Gonzalo Coronado’s Shepard Boy A cross curricular book study Note to the Teacher - This book study provides a framework for either group reading/discussions for formative evaluation and laying a foundation for the historical events of the Coronado expedition, or it can be used for individual reading and summative evaluation of comprehension. Social Studies standards guiding Fourth Grade study of Arizona are the overarching standards used in the development of these sets of activities. However, you will find that the unit is developed with a concentration on the Reading and Writing Standards and is designed as a cross curricular piece. These activities were not designed to replace existing historical text of the Coronado Entrada. The novel itself is historical fiction and does contain some inconsistencies and chronological flaws, as many fiction pieces do. Teachers are encouraged to use these materials as supplementary activities. Activities were designed so that teachers can pick out those activities that support their study of Arizona. We encourage you to review all of the material and select those activities that are most useful to your students and fit within the timeframe you have to devote to this section of Arizona history. Social Studies standards are: SS04S1C3 PO 1: Describe the reasons for early Spanish exploration of Mexico and the Southwestern region of the United States by: a. Cabeza de Vaca b. Estevan c. Fray Marcos de Niza d. Francisco Vásquez de Coronado SS04S1C3 PO 3: Describe the location and cultural characteristics of Native American tribes (e.g., O‘odham, Apache, Hopi) during the Spanish period. SS04S2C5 PO 1: Describe the reasons (e.g., trade routes, gold) for Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the Americas. Writing Standards are: PO 3. Write a response that demonstrates an understanding of a literary selection, and depending on the selection, includes: a. evidence from the text b. personal experience c. comparison to other text/media While there is not an overt connection to the Native People is mentioned in the story and the many Native People that live in Arizona today, many questions are designed to lay the foundation of and open the discussion about the cultural diversity of our Arizona citizens today and how many cultures have contributed to that diversity. The Social Studies Standard to which this pertains is: SS04S3C1 PO 4. Describe the varied backgrounds of people living in Arizona: a. shared principles, goals, customs and traditions b. diversity in one‘s school and community c. benefits and challenges of a diverse population. (Teachers may also wish to include a discussion about the main character‘s mother and her culture which is only mentioned in passing reference throughout the story. Gonzalo‘s mother is an Aztec and there are sections in which Gonzalo or his father, reflect on the treatment and attitudes of the Spanish towards her people. This connects to SS04S2C5 PO 2: Describe the impact of European explorers‘ encounters with the Aztec and Inca/Inka.) Guided Reading Notes in italics are additional information that may assist in painting an overall picture of the pieces of this historic puzzle. Chapter 1: R04S2C1PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. 1) Where and when is this story taking place? The story begins November, 1540, somewhere in the Southwest on the expedition of Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. 2) Who is the main character? The main character Gonzalo, an eleven year old boy who is the son of an indentured servant. 3) What is the main character doing traveling with Coronado‘s expedition? He is helping his father who is herding the flock of sheep that accompanies Coronado‘s expedition in search of the Seven Cities of Gold. 4) Why had the main character not experienced cold weather before? Gonzalo is from Mexico and it doesn‘t get so cold that it snows where he is from. 5) What did Pedro and his son use to keep warm? They have hats made from wool from the sheep. During the night they huddle together for warmth. 6) What is an indentured servant? An indentured servant is a person who must work for a certain master because, when the servant was free, the master paid for something for that servant (such as the boat passage to the New World or a large debt owed to another person). Indentured servants worked for a certain amount of time to pay off the debt to the master and then were free again. Often indentured contracts lasted between five and seven years, so the author’s indication that Pedro had been indentured since 1524 is probably faulty research, though we have no proof of this. 7) What did the soldiers want to gain by with the expedition? They were searching for the Seven Cities of Gold. They were hoping to find wealth and fame. There were priests on the expedition who were going to convert all the Native peoples to Christianity. 8) What was the weather like when the expedition first left Mexico? The weather was warm because it was about 1,000 miles closer to the equator. They were probably wearing light cotton shirts and pants that were loose-fitting as you wear in the summertime. 9) What is a despoplado? An area where no one lives. It is uninhabited or unpopulated. 10) Why did some Mexicans fight against the soldiers as they marched northward? They did not believe that they were subjects of the King of Spain as the Spanish soldiers were telling them they were. 11) Coronado arrived at Cibola about ten weeks before Don Tristan de Arellano. What happened when Coronado arrived in Cibola? The Zuni people met Coronado outside the walls of the pueblo. They did not want Coronado to come into their village so a fight broke out between the two groups. 12) How did the people of Cibola act towards Don Tristan‘s group when they arrived later? They did not offer to fight against Tristan‘s group hoping that they wouldn‘t stay long. Chapter 2 is a flashback to provide information about Cabeza de Vaca and Estavanico. In the middle of page 13 the time shifts back to the Coronado expedition’s encounter with the Zuni. R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. 1) How did Cabeza de Vaca come to travel through what is today called Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Mexico? He was part of an expedition to the Gulf Coastal areas (Florida to Texas). He and three other survivors were shipwrecked and walked over 1,000 miles to get to Mexico City. 2) Why did some of the Native people consider Cabeza de Vaca and the other survivors to be a medicine man? As the survivors traveled through the Southwest, they sometimes met people who were sick. They would pray over the sick people. One time they did this and the man immediately jumped up; healed of his illness. The Native people thought the survivors had magical powers or spirit powers. 3) Why did de Vaca think that the Native Inde villages he heard about were richer than they were? Cabeza de Vaca was from Spain where large cities had buildings with many stories and large churches or cathedrals, and the people who built the cities were rich. The king in Spain was very rich – rich meant someone had a lot of gold, silver, and jewels. 4) Who was Estavanico (Estaban)? He was a black slave who had traveled through the northern areas while trying to get back to Mexico City from an expedition with Cabeza de Vaca. As you are reading this section it is important to note that de Vaca and the other Spanish survivors of the Narvaez expedition were offered the chance by Viceroy Mendoza to return to the northern areas to map out the route by which they came and to search for the Seven Cities of Gold. They all declined. Dorantes, who owned Estaban or Estivanico in this story, sold the slave to Viceroy Mendoza before returning to Spain with de Vaca and Castillo. 5) Who was Fray Marcos de Niza (Nice, in Italian)? He was a monk who had traveled to South America with the Alvarado in Guatemala and was going to map out the route to the Seven Cities of Gold. He was made the group leader. 6) How was Estavanico dressed and why was this important to the Native Indians that he met? He was dressed with a deer head with antler head dress, bells tied to his wrist and ankles – this looked like one of their kachinas. 7) What did Estavanico want from the Zunis? He demanded women, gold, turquoise, and food. 8) What did the Zunis do to Estavanico? They killed him. 9) What was Fray Marcos‘ reaction to this? He became frightened. 10) What did Fray Marcos do after hearing about Estavanico‘s fate? He traveled to just outside the pueblo, gazed upon it – purportedly at sundown which made the walls appear to be golden or covered in gold - and then beat a hasty retreat back to Mexico City. 11) How did the Zuni‘s first react to Coronado‘s approaching group? Why did they react this way? They came out in a procession with flutes and whistles offering to be friends. The Zuni thought that the conquistadors were half-human monsters because they rode on horses and wore armor. 12) How did Coronado respond? Coronado gave them a few trinkets in return, but then demanded gold and silver. When the Natives refused to lay down their weapons, fighting began. 13) What did Coronado find inside the Zuni pueblo? Coronado did not find gold or riches but did find food. Historic records tell us that the fight at the Zuni pueblo was more about food than gold at this juncture of the expedition. Their food supplies were depleted and several weeks before they arrived at Zuni, several conquistadors died from trying to eat native plants. The soldiers were starving. While Coronado was gravely disappointed that he found no gold, the control over the food was critical for the group’s survival. At the same time, this was a period of great drought in the region. For about 100 years, the Zunis and other Native peoples were having to devise new ways of cultivating food crops. Food was precious. If they did not protect their food stores, they would surely starve, too.) Chapter 3 R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. 1) Why are Gonzalo‘s feet so cold? It snowed in the night and his feet were not protected. 2) What did the soldier find that Pedro and Gonzalo can eat? Corn, beans, squash, pine nuts. 3) What did Gonzalo drink during the journey that tasted sweet? Agave Juice. 4) How was this made? Water collected inside the hollowed out stem of an agave. The water combined with the agave juice and turned sweet. They also were able to eat the pulp of the agave. 5) The Zuni homes had no doors on the first floor – how did the people get in and out of their homes? They climbed ladders and then went in openings in the roof. 6) Why does Gonzalo call the Zuni woman ―Tia‖? She reminds Gonzalo of his mother, so he called her ―Aunt‖ - ―Tia‖ means ―Aunt‖ in Spanish. 7) Why do you think Pedro left Gonzalo with a woman he did not know and who was from a group of people he knew very little about? Answers will vary. Answers may include about how she carried Gonzalo up to the pueblo or how the woman‘s daughter was there or that there were no weapons or warriors in the room. 8) What does Tia think about Gonzalo‘s shoes? They are too thin for the cold climate where she lives. 9) What was Moni listening to through the window that frightened her? She heard the sheep bleating. 10) Why did the sound frighten her? She had never heard or seen sheep before and they were strange to her. A more complete answer might include that the Spanish came on strange animals. They wore shiny armor and spoke forcefully to the Pueblo people. When the Indians did not do as the Spanish asked, they attacked and killed some of the Pueblo people. She is not sure what these strange creatures might be capable of either. Chapter 4 R04S1C6PO 4: Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text. R04S2C1PO 8: Compare (and contrast) the characters, events, and setting in a literary selection. Make a graphic organizer comparing and contrasting the Spanish/vaqueros to the Pueblo people. Zuni Both Spanish/Vaqueros - turkeys - corn cakes - sheep Blue corn cakes - ground corn in - sheep skin - Buffalo skins hollowed out - Women spun - Men spun the stones the thread thread - Women ground - Fathers - Uncles the corn taught/raised his taught/raised his - boys wore their children sister’s children hair at shoulder - wore short, - cold, had icicles length lightweight - wore knee high - sandals moccasins - - - - - - - - - - Chapter 5 R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. 1) What is a Kiva? A special meeting room only for the men; it was shaped differently and was used for important ceremonies. 2) What story do the pictures inside the Kiva tell? The pictures tell about the worlds before this one – the animals that lived before and how people came to be in the world and how they learned to plant and gather nuts. 3) As Nazo tells Gonzalo the story his people believe about how people first came, he says that the people were blind at first. What ceremony do the fathers now perform because of this story? The fathers hold the new born child up to face the sun. 4) What do Nazo and his people think causes the corn to wilt and rain not to come? Evil spirits that used to live in one of the early worlds sometimes come through to this world and cause the corn to wilt and the rains to not come. 5) What are the Kachinas? These kachinas were men dressed in costumes who danced around at the ceremony Gonzalo saw. Draw what you think the Kiva pictures looked like. Students should include some of the following descriptions (teachers decide how many details should be included in the rubric for completion): Pictures in Group One There were more worlds before this one Giant lizards and reptiles Rocks were soft Some animals left 3-toed tracks Great forests (animals lived in the forests) The animals were too big and died Pictures in Group Two Long-necked camels Woolly rhinoceros Shaggy mammoth Giant sloth Bison People crawled into this second world naked and helpless The people came out of a mountain nearby. They call it Sipapu People were blind at first The rising sun shone on the peoples‘ eyes to make them see Mother earth taught the people to live in harmony Mother earth taught the people to plant and how to pick nuts Chapter 6 This is a flashback again. R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. 1) Who are Bigotes and Cacique? They were Native leaders who were serving as guides to the Spanish expedition. 2) Captain Alvarado was sent on a side exploration while the army stayed at Cibola. Where did his group explore? This group traveled to Acoma, the Rio Grande River and north to Albuquerque. 3) Bigotes led Alvarado to Cicuye. Why was this an important pueblo to the people who lived in this area? Cicuye was a trade center and many different Native groups would gather to trade their items for things they couldn‘t find or make. 4) What could be found at Cicuye? Trade items like buffalo hides, tallow, pemmican, jerky, corn, cotton, turquoise, pottery, baskets, and ornaments could be found at Cicuye. 5) The Turk told Alvarado that Bigotes took something from him. The Turks story will lead to a battle. What is this thing that Bigotes took and why would the Spanish want to see it to have proof it existed? The Turk said that he was from a very wealthy city that had much gold. The item was a gold bracelet that would prove he was telling the truth about this wealthy city. It was important for the Spanish to see the gold bracelet because they were discouraged about not finding gold up to now and this gives them hope that they will still be able to find riches and become wealthy. Chapter 7 This chapter provides some historical detail to the story. During this chapter students are reminded of the Spaniards’ attitude of superiority over native peoples throughout the New World. Also mentioned during the campfire scene with Casteneda, students will hear of the events with the Turk, Bigotes, and Cacique. (The Turk was a slave in one of the pueblos. He told Coronado about a city to the east that had much gold, a large river, with huge fish, and a great ruler. He said he had proof of this, a gold bracelet he had been wearing when he was captured and made a slave. The Turk said that Bigotes and Cacique had taken his gold bracelet from him. When Bigotes and Cacique denied having a gold bracelet, they were tortured and imprisoned.) R04S1C6PO 4: Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text. During this chapter, you will read many facts from the expedition records. As you read, create a storyboard of the events Casteneda describes around the campfire with Pedro and the other vaqueros. Chapter 8 R04S1C6PO 4: Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text. PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. R04S3C1PO 7: Distinguish cause and effect. (While this is a fictional piece, the author slips into expository form as she provides the historical frame of reference reference for the event The history lesson continues with a reminder of the sequence of events that led to escalated conflict between the Pueblo people and the Spanish. At the beginning of this chapter with a description of how the Spaniards’ treatment of Bigotes and Cacique caused discontent among the pueblo peoples and how the Spaniards demanded the clothes of the people of Tiguex. The author seeks to remind us that the Indians reacted by raiding and taking horses and that the Spanish thought this to be treasonous – which would lead to retaliation. As you read chapter 8, you will learn about how the conflict between the Spanish and the Pueblo people got worse. You will see how small events led up to large problems between the two groups. Complete the Cause and Effect chart below. Start with some events you read about in chapter 7 and continue through chapter 8. Cause Effect The Spanish believed that there really was gold somewhere The Turk said he had been wearing a in the land and that the gold bracelet that his captors, Pueblo people were hiding Bigotes and Cacique had taken from it and lying about not him. having any gold. The hope for finding riches was renewed. _______________________ Bigotes and Cacique denied that they had taken the bracelet Bigotes and Cacique were put in from The Turk or that chains and the dogs set on them. there was any gold and riches to be found _______________________ The people of Cicuye did not fight back The people of Cicuye were afraid that at first the Spaniards would kill Bigotes and _______________________ Cacique. The Spaniards created many hardships for the Pueblo peoples The pueblo people of Tiwa raided during the winter they camped in and took horses from the Spaniards. Cicuye. The Spaniards demanded and took food supplies and the clothes right off the backs of the Pueblo people _______________________ Coronado and the other Spaniards The pueblo people of Tiwa raided considered this treason against the and took horses from the Spaniards. rule of Spain and demanded the horses be returned _______________________ The Pueblo (or Indé) wouldn’t return The Spanish came to Cicuye saying the horses because the Indé didn‘t they were friends, but they believe the Spanish anymore imprisoned Bigotes and Cacique, _______________________ they took food and clothes without permission. The Pueblo (or Indé) wouldn‘t return The Spanish attacked the villagers. the horses because the Indé didn‘t believe the Spanish anymore. The Spanish built fires in holes they The Pueblos were built with no front created on the lower levels to create entrances only roof entrances and smoke that floated up and made it hard the villagers were safe inside from for the villagers to breathe. attack. The skin around the wounds from The attack by the Spanish spreads to these arrows rots away and most of the another village - Moho - about a soldiers hit die from even small wounds. league (3 miles) away. These people use a different weapon of rattlesnake poison-tipped arrows. Chapter 9 R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. 1) What happens in late February and early March that is important to Pedro and Gonzalo? It is lambing season. 2) Why does Pedro ask Casteñeda for permission to move the ewes inside the pueblo? So they will have a safe place to have their lambs. The lambs could be easily trampled by the older sheep and the rams. 3) Why do Pedro, Gonzalo, Réal, Jose need to separate the ewes slowly and gently? They don‘t want to disturb the other sheep and cause them to run off. 4) Why do they want to shear the sheep? The ewes have very thick wool at the end of the winter and it covers them all over. Clipping it will make it easier for the lambs to eat. 5) Why did some of the Indians try to cross the Rio Grande River when it was still so cold and icy? The fighting between the Indians and the Spanish was still going on and the Indians were trying to escape. 6) All through the winter the slave, The Turk, continued to tell stories of the great riches of Quivira. Why do you think this slave was telling these stories to the Spanish? A basic answer would include the citation from the book that he liked being the center of attention. A deeper answer would include reference to the Turk‘s condition as a slave. Answers might address that the Turk may have thought that these Spanish people would take him close to his home where he could escape slavery – or that The Turk was trying to trick the Spanish in order to get them to continue traveling on and away from the villages of Cicuye. 7) Why did Coronado free Cacique? He hoped that this would calm the Indians so that he could travel through their land when he would have to travel back through. 8) Why do you think Pedro and Gonzalo left the clipped wool in the pueblo when they moved on with the army? They had no way to carry it. 9) What did they hope would happen to the wool they left behind? They hoped that the Indians would find it and learn how to use it to make woolen cloth. 10) Where did the expedition head on April 23, 1541? To the high plains to the east (towards the Texas panhandle and Kansas). Chapter 10 R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. SS04S1C2 Wr04S3C3PO 2: Write communications, including: b. friendly letters Gonzalo has met many new people and seen many amazing things. In chapter 10, Gonzalo and his new friend Zabe travel through the great plains and see buffalo for the first time! Gonzalo has learned about so many things. Pretend you are Gonzalo and you are writing a letter home to your brother, Antonio. Choose at least three things (include at least one reference to the Native American Peoples) that Gonzalo has experienced up to now and write about these things. You must include at least one event that describes the way the Spanish and the Indians’ acted towards the other. ___________________________ ___________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ____ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ____ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ____ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ____ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ __ Chapter 11 R04S1C6PO 6: Use reading strategies (e.g., drawing conclusions, determining cause and effect, making inferences, sequencing) to comprehend text. Wr04S3C3 PO 1. Write a variety of functional text (e.g., directions, recipes, procedures, rubrics, labels, graphs/tables). Exchanging Business Cards In chapter 11, Gonzalo and Zabe meet the Teya people. These people have already heard about the Spanish conquistadors and more particularly about the sheep herders who helped Nazo‘s family (remember that Nazo‘s father is a trader and travels to many different villages). Today when official people meet they often exchange business cards. These cards provide a little information about the person, where they are from, and what they do, all on a small card that can fit in a back pocket or wallet. Recently, these cards include a saying, quote, or statement about what the person believes is important or good. Study the sample below. Find the different parts of the business card. Select a character from the book – have your teacher approve your character choice – then create that character‘s business card. Use the business card template provided if needed. Name and Job Title Area of Responsibility Logo Contact Information (usually address/phone) Information about the job - makes people want to have you work for them ______________________________________________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ Chapter 11 (Alternative Activity) R04S3C1PO 5. Identify appropriate print and electronic reference sources (e.g., encyclopedia, atlas, almanac, dictionary, thesaurus, periodical, textbooks, CD-ROM, website) needed for a specific purpose. (Connected to Research Strand in Writing) Buffalo jerky To prepare the buffalo meat for jerky, the Indians would cut the meat into strips. They would then string it up so it could dry in the sun. Once it was dried, it was easily stored and it would last indefinitely. Today, buffalo jerky is rising in popularity and fast becoming the choice of many health-conscious individuals. Buffalo jerky has a beef taste – yet it is better for the body than beef. Buffalo is lower in cholesterol and calories – yet it is higher in protein and iron. Here are some other reasons that people are choosing buffalo jerky over traditional beef jerky: Buffalo is higher in iron than red meat. Buffalo is 70-90% leaner than most other cuts of red meat Buffalo is high in essential fatty acids (good fat) and it promotes a healthy metabolism. People with heart disease find their cholesterol levels reduce up to 40% when buffalo is eaten 4-5 times a week. Buffalo contains nearly six grams less of fat than red meat. Nutritional Information Buffalo: 93 Calories; 43 mg of Cholesterol; 1.8 grams of Fat Beef: 183 Calories; 55 mg of Cholesterol; 8.7 grams of Fat Chicken: 140 Calories; 73 mg of Cholesterol; 3.0 grams of Fat Information from Jay Hebdon, http://gamathers.wordpress.com/2007/06/06/buffalo-jerky- history Research online for some other Native American foods and recipes. Find one that looks interesting and easy to make. Ask mom and dad if they think they could make the recipe with what you can buy in the stores today. Teachers: http://edsitement.neh.gov/view_lesson_plan.asp?id=324 (lesson plan) http://www.kstrom.net/isk/mainmenu.html http://nativetech.org/recipes/ http://www.cookingpost.com/ http://www.cookingpost.com/bread.cfm Students: http://www.vivanewmexico.com/food.recipes.cocinas.html http://www.kstrom.net/isk/mainmenu.html http://nativetech.org/recipes/ http://www.cookingpost.com/ http://www.cookingpost.com/bread.cfm Chapter 12 M04S4C4 PO 2: Apply measurement skills to measure length, mass, and capacity using metric units. PO 3: Solve problems involving conversions within the same measurement system. Step Counting: Direct students to the reference page in their Math text or materials for measurement conversions. You will recreate Gonzalo‘s day of step-counting and figure out how many steps you would have traveled in one day with Coronado‘s Expedition! With your class and your partner, go outside. Don‘t go to the sidewalk (Gonzalo didn‘t have any sidewalks that were smooth and easy to travel over). Go out to the field. Mark a place on the ground (a rock or with a stick make an ―X‖ on the ground) to begin your step-counting calculations. With a tape measure or yard stick, measure out a distance of 12 feet (how many yards is that?) Go back to the first mark you made on the ground. Now step back 5 steps. When your partner is ready to help you count, begin walking towards the marks in a straight line. When you get to the first mark, start counting – your partner needs to watch your steps and count with you to make sure the count is accurate. Stop counting when you reach the second mark, 12 feet away from the first mark. How many steps did you take to travel 12 feet? How many steps would you have to take to travel 1 mile? How many steps would you have to take to travel 2 miles? Coronado‘s records show that the group traveled about 3 leagues a day. How many steps would you have to take to travel that far? NOW…With your partner, start walking the perimeter of the playground. You must count every step. This time, though, as you walk and count, your partner is going to talk to you. You shouldn‘t try to mess up your partner, just talk about regular things like lunch, what you did last the weekend, what you‘ll do after school today. Was it harder to count? How do you think Gonzalo kept an accurate count of his steps? What could you do to make your counting more accurate? Can you think of a better way to test the number of steps Gonzalo took in one day? Chapter 13 R04S1C6PO 4: Use graphic organizers in order to clarify the meaning of the text. SS04S4C1PO 1: Use different types of maps to solve problems (i.e., road maps –distance, resource maps-products, historical maps- boundaries, thematic map- climates). Wr04S3C3 PO 1: Write a variety of functional text (e.g., directions, recipes, procedures, rubrics, labels, graphs/tables). Sci04S3C1PO 1: Describe how natural events and human activities have positive and negative impacts on environments (e.g., fire, floods, pollution, dams). PO 2. Evaluate the consequences of environmental occurrences that happen either rapidly (e.g., fire, flood, tornado) or over a long period of time (e.g., drought, melting ice caps, the greenhouse effect, erosion). Sci04S6C3PO 3: Differentiate between weather and climate as they relate to the southwestern United States. PO 6. Compare weather conditions in various locations (e.g., regions of Arizona, various U.S. cities, coastal vs. interior geographical regions). Construct a Timeline As they read, students create a timeline of Gonzalo‘s adventures. Encourage students to discuss the seasons and the type of weather that would occur in each area as they traveled and how the weather affected the success/failure of the expedition. Use the travel guide for quick reference to average temperatures and weather patterns for various locations (note for the students that these statistics are current statistics and not historical records – meteorologist was not a popular profession in the New World 500 years ago !) LOCATION SEASON TEMPERATURE WEATHER PATTERN Mexico City Summer +77° Rain ~ 22 days Culiacan Late Summer 95° Daytime Rain ~ 11-16 days 75° Nighttime Compostela Late Summer – 89 Daytime Rain ~ 14 days Early Fall 59 Nighttime Red House Fall 64 Daytime Little rain during (Chiricahua 35 Nighttime this month National Monument) Hawikuh (12 miles November 57 Daytime Very little rain southwest of Zuni, 23 Nighttime during this month NM) Quivira (Lyons, Summer 96 Daytime Little rain during Kansas about 30 51 Nighttime the summer miles SW of Salina and 55 miles NW of Wichita) Tiguex (on the Rio Spring - Summer 19-78 in early Very Little rain Grande near Spring during the spring Albuquerque ) 54 -99 in full Some rain in Summer July/August Cicuye (Southwest Late Fall - Spring 53 -64 late Fall Little rain of Santa Fe) 19 – 60 Winter Little rain 39 – 68 Spring Little – No rain Mexico City http://www.weather2travel.com/climateguides/index.php?destination=mexico- city Culiacan http://www.weather2travel.com/whentotravel/index.php?destination=culiacan&3=3&4=2&7= 2&5=2&6=2&Submit=Search Compostela http://weather.yahoo.com/climo/MXNT1017_f.html http://www.weather2travel.com/climateguides/index.php?destination=guadalajara Red House http://www.nps.gov/chir/planyourvisit/weather.htm (weather chart link) Hawikuh http://www.idcide.com/weather/nm/zuni-pueblo.htm Quivira http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/WXDailyHistory.asp?ID=KKSWICHI9&month= 6&day=26&year=2003 Tiguex http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/WXDailyHistory.asp?ID=KNMALBUQ52 Cicuye http://www.wunderground.com/weatherstation/WXDailyHistory.asp?ID=KVAVIRGI49 Chapter 15 SS04S1C2 PO 1: Describe the legacy and cultures of prehistoric people in the Americas: a. characteristics of hunter-gatherer societies Native American and Spanish weapons The atlatl was the first weapon system developed by humans. These weapons have been found to have been used by ancient peoples on every continent except Africa. The Atlatl and Dart were used and improved upon for so long by our ancient ancestors that the Bow and Arrow can be considered a recent technology. These weapons were so powerful that they could bring down a woolly mammoth. The atlatl was a sling-shot kind of tool that would launch a spear or dart more quickly and farther than even the strongest warrior could throw. Modern Atlatl sportsman say that using this weapon is similar to throwing a rock or ball, but you must snap your wrist as you release the dart. Atlatl sports competitions are held around the world today. Several of the Conquistadors on the expedition were wealthy enough to own an arquebus or harquebus, harkbus. This weapon was like a musket. To load the bullets or ‗ball shots‘, the soldier had to push the ball down the muzzle or long metal tube of the weapon. Loading a next shot was not always a quick process! Several of the Conquistadors had a weapon called a crossbow. This weapon utilized a string or bow that was pulled back tightly behind an arrow or bolt. When the string was released, the bolt was launched forward with great speed and power. Other soldiers carried Native weapons such as the bow and arrow. The advantage of this weapon was that many arrows could be carried in a small pack and it was easy to make new ones when old ones were lost or broken. Research the weapons of the Conquistadors or Native Americans. How did these weapons help them hunt for food? Ideas for other activities: “Acts of Kindness” SS04S3C4 PO 1. Discuss ways an individual can contribute to a school or community. PO 2. Identify traits of character (e.g., responsibility, respect, perseverance, loyalty, integrity, involvement, justice and tolerance) that are important to the preservation and improvement of democracy. Brainstorm…..in chapter 8 Gonzalo and his father help Nazo‘s family escape, create an alternative activity to encourage students to look at how people treat each other. Students can create a list of little ways they could make a difference for others. If this book study coincides with or is near to ―Martin Luther King, Jr. Day‖ encourage students to read or listen to his ―I Have a Dream‖ speech and guide students to what do people need to do for Dr. King‘s speech to come true. “Then and Now” SS04S4C PO 1. Describe how the Southwest has distinct physical and cultural characteristics. PO 2. Describe ways in which Arizona has changed over time from statehood to today. PO 3. Locate the landform regions of Arizona (plateau, mountain, desert) on a map. PO 4. Compare the landform regions of Arizona according to their physical features, plants, and animals. PO 5. Describe how regions and places (e.g., Grand Canyon, Colorado River, Casa Grande Ruin, Canyon de Chelly, Yucatan Peninsula) have distinct characteristics. (Connect to content studied.) Pick one of the locations on the map. Reread the events that occurred when Coronado traveled through the area. Look on a current map and find the same location. Research what the area looks like today. Is there a pueblo there today? What kind of village (pueblo) is there? Create a two-paneled brochure comparing your location ―Then and Now‖. “Interview a Character” pick one the characters from the book to interview. R04S2C1PO 5: Describe a character‘s traits using textual evidence (e.g., dialogue, actions, narrations, illustrations). Reporters and authors often interview people in order to share what they learn about this person with others. They may write a book or short article. They may create a news show or segment. What they all have to do is sit down and decide what questions they will ask to learn the most about the person they are interviewing. They will most certainly ask questions like, ―Where were you born?‖ and ―‖Why did you decide you wanted to do this great thing you are now famous for?‖ Interviewers probably don‘t ask questions like, ―What is your favorite food?‖ or ―How many dogs to you own?‖ (unless the person is famous for owning dogs! ) What questions would you ask? With a teammate, decide what questions you would ask your character and list them below. Be sure that they are questions which other people would be interested in hearing the answers. (Extension activity: ask students to select one of the famous conquistadors like Cabeza de Vaca, DeSoto, Casteneda, or Coronado. After they have studied the specific expedition, have them brainstorm the interview questions and then return to research to find the answers.) Figurative Language R04S1C4PO 3: Determine the difference between figurative language and literal language. PO 4. Identify figurative language, including similes, personification, and idioms. Good writers use language that makes readers imagine the way something sounds, how it feels, the smell that is present during a scene, and details of how things look and how they move. One way to do this is to use similes and metaphors. Both similes and metaphors create mental images for the reader by comparing something to another thing. ―The boy was like a rocket as he jumped to make the winning basket at our game last night.‖ By making us imagine a rocket that moves so quickly and can travel so high, we can image the boy jumping very high, very straight, and very fast towards the hoop during the game. Similes and metaphors are almost exactly the same with only one small difference – similes use the words ―like‖ or ―as‖ and metaphors do not. Which kind of figurative language is the example above? You‘re right! You found the word ―like‖ - ―The boy was like a rocket …‖ so this is a simile. Take the word ―like‖ out – and it is a metaphor. ―The boy was a rocket as he jumped to make the winning basket at our game last night.‖ What is meant by the following phrases from the book Gonzalo? ―It looked like a huge toad preparing to hop.‖ (p 38) ―The confinement made them feel like ants trapped underground.‖ (p 39) ―The sun glistened on the crystals of ice and reflected like millions of miniature rainbows.‖ (p 42) ―Your heart may be pulled apart…‖ (p 53) ―All through the winter the slick-tongued Turk had continued to tell wonderful stories of Quivira‖ (p 55) ―It was follow-the-leader all the way.‖ (p 59) ―Gonzalo sat still as mouse as he watched the two prairie dogs chatter to each other.‖ (p 68) Note to teacher: extension for advanced students. Encourage students to find examples of personification – (p 43) ―…the snow crunched as he walked. It seemed to be awakening and speaking back to him.‖ (pp 54 - 55) ―…He missed the friendly stars winking at him, and the breezes teasing his hair.‖ Vocabulary R04S1C4PO2: Use context to determine the relevant meaning of a word. PO 5. Determine the meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, and parts of speech of words by using a variety of reference aids, including dictionaries, thesauri, glossaries, and CD- ROM and Internet when available. Define the following words as they are used in the story. Have the students continue to build their own dictionaries. As they find new words, have them add them to their dictionary with the page reference and the definition. lingered (p 38) flaunted (p 38) secured (p 38) affairs (p 38) industrious (p 39) desolate (p 40) vanguard (p 58) Mapping exercise SS04S4C1 PO 3. Construct maps using symbols to represent human and physical features. PO 4. Construct charts and graphs to display geographic information. PO 5. Describe characteristics of human and physical features: a. physical – (i.e., river, lake, mountain, range, coast, sea, desert, gulf, bay, strait, plain, valley, volcanoes, isthmus, canyon, plateau, mesa, oasis, dunes) b. human – (i.e., equator, four hemispheres, city, state, country, harbor, dams, territory, county) Students will need to review information from earlier in the book and may need to refer to some of the historical information provided from other sources. Create a symbol for the events listed and place them in the correct location on the map. You may include more than one symbol at any given location. Be sure to include a map key or legend on your map. Traded with the Native people despoplado battle Hawikuh Spent the winter Cicuye Traveled and almost starved Tiguex Wanted to find gold and other Rio Grande riches Built a bridge to cross a river Sangre de Cristo Mountains Saw buffalo herds Pecos River Burned villages Quivira Spanish were shot with poison Moho (really all 7 pueblos arrows need to be on this map) Rested for two days before Chichilticali entering the despoplado Resources from the internet: “ABC Bookmaking Builds Vocabulary in the Content Areas” http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=276 Many people think that Native Americans are a vanished people—that they do not exist in the present day. Using this lesson plan, teachers can use photo essays and other texts to introduce students to Native children and their families, thereby countering the idea that Native people no longer exist. Resources from the internet. “Native Americans Today” http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesson_view.asp?id=63 Many people think that Native Americans are a vanished people—that they do not exist in the present day. Using this lesson plan, teachers can use photo essays and other texts to introduce students to Native children and their families, thereby countering the idea that Native people no longer exist. “Weather 1: Weather Patterns” http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.cfm?DocID=493 This lesson is the first in a two-part series on the weather. The study of the weather in these early years is important because it can help students understand that some events in nature have a repeating pattern. It also is important for students to study the earth repeatedly because they take years to acquire the knowledge that they need to complete the picture. The full picture requires the introduction of such concepts as temperature, the water cycle, etc. “How’s the Weather Today?” http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/07/gk2/weathertoda y.html This lesson asks students to think about the weather in their area and introduces them to weather and temperature trends in different latitudes of the United States. They will look at today's weather map and record the high temperatures for a few cities. Students will conclude by drawing pictures of themselves outdoors in their hometown and in another place that has different weather.