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               Coronado’s Shepard Boy

A cross curricular book study

Note to the Teacher -

This book study provides a framework for either group reading/discussions
for formative evaluation and laying a foundation for the historical events of
the Coronado expedition, or it can be used for individual reading and
summative evaluation of comprehension.

Social Studies standards guiding Fourth Grade study of Arizona are the
overarching standards used in the development of these sets of activities.
However, you will find that the unit is developed with a concentration on the
Reading and Writing Standards and is designed as a cross curricular piece.

These activities were not designed to replace existing historical text of the
Coronado Entrada. The novel itself is historical fiction and does contain
some inconsistencies and chronological flaws, as many fiction pieces do.
Teachers are encouraged to use these materials as supplementary activities.

Activities were designed so that teachers can pick out those activities that
support their study of Arizona. We encourage you to review all of the
material and select those activities that are most useful to your students and
fit within the timeframe you have to devote to this section of Arizona history.
Social Studies standards are:

    SS04S1C3 PO 1: Describe the reasons for early Spanish exploration of
    Mexico and the Southwestern region of the United States by:
    a. Cabeza de Vaca
    b. Estevan
    c. Fray Marcos de Niza
    d. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado

    SS04S1C3 PO 3: Describe the location and cultural characteristics of
    Native American tribes (e.g., O‘odham, Apache, Hopi) during the
    Spanish period.
    SS04S2C5 PO 1: Describe the reasons (e.g., trade routes, gold) for
    Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the Americas.

Writing Standards are:

    PO 3. Write a response that demonstrates an understanding of a
    literary selection, and depending on the selection, includes:
    a.      evidence from the text
    b.      personal experience
    c.      comparison to other text/media

While there is not an overt connection to the Native People is mentioned in
the story and the many Native People that live in Arizona today, many
questions are designed to lay the foundation of and open the discussion
about the cultural diversity of our Arizona citizens today and how many
cultures have contributed to that diversity. The Social Studies Standard to
which this pertains is:

    SS04S3C1 PO 4. Describe the varied backgrounds of people living in
    a.     shared principles, goals, customs and traditions
    b.     diversity in one‘s school and community
    c.     benefits and challenges of a diverse population.

(Teachers may also wish to include a discussion about the main character‘s
mother and her culture which is only mentioned in passing reference
throughout the story. Gonzalo‘s mother is an Aztec and there are sections in
which Gonzalo or his father, reflect on the treatment and attitudes of the
Spanish towards her people. This connects to SS04S2C5 PO 2: Describe the
impact of European explorers‘ encounters with the Aztec and Inca/Inka.)
Guided Reading

Notes in italics are additional information that may assist in painting an overall picture of
the pieces of this historic puzzle.

Chapter 1:
      R04S2C1PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.
      R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

1) Where and when is this story taking place? The story begins November, 1540, somewhere
in the Southwest on the expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado.

2) Who is the main character? The main character Gonzalo, an eleven year old boy who is the
son of an indentured servant.

3) What is the main character doing traveling with Coronado‘s expedition? He is helping his
father who is herding the flock of sheep that accompanies Coronado‘s expedition in search of
the Seven Cities of Gold.

4) Why had the main character not experienced cold weather before? Gonzalo is from Mexico
and it doesn‘t get so cold that it snows where he is from.

5) What did Pedro and his son use to keep warm? They have hats made from wool from the
sheep. During the night they huddle together for warmth.

6) What is an indentured servant? An indentured servant is a person who must work for a
certain master because, when the servant was free, the master paid for something for that
servant (such as the boat passage to the New World or a large debt owed to another person).
Indentured servants worked for a certain amount of time to pay off the debt to the master and
then were free again. Often indentured contracts lasted between five and seven years, so the
author’s indication that Pedro had been indentured since 1524 is probably faulty research,
though we have no proof of this.

7) What did the soldiers want to gain by with the expedition? They were searching for the
Seven Cities of Gold. They were hoping to find wealth and fame. There were priests on the
expedition who were going to convert all the Native peoples to Christianity.

8) What was the weather like when the expedition first left Mexico? The weather was warm
because it was about 1,000 miles closer to the equator. They were probably wearing light
cotton shirts and pants that were loose-fitting as you wear in the summertime.

9) What is a despoplado? An area where no one lives. It is uninhabited or unpopulated.

10) Why did some Mexicans fight against the soldiers as they marched northward? They did not
believe that they were subjects of the King of Spain as the Spanish soldiers were telling them
they were.

11) Coronado arrived at Cibola about ten weeks before Don Tristan de Arellano. What
happened when Coronado arrived in Cibola? The Zuni people met Coronado outside the walls of
the pueblo. They did not want Coronado to come into their village so a fight broke out between
the two groups.

12) How did the people of Cibola act towards Don Tristan‘s group when they arrived later? They
did not offer to fight against Tristan‘s group hoping that they wouldn‘t stay long.
Chapter 2 is a flashback to provide information about Cabeza de Vaca and
Estavanico. In the middle of page 13 the time shifts back to the Coronado
expedition’s encounter with the Zuni.
      R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

   1) How did Cabeza de Vaca come to travel through what is today called Texas, New
   Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico? He was part of an expedition to the Gulf Coastal areas
   (Florida to Texas). He and three other survivors were shipwrecked and walked over
   1,000 miles to get to Mexico City.

   2) Why did some of the Native people consider Cabeza de Vaca and the other survivors
   to be a medicine man? As the survivors traveled through the Southwest, they
   sometimes met people who were sick. They would pray over the sick people. One time
   they did this and the man immediately jumped up; healed of his illness. The Native
   people thought the survivors had magical powers or spirit powers.

   3) Why did de Vaca think that the Native Inde villages he heard about were richer than
   they were? Cabeza de Vaca was from Spain where large cities had buildings with many
   stories and large churches or cathedrals, and the people who built the cities were rich.
   The king in Spain was very rich – rich meant someone had a lot of gold, silver, and

   4) Who was Estavanico (Estaban)? He was a black slave who had traveled through the
   northern areas while trying to get back to Mexico City from an expedition with Cabeza
   de Vaca.
   As you are reading this section it is important to note that de Vaca and the other
   Spanish survivors of the Narvaez expedition were offered the chance by Viceroy
   Mendoza to return to the northern areas to map out the route by which they came and
   to search for the Seven Cities of Gold. They all declined. Dorantes, who owned Estaban
   or Estivanico in this story, sold the slave to Viceroy Mendoza before returning to Spain
   with de Vaca and Castillo.

   5) Who was Fray Marcos de Niza (Nice, in Italian)? He was a monk who had traveled to
   South America with the Alvarado in Guatemala and was going to map out the route to
   the Seven Cities of Gold. He was made the group leader.

   6) How was Estavanico dressed and why was this important to the Native Indians that
   he met? He was dressed with a deer head with antler head dress, bells tied to his wrist
   and ankles – this looked like one of their kachinas.

   7) What did Estavanico want from the Zunis? He demanded women, gold, turquoise,
   and food.

   8) What did the Zunis do to Estavanico? They killed him.

   9) What was Fray Marcos‘ reaction to this? He became frightened.

   10) What did Fray Marcos do after hearing about Estavanico‘s fate? He traveled to just
   outside the pueblo, gazed upon it – purportedly at sundown which made the walls
   appear to be golden or covered in gold - and then beat a hasty retreat back to Mexico

   11) How did the Zuni‘s first react to Coronado‘s approaching group? Why did they react
   this way? They came out in a procession with flutes and whistles offering to be friends.
The Zuni thought that the conquistadors were half-human monsters because they rode
on horses and wore armor.

12) How did Coronado respond? Coronado gave them a few trinkets in return, but then
demanded gold and silver. When the Natives refused to lay down their weapons,
fighting began.

13) What did Coronado find inside the Zuni pueblo? Coronado did not find gold or riches
but did find food.
Historic records tell us that the fight at the Zuni pueblo was more about food than gold
at this juncture of the expedition. Their food supplies were depleted and several weeks
before they arrived at Zuni, several conquistadors died from trying to eat native plants.
The soldiers were starving. While Coronado was gravely disappointed that he found no
gold, the control over the food was critical for the group’s survival. At the same time,
this was a period of great drought in the region. For about 100 years, the Zunis and
other Native peoples were having to devise new ways of cultivating food crops. Food
was precious. If they did not protect their food stores, they would surely starve, too.)
Chapter 3
      R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

   1) Why are Gonzalo‘s feet so cold? It snowed in the night and his feet were not

   2) What did the soldier find that Pedro and Gonzalo can eat? Corn, beans, squash, pine

   3) What did Gonzalo drink during the journey that tasted sweet? Agave Juice.

   4) How was this made? Water collected inside the hollowed out stem of an agave. The
   water combined with the agave juice and turned sweet. They also were able to eat the
   pulp of the agave.

   5) The Zuni homes had no doors on the first floor – how did the people get in and out of
   their homes? They climbed ladders and then went in openings in the roof.

   6) Why does Gonzalo call the Zuni woman ―Tia‖? She reminds Gonzalo of his mother, so
   he called her ―Aunt‖ - ―Tia‖ means ―Aunt‖ in Spanish.

   7) Why do you think Pedro left Gonzalo with a woman he did not know and who was
   from a group of people he knew very little about? Answers will vary. Answers may
   include about how she carried Gonzalo up to the pueblo or how the woman‘s daughter
   was there or that there were no weapons or warriors in the room.

   8) What does Tia think about Gonzalo‘s shoes? They are too thin for the cold climate
   where she lives.

   9) What was Moni listening to through the window that frightened her? She heard the
   sheep bleating.

   10) Why did the sound frighten her? She had never heard or seen sheep before and they
   were strange to her. A more complete answer might include that the Spanish came on
   strange animals. They wore shiny armor and spoke forcefully to the Pueblo people.
   When the Indians did not do as the Spanish asked, they attacked and killed some of the
   Pueblo people. She is not sure what these strange creatures might be capable of either.
Chapter 4
      R04S1C6PO 4: Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.
      R04S2C1PO 8: Compare (and contrast) the characters, events, and setting in a
      literary selection.

Make a graphic organizer comparing and contrasting the Spanish/vaqueros to the
Pueblo people.

                      Zuni              Both           Spanish/Vaqueros

       - turkeys                   - corn cakes            - sheep
       Blue corn cakes             - ground corn in        - sheep skin
       - Buffalo skins             hollowed out            - Women spun
       - Men spun the              stones                  the thread
       thread                      - Women ground          - Fathers
       - Uncles                    the corn                taught/raised his
       taught/raised his           - boys wore their       children
       sister’s children           hair at shoulder        - wore short,
       - cold, had icicles         length                  lightweight
       - wore knee high            -                       sandals
       moccasins                   -                       -
       -                           -                       -
       -                           -                       -
       -                                                   -
Chapter 5
      R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

   1) What is a Kiva? A special meeting room only for the men; it was shaped differently
   and was used for important ceremonies.

   2) What story do the pictures inside the Kiva tell? The pictures tell about the worlds
   before this one – the animals that lived before and how people came to be in the world
   and how they learned to plant and gather nuts.

   3) As Nazo tells Gonzalo the story his people believe about how people first came, he
   says that the people were blind at first. What ceremony do the fathers now perform
   because of this story? The fathers hold the new born child up to face the sun.

   4) What do Nazo and his people think causes the corn to wilt and rain not to come? Evil
   spirits that used to live in one of the early worlds sometimes come through to this world
   and cause the corn to wilt and the rains to not come.

   5) What are the Kachinas? These kachinas were men dressed in costumes who danced
   around at the ceremony Gonzalo saw.

   Draw what you think the Kiva pictures looked like. Students should include some of the
   following descriptions (teachers decide how many details should be included in the rubric
   for completion):

   Pictures in Group One
   There were more worlds before this one
   Giant lizards and reptiles
   Rocks were soft
   Some animals left 3-toed tracks
   Great forests (animals lived in the forests)
   The animals were too big and died
   Pictures in Group Two
   Long-necked camels
   Woolly rhinoceros
   Shaggy mammoth
   Giant sloth
   People crawled into this second world naked and helpless
   The people came out of a mountain nearby. They call it Sipapu
   People were blind at first
   The rising sun shone on the peoples‘ eyes to make them see
   Mother earth taught the people to live in harmony
   Mother earth taught the people to plant and how to pick nuts
Chapter 6 This is a flashback again.
      R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

   1) Who are Bigotes and Cacique? They were Native leaders who were serving as guides
   to the Spanish expedition.

   2) Captain Alvarado was sent on a side exploration while the army stayed at Cibola.
   Where did his group explore? This group traveled to Acoma, the Rio Grande River and
   north to Albuquerque.

   3) Bigotes led Alvarado to Cicuye. Why was this an important pueblo to the people who
   lived in this area? Cicuye was a trade center and many different Native groups would
   gather to trade their items for things they couldn‘t find or make.

   4) What could be found at Cicuye? Trade items like buffalo hides, tallow, pemmican,
   jerky, corn, cotton, turquoise, pottery, baskets, and ornaments could be found at

   5) The Turk told Alvarado that Bigotes took something from him. The Turks story will
   lead to a battle. What is this thing that Bigotes took and why would the Spanish want to
   see it to have proof it existed? The Turk said that he was from a very wealthy city that
   had much gold. The item was a gold bracelet that would prove he was telling the truth
   about this wealthy city. It was important for the Spanish to see the gold bracelet
   because they were discouraged about not finding gold up to now and this gives them
   hope that they will still be able to find riches and become wealthy.
Chapter 7
This chapter provides some historical detail to the story. During this chapter students are
reminded of the Spaniards’ attitude of superiority over native peoples throughout the New
World. Also mentioned during the campfire scene with Casteneda, students will hear of the
events with the Turk, Bigotes, and Cacique. (The Turk was a slave in one of the pueblos.
He told Coronado about a city to the east that had much gold, a large river, with huge fish,
and a great ruler. He said he had proof of this, a gold bracelet he had been wearing when
he was captured and made a slave. The Turk said that Bigotes and Cacique had taken his
gold bracelet from him. When Bigotes and Cacique denied having a gold bracelet, they
were tortured and imprisoned.)

       R04S1C6PO 4: Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.

During this chapter, you will read many facts from the expedition records. As you
read, create a storyboard of the events Casteneda describes around the campfire
with Pedro and the other vaqueros.
Chapter 8
      R04S1C6PO 4: Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text.
      PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and
      effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.
      R04S3C1PO 7: Distinguish cause and effect. (While this is a fictional piece, the
      author slips into expository form as she provides the historical frame of reference
      reference for the event

The history lesson continues with a reminder of the sequence of events that led to escalated
conflict between the Pueblo people and the Spanish. At the beginning of this chapter with a
description of how the Spaniards’ treatment of Bigotes and Cacique caused discontent
among the pueblo peoples and how the Spaniards demanded the clothes of the people of
Tiguex. The author seeks to remind us that the Indians reacted by raiding and taking
horses and that the Spanish thought this to be treasonous – which would lead to retaliation.

As you read chapter 8, you will learn about how the conflict between the Spanish
and the Pueblo people got worse. You will see how small events led up to large
problems between the two groups. Complete the Cause and Effect chart below.
Start with some events you read about in chapter 7 and continue through chapter

                 Cause                                         Effect
                                            The Spanish believed that there
                                            really was gold somewhere
The Turk said he had been wearing a         in the land and that the
gold bracelet that his captors,             Pueblo people were hiding
Bigotes and Cacique had taken from          it and lying about not
him.                                        having any gold. The hope
                                            for finding riches was

Bigotes and Cacique denied that
they had taken the bracelet                 Bigotes and Cacique were put in
from The Turk or that                       chains and the dogs set on them.
there was any gold and
riches to be found
                                            The people of Cicuye did not fight back
The people of Cicuye were afraid that       at first
the Spaniards would kill Bigotes and        _______________________
The Spaniards created many
hardships for the Pueblo peoples            The pueblo people of Tiwa raided
during the winter they camped in            and took horses from the Spaniards.
Cicuye. The Spaniards demanded
and took food supplies and the clothes
right off the backs of the Pueblo people
                                            Coronado and the other Spaniards
The pueblo people of Tiwa raided            considered this treason against the
and took horses from the Spaniards.         rule of Spain and demanded the
                                            horses be returned
                                       The Pueblo (or Indé) wouldn’t return
The Spanish came to Cicuye saying      the horses because the Indé didn‘t
they were friends, but they            believe the Spanish anymore
imprisoned Bigotes and Cacique,        _______________________
they took food and clothes without

The Pueblo (or Indé) wouldn‘t return   The Spanish attacked the villagers.
the horses because the Indé didn‘t
believe the Spanish anymore.
                                       The Spanish built fires in holes they
The Pueblos were built with no front   created on the lower levels to create
entrances only roof entrances and      smoke that floated up and made it hard
the villagers were safe inside from    for the villagers to breathe.

                                       The skin around the wounds from
The attack by the Spanish spreads to   these arrows rots away and most of the
another village - Moho - about a       soldiers hit die from even small wounds.
league (3 miles) away. These people
use a different weapon of
rattlesnake poison-tipped arrows.
Chapter 9
      R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.

   1) What happens in late February and early March that is important to Pedro and
      Gonzalo? It is lambing season.
   2) Why does Pedro ask Casteñeda for permission to move the ewes inside the pueblo?
      So they will have a safe place to have their lambs. The lambs could be easily
      trampled by the older sheep and the rams.
   3) Why do Pedro, Gonzalo, Réal, Jose need to separate the ewes slowly and gently?
      They don‘t want to disturb the other sheep and cause them to run off.
   4) Why do they want to shear the sheep? The ewes have very thick wool at the end of
      the winter and it covers them all over. Clipping it will make it easier for the lambs to
   5) Why did some of the Indians try to cross the Rio Grande River when it was still so
      cold and icy? The fighting between the Indians and the Spanish was still going on
      and the Indians were trying to escape.
   6) All through the winter the slave, The Turk, continued to tell stories of the great
      riches of Quivira. Why do you think this slave was telling these stories to the
      Spanish? A basic answer would include the citation from the book that he liked being
      the center of attention. A deeper answer would include reference to the Turk‘s
      condition as a slave. Answers might address that the Turk may have thought that
      these Spanish people would take him close to his home where he could escape
      slavery – or that The Turk was trying to trick the Spanish in order to get them to
      continue traveling on and away from the villages of Cicuye.
   7) Why did Coronado free Cacique? He hoped that this would calm the Indians so that
      he could travel through their land when he would have to travel back through.
   8) Why do you think Pedro and Gonzalo left the clipped wool in the pueblo when they
      moved on with the army? They had no way to carry it.
   9) What did they hope would happen to the wool they left behind? They hoped that the
      Indians would find it and learn how to use it to make woolen cloth.
   10) Where did the expedition head on April 23, 1541? To the high plains to the east
      (towards the Texas panhandle and Kansas).
Chapter 10
      R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.
      Wr04S3C3PO 2: Write communications, including:
      b.     friendly letters

Gonzalo has met many new people and seen many amazing things. In chapter 10,
Gonzalo and his new friend Zabe travel through the great plains and see buffalo
for the first time! Gonzalo has learned about so many things. Pretend you are
Gonzalo and you are writing a letter home to your brother, Antonio. Choose at
least three things (include at least one reference to the Native American Peoples)
that Gonzalo has experienced up to now and write about these things. You must
include at least one event that describes the way the Spanish and the Indians’
acted towards the other.



Chapter 11
      R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause
      and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text.
      Wr04S3C3 PO 1. Write a variety of functional text (e.g., directions, recipes,
      procedures, rubrics, labels, graphs/tables).

Exchanging Business Cards
In chapter 11, Gonzalo and Zabe meet the Teya people. These people have already
heard about the Spanish conquistadors and more particularly about the sheep
herders who helped Nazo‘s family (remember that Nazo‘s father is a trader and
travels to many different villages).

Today when official people meet they often exchange business cards. These cards
provide a little information about the person, where they are from, and what they
do, all on a small card that can fit in a back pocket or wallet. Recently, these cards
include a saying, quote, or statement about what the person believes is important
or good.

Study the sample below. Find the different parts of the business card. Select a
character from the book – have your teacher approve your character choice – then
create that character‘s business card. Use the business card template provided if

                                                                 Name and Job Title

                                                                 Area of Responsibility


                                                                 Contact Information
                                                           (usually address/phone)

                                                                  Information about the
                                                           job - makes people want to
                                                           have you work for them



Chapter 11 (Alternative Activity)
     R04S3C1PO 5. Identify appropriate print and electronic reference sources
     (e.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical,
     textbooks, CD-ROM, website) needed for a specific purpose. (Connected to
     Research Strand in Writing)

Buffalo jerky

To prepare the buffalo meat for jerky, the Indians would cut the meat into strips.
They would then string it up so it could dry in the sun. Once it was dried, it was
easily stored and it would last indefinitely.
Today, buffalo jerky is rising in popularity and fast becoming the choice of many
health-conscious individuals. Buffalo jerky has a beef taste – yet it is better for the
body than beef. Buffalo is lower in cholesterol and calories – yet it is higher in
protein and iron.
Here are some other reasons that people are choosing buffalo jerky over traditional
beef jerky:

Buffalo is higher in iron than red meat.
Buffalo is 70-90% leaner than most other cuts of red meat
Buffalo is high in essential fatty acids (good fat) and it promotes a healthy
People with heart disease find their cholesterol levels reduce up to 40% when
buffalo is eaten 4-5 times a week.
Buffalo contains nearly six grams less of fat than red meat.
Nutritional Information
Buffalo: 93 Calories; 43 mg of Cholesterol; 1.8 grams of Fat
Beef: 183 Calories; 55 mg of Cholesterol; 8.7 grams of Fat
Chicken: 140 Calories; 73 mg of Cholesterol; 3.0 grams of Fat
Information from Jay Hebdon,

Research online for some other Native American foods and recipes. Find one that
looks interesting and easy to make. Ask mom and dad if they think they could
make the recipe with what you can buy in the stores today.

Teachers: (lesson plan)
Chapter 12
    M04S4C4 PO 2: Apply measurement skills to measure length, mass,
    and capacity using metric units.
    PO 3: Solve problems involving conversions within the same
    measurement system.
Step Counting: Direct students to the reference page in their Math text or
materials for measurement conversions.

You will recreate Gonzalo‘s day of step-counting and figure out how many steps you
would have traveled in one day with Coronado‘s Expedition!

With your class and your partner, go outside. Don‘t go to the sidewalk (Gonzalo
didn‘t have any sidewalks that were smooth and easy to travel over). Go out to the

    Mark a place on the ground (a rock or with a stick make an ―X‖ on the
     ground) to begin your step-counting calculations.
    With a tape measure or yard stick, measure out a distance of 12 feet (how
     many yards is that?)
    Go back to the first mark you made on the ground.
    Now step back 5 steps.
    When your partner is ready to help you count, begin walking towards the
     marks in a straight line.
    When you get to the first mark, start counting – your partner needs to watch
     your steps and count with you to make sure the count is accurate.
    Stop counting when you reach the second mark, 12 feet away from the first

How many steps did you take to travel 12 feet?

How many steps would you have to take to travel 1 mile?

How many steps would you have to take to travel 2 miles?

Coronado‘s records show that the group traveled about 3 leagues a day. How
many steps would you have to take to travel that far?

NOW…With your partner, start walking the perimeter of the playground. You must
count every step. This time, though, as you walk and count, your partner is going
to talk to you. You shouldn‘t try to mess up your partner, just talk about regular
things like lunch, what you did last the weekend, what you‘ll do after school today.

Was it harder to count?
How do you think Gonzalo kept an accurate count of his steps?
What could you do to make your counting more accurate?
Can you think of a better way to test the number of steps Gonzalo took in one day?
Chapter 13
    R04S1C6PO 4: Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning
    of the text.
      SS04S4C1PO 1: Use different types of maps to solve problems (i.e.,
      road maps –distance, resource maps-products, historical maps-
      boundaries, thematic map- climates).
      Wr04S3C3 PO 1: Write a variety of functional text (e.g., directions,
      recipes, procedures, rubrics, labels, graphs/tables).
      Sci04S3C1PO 1: Describe how natural events and human activities
      have positive and negative impacts on environments (e.g., fire, floods,
      pollution, dams).
      PO 2. Evaluate the consequences of environmental occurrences that
      happen either rapidly (e.g., fire, flood, tornado) or over a long period
      of time (e.g., drought, melting ice caps, the greenhouse effect,
      Sci04S6C3PO 3: Differentiate between weather and climate as they
      relate to the southwestern United States.
      PO 6. Compare weather conditions in various locations (e.g., regions
      of Arizona, various U.S. cities, coastal vs. interior geographical

Construct a Timeline
As they read, students create a timeline of Gonzalo‘s adventures. Encourage
students to discuss the seasons and the type of weather that would occur in
each area as they traveled and how the weather affected the success/failure
of the expedition. Use the travel guide for quick reference to average
temperatures and weather patterns for various locations (note for the
students that these statistics are current statistics and not historical records
– meteorologist was not a popular profession in the New World 500 years
ago !)
 LOCATION              SEASON               TEMPERATURE          WEATHER
 Mexico City           Summer               +77°                 Rain ~ 22 days

 Culiacan              Late Summer          95° Daytime          Rain ~ 11-16 days
                                            75° Nighttime
 Compostela            Late Summer –        89 Daytime           Rain ~ 14 days
                       Early Fall           59 Nighttime
 Red House             Fall                 64 Daytime            Little rain during
 (Chiricahua                                35 Nighttime         this month
 Hawikuh (12 miles     November             57 Daytime           Very little rain
 southwest of Zuni,                         23 Nighttime         during this month
 Quivira (Lyons,       Summer               96 Daytime           Little rain during
 Kansas about 30                            51 Nighttime         the summer
 miles SW of Salina
 and 55 miles NW of
 Tiguex (on the Rio    Spring - Summer      19-78 in early       Very Little rain
 Grande near                                Spring               during the spring
 Albuquerque )                              54 -99 in full       Some rain in
                                            Summer               July/August
 Cicuye (Southwest     Late Fall - Spring   53 -64 late Fall     Little rain
 of Santa Fe)                               19 – 60 Winter       Little rain
                                            39 – 68 Spring       Little – No rain

Mexico City
Red House (weather chart link)
Chapter 15
    SS04S1C2 PO 1: Describe the legacy and cultures of prehistoric
    people in the Americas:
    a.    characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies

Native American and Spanish weapons

The atlatl was the first weapon system developed by humans. These
weapons have been found to have been used by ancient peoples on every
continent except Africa.

The Atlatl and Dart were used and improved upon for so long by our ancient
ancestors that the Bow and Arrow can be considered a recent technology.
These weapons were so powerful that they could bring down a woolly

The atlatl was a sling-shot kind of tool that would launch a spear or dart
more quickly and farther than even the strongest warrior could throw.
Modern Atlatl sportsman say that using this weapon is similar to throwing a
rock or ball, but you must snap your wrist as you release the dart. Atlatl
sports competitions are held around the world today.

Several of the Conquistadors on the expedition were wealthy enough to own
an arquebus or harquebus, harkbus. This weapon was like a musket. To
load the bullets or ‗ball shots‘, the soldier had to push the ball down the
muzzle or long metal tube of the weapon. Loading a next shot was not
always a quick process!

Several of the Conquistadors had a weapon called a
crossbow. This weapon utilized a string or bow that was
pulled back tightly behind an arrow or bolt. When the
string was released, the bolt was launched forward with
great speed and power.

Other soldiers carried Native weapons such as the bow and arrow. The
advantage of this weapon was that many arrows could be carried in a small
pack and it was easy to make new ones when old ones were lost or broken.

Research the weapons of the Conquistadors or Native Americans. How did
these weapons help them hunt for food?
Ideas for other activities:

“Acts of Kindness”
     SS04S3C4 PO 1. Discuss ways an individual can contribute to a school
     or community.
     PO 2. Identify traits of character (e.g., responsibility, respect,
     perseverance, loyalty, integrity, involvement, justice and tolerance)
     that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy.

Brainstorm… chapter 8 Gonzalo and his father help Nazo‘s family escape,
create an alternative activity to encourage students to look at how people
treat each other. Students can create a list of little ways they could make a
difference for others. If this book study coincides with or is near to ―Martin
Luther King, Jr. Day‖ encourage students to read or listen to his ―I Have a
Dream‖ speech and guide students to what do people need to do for Dr.
King‘s speech to come true.

“Then and Now”
     SS04S4C PO 1. Describe how the Southwest has distinct physical and
     cultural characteristics.
     PO 2. Describe ways in which Arizona has changed over time from
     statehood to today.
     PO 3. Locate the landform regions of Arizona (plateau, mountain,
     desert) on a map.
     PO 4. Compare the landform regions of Arizona according to their
     physical features, plants, and animals.
     PO 5. Describe how regions and places (e.g., Grand Canyon, Colorado
     River, Casa Grande Ruin, Canyon de Chelly, Yucatan Peninsula) have
     distinct characteristics. (Connect to content studied.)

Pick one of the locations on the map. Reread the events that occurred when
Coronado traveled through the area. Look on a current map and find the
same location. Research what the area looks like today. Is there a pueblo
there today? What kind of village (pueblo) is there?
Create a two-paneled brochure comparing your location ―Then and Now‖.
“Interview a Character” pick one the characters from the book to

      R04S2C1PO 5: Describe a character‘s traits using textual evidence
      (e.g., dialogue, actions, narrations, illustrations).

Reporters and authors often interview people in order to share what they
learn about this person with others. They may write a book or short article.
They may create a news show or segment. What they all have to do is sit
down and decide what questions they will ask to learn the most about the
person they are interviewing. They will most certainly ask questions like,
―Where were you born?‖ and ―‖Why did you decide you wanted to do this
great thing you are now famous for?‖ Interviewers probably don‘t ask
questions like, ―What is your favorite food?‖ or ―How many dogs to you
own?‖ (unless the person is famous for owning dogs! )

What questions would you ask? With a teammate, decide what questions
you would ask your character and list them below. Be sure that they are
questions which other people would be interested in hearing the answers.

(Extension activity: ask students to select one of the famous conquistadors
like Cabeza de Vaca, DeSoto, Casteneda, or Coronado. After they have
studied the specific expedition, have them brainstorm the interview
questions and then return to research to find the answers.)

Figurative Language
     R04S1C4PO 3: Determine the difference between figurative language
     and literal language.
     PO 4. Identify figurative language, including similes, personification,
     and idioms.

Good writers use language that makes readers imagine the way something
sounds, how it feels, the smell that is present during a scene, and details of
how things look and how they move. One way to do this is to use similes
and metaphors.

Both similes and metaphors create mental images for the reader by
comparing something to another thing. ―The boy was like a rocket as he
jumped to make the winning basket at our game last night.‖ By making us
imagine a rocket that moves so quickly and can travel so high, we can image
the boy jumping very high, very straight, and very fast towards the hoop
during the game.
Similes and metaphors are almost exactly the same with only one small
difference – similes use the words ―like‖ or ―as‖ and metaphors do not.
Which kind of figurative language is the example above? You‘re right! You
found the word ―like‖ - ―The boy was like a rocket …‖ so this is a simile.
Take the word ―like‖ out – and it is a metaphor. ―The boy was a rocket as he
jumped to make the winning basket at our game last night.‖

What is meant by the following phrases from the book Gonzalo?

―It looked like a huge toad preparing to hop.‖ (p 38)
―The confinement made them feel like ants trapped underground.‖ (p 39)
―The sun glistened on the crystals of ice and reflected like millions of
miniature rainbows.‖ (p 42)
―Your heart may be pulled apart…‖ (p 53)
―All through the winter the slick-tongued Turk had continued to tell
wonderful stories of Quivira‖ (p 55)
―It was follow-the-leader all the way.‖ (p 59)
―Gonzalo sat still as mouse as he watched the two prairie dogs chatter to
each other.‖ (p 68)

Note to teacher: extension for advanced students. Encourage students to
find examples of personification –
(p 43) ―…the snow crunched as he walked. It seemed to be awakening and
speaking back to him.‖
(pp 54 - 55) ―…He missed the friendly stars winking at him, and the breezes
teasing his hair.‖

    R04S1C4PO2: Use context to determine the relevant meaning of a
    PO 5. Determine the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication,
    synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words by using a variety
    of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD-
    ROM and Internet when available.

Define the following words as they are used in the story.
Have the students continue to build their own dictionaries. As they find new
words, have them add them to their dictionary with the page reference and
the definition.

lingered (p 38)                    flaunted (p 38)
secured (p 38)                     affairs (p 38)
industrious (p 39)                 desolate (p 40)
vanguard (p 58)
Mapping exercise
    SS04S4C1 PO 3. Construct maps using symbols to represent human
    and physical features.
    PO 4. Construct charts and graphs to display geographic information.
    PO 5. Describe characteristics of human and physical features:
    a. physical – (i.e., river, lake, mountain, range, coast, sea, desert,
    gulf, bay, strait, plain, valley, volcanoes, isthmus, canyon, plateau,
    mesa, oasis, dunes)
    b. human – (i.e., equator, four hemispheres, city, state, country,
    harbor, dams, territory, county)

Students will need to review information from earlier in the book and may
need to refer to some of the historical information provided from other

Create a symbol for the events listed and place them in the correct location
on the map. You may include more than one symbol at any given location.
Be sure to include a map key or legend on your map.

Traded with the Native people       despoplado

battle                              Hawikuh

Spent the winter                    Cicuye

Traveled and almost starved         Tiguex

Wanted to find gold and other       Rio Grande
Built a bridge to cross a river     Sangre de Cristo Mountains

Saw buffalo herds                   Pecos River

Burned villages                     Quivira

Spanish were shot with poison       Moho (really all 7 pueblos
arrows                              need to be on this map)

Rested for two days before          Chichilticali
entering the despoplado
Resources from the internet:

“ABC Bookmaking Builds Vocabulary in the Content Areas”

Many people think that Native Americans are a vanished people—that they
do not exist in the present day.

Using this lesson plan, teachers can use photo essays and other texts to
introduce students to Native children and their families, thereby countering
the idea that Native people no longer exist.
Resources from the internet.

“Native Americans Today”

Many people think that Native Americans are a vanished people—that they
do not exist in the present day.

Using this lesson plan, teachers can use photo essays and other texts to
introduce students to Native children and their families, thereby countering
the idea that Native people no longer exist.

“Weather 1: Weather Patterns”

This lesson is the first in a two-part series on the weather. The study of the
weather in these early years is important because it can help students
understand that some events in nature have a repeating pattern. It also is
important for students to study the earth repeatedly because they take
years to acquire the knowledge that they need to complete the picture. The
full picture requires the introduction of such concepts as temperature, the
water cycle, etc.

“How’s the Weather Today?”

This lesson asks students to think about the weather in their area and
introduces them to weather and temperature trends in different latitudes of
the United States. They will look at today's weather map and record the high
temperatures for a few cities. Students will conclude by drawing pictures of
themselves outdoors in their hometown and in another place that has
different weather.