATION
Challenges
• How to increase investment: USA, France, Germany, the Netherlands
~ 1 % GDP, UK ~ 0.8 %, Japan ~ 0.4 %, Indonesia ~ 0.28 %
• How to recruit, retain and reward the caliber of academic staff
• How to maintain infrastructure for research and teaching
• How to prioritize and focus research at the university: USA confined
  in 200 from 1600 institutions, China created 10 world-class
  universities, India concentrated 5 National Institute of Technology
• How to avoid “brain drain”, instead “brain gain”
• How to balance research excellence with teaching excellence
                                                                         10
WORLD-CLASS UNIVERSITY RANKING
                      World best
                                                            Asia best 100
            Country       500                     Country
                                                             Universities
                      universities
Amerika Serikat                 159      Jepang                             36
Inggris                          42      Australia                          13
Jerman                           41      Cina                               9
Jepang                           36      Korea Selatan                      8

Kanada                           24      Israel                             6

Perancis                         22      Cina-Hongkong                      7
Australia                        13      Cina-Taiwan                        3
Belanda                          12      India                              3
Cina                                 9   New Zealand                        3
Korea Selatan                        8   Singapura                          2
Cina-Hongkong                        5   Turki                              2
Cina-Taiwan                          5   Indonesia                     none
India                                3
Selandia baru                        3
Singapura                            2
Turki                                2
Indonesia                      none
GROSS ENROLLMENT RATE (2000)

 Korea Selatan                                                                                            71.69
Amerika Serikat                                                                                           71.62
      Australia                                                                              63.00
        Kanada                                                                           59.99
        Inggris                                                                       57.84
     Argentina                                                                47.96
        German                                                              46.30
        Jepang                                                              46.05
           Chili                                                    37.52
       Thailand                                             31.92
        Pilipina                                         29.45
       Malaysia                                  23.26
         Mexico                             19.76
          Brazil                    14.83
         Brunei                   13.89
     Indonesia                   12.80
          China           7.45
  Bangladesh           5.25

                   0       10           20               30          40       50      60             70           80




 (Data Indonesia for 2002)
  SOUTH EAST ASIAN CONTEXT OF
       HIGHER EDUCATION

 Education – developed based on colonial style - many
  different systems
   – focusing on specialization rather generalization/diversification
   – lack of practical skills
   – lack of entrepreneurship
 Faculty resistant to change
 Lack of resources - human/financial
 Top down bureaucratic systems
            Human Development Index in South East Asia
Rank   Country                      Human Development Index
                                    1990    1995     2000
1      Norway                       0.901   0.925    0.942
25     Singapore                    0.818   0.857    0.885
32     Brunei Darussalam            n.a.    n.a.     0.856
59     Malaysia                     0.722   0.760    0.782
70     Thailand                     0.713   0.749    0.762
77     Philippines                  0.716   0.733    0.754
109    Vietnam                      0.605   0.649    0.688
110    Indonesia                    0.623   0.664    0.684
127    Myanmar                      n.a.    n.a.     0.552
130    Cambodia                     0.501   0.531    0.543
143    Lao People's Dem. Rep.       0.404   0.445    0.485
INDICATORS OF R&D EFFORTS AND OUTCOMES
                       # R&D/million   # Patents   #Hi-tech
                       people          granted     export/manuf.
                                                   export
    Country            1985-1995       1996        1997

    Indonesia          1               20          -

    Malaysia           87              12          67

   Philippines         1,299           4           12



   Singapore           2,728           88          71

    Thailand           119             11          43

   Source: ADB, 2003
      Asia’s Best Universities 2000
Rank           Multi-disciplinary              Overall
                                                score
                   schools                     (100%)

 1          Kyoto University (Japan)           83.17

 5          National University of Singapore   77.96


 47         University of Malaya               54.20

 48         University of the Philippines      53.79

 53         Prince of Songkla University       52.26
            (Thailand)

 61         University of Indonesia            49.89


Source: Asia week.com (2003)
    Asia’s Best Universities 2000
     Rank       Science and Technology schools     Overall score (100%)


      1         Korea Adv. Inst. Of Sci. & Tech.          90.79

      9         Nanyang Technological Univ.               67.75
                (Singapore)

      21        Institute of Technology Bandung           54.30
                (Indonesia)

      27        King Mongkut’s Inst. Of Tech.             52.60
                Ladkrabang (Thailand)

      30        Technological Univ. of Malaysia           51.46

Source: Asia week.com (2003)
INDONESIA Position on NATION
COMPETITIVENESS
                                              Score           Rank from 30
              Parameter
                                            (Max. 100)          Nations
Nation competitiveness                         13.3                 28
  o macro economy indicator                           28                 24

  o State policy to increase nation                  16.9                27
      competitiveness

  o Innovative and responsibility                     6.1                30
      behaviour, corporate profitability

  o   Contribution of science, technology             9.6                30
      and HR to private sectors



   Indonesia position on the nation competitiveness rank among the nations
                        above 20 million populations
TRANSFORMATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION
What are The Challenges?
  • How to bring up the issues of globalization into the
    curriculum and teaching practices?
  • How to put the university program relevant to national and
    regional interest?
  • How to improve the organizational health of the
    university?
  • How to build entrepreneurial mentality to the students?
  • How to produce graduate with inclusiveness and
    multicultural attitudes based on good moral, values and ethics?
   EXAMPLES OF HIGHER EDUCATION
         TRANSFORMATION
– UK
   • Going global to quench the thirst for knowledge
– AUSTRALIA
   • Going global and Brand Marketing
– SEMCIT (Latin America, Asia, Africa)
   • Education and Management of Change in the Tropics
– SINGAPORE
   • Toward a world class university
– INDONESIA
   • HELTS
National University of Singapore
Established in 1905

Vision: Towards a global knowledge
enterprise, building synergies between
education, research and entrepreneurship
Mission: Advance knowledge and foster
innovation, educate students and nurture
talent, in service of country and society
How NUS achieve its goals?
• Building intelligent partnership with
  universities worldwide
• No walls culture to promote free flow
  of talent and ideas
• Foster an entrepreneurial mindset
NUS high five in 2005

• One in five students will be abroad on students
  exchanges
• One in five of undergraduates will be an
  international student
• One in five students will take an
  entrepreneurship module
• Five NUS overseas colleges will be established
  in the world’s leading entrepreneurial hubs
FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION
VISION
• Recognize and value universities as creator of knowledge
• Recognize the role of education to live life to the full and contribute
  to the society
• Acknowledge the institutions differences define its own mission
• Build strong and purposeful collaborations
• Support the institutions that can compete with the best in the world
• Increase gross participation ratio and access
• Employ caliber academic staff
• Freedom for innovation and entrepreneurship
• Strong management and visionary leadership
                                                                            24
FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION
THEMES FOR FUTURE HIGHER EDUCATION
• Learner-centered
• Entrepreneurship
• Lifelong learning
• Interactive and collaborative
• Diverse
• Intelligent and adaptive
• Learn-grant university as a social contract between university and
  society
                                                                       25

				
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