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					Kernel Directory: What Do These Programs Do?
As previously stated, in R/3 systems the standard kernel or runtime directory is
/usr/sap/<SID>/SYS/exe/run. Technical people have a tendency to want to know exactly what
these program files do.

Depending on the specific installation and/or operating system and database, you might find some
more program files or even different ones.

Most of the program files in the executables directory are directly used by the SAP processes, by
the database administration utilities, or by the installation programs. Some of those programs can
be very useful even when the SAP system is down. However, most of them cannot be called
directly and will display an error message in your terminal.

Warning Calling directly and using some of these programs can cause severe errors in the system.
Do not use them without first checking with the SAP hotline or the SAPnet. The following list is
intended for informative purposes only.

A brief description of what some of the files are for follows:
alxxdump. A test and debugging tool which interfaces with the system alert area. Must be called
with the instance profile as parameter and takes you to line−command mode where you can see
available options issuing the help command.
CAR. SAP compress and decompress file utility. This may be used manually to extract SAP
files from compressed files and is used by the R3INST and the R3SETUP programs.
brarchive. Database utility to perform operations (backup, copy, deletion) of the Oracle offline
redo log files (known as archive files). It's an option called from within sapdba, the database
administration utility for Oracle. For all sapdba−related files, you can find extensive information
in Chap. 14.
brbackup. Database utility to perform online and offline backups with Oracle, called from
brconnect. Database utility programs to test the status of the database: up, down, connected, and
so on. It's used transparently from sapdba.
brrestore. sapdba utility to restore the database.
cleanipc. Can be used to show or delete SAP IPC (interprocess communication) objects on
UNIX systems.
coupld and codnld. The transceiver programs for upload (coupld) and download (codnld) that
are needed for receiving data from and sending data to external devices using the PDC interface.
coirsrv (only NT). A program that is used for installing the transceiver modules as NT services.
dipngtab. Used by the installation or upgrade programs for managing generation and activation
of tables.
disp+work. Main SAP dispatcher program, called from the sap−start program, which runs as a
daemon process and parent of all associated work processes.
dpmon. An interesting utility to display the dispatcher queue process monitor. This can be very
useful on those rare occasions when R/3 seems to be in a hanging state.
enqt. A program to display enqueue table entries used by different programs.
esmon. A SAP monitoring program for the extended memory segments used by the SAP
estst. A test program used to display the extended memory segments of the system.
evtd. A utility to test SAP system events.
frontend.lst, instance.lst. Files with the extension 1st contain lists of files in a tabular form.
These files are used by the sapcpe program to know which of them must be synchronized or
updated when the executables directory resides locally in the system, but depends on a central
gwmon and all programs starting with gw handle and monitor the SAP gateway server.
gwhost. A program used by the SAP gateway for establishing communication with external
systems (SNA and CICS)
gwims. A program used by the SAP gateway for establishing communication with external
systems (IMS)
gwrd. The SAP central gateway process
 A template for creating a SAP backup profile. You have to edit it according to your
backup needs, change the name of the file to be your own SID, and copy it to the
/oracle/<SID>/dbs directory.
ipclimits. This utility displays the maximum number of SAP IPC objects available in the system
on UNIX systems.
lgtst. With this utility, administrators can check the connection to the message server. The
         syntax is :       lgtst −H <hostname> −S <message server service name>,
         for example: lgst −H copi01 −S sapmsTT1
memlimits. A program used to test and tune memory values for the configuration of the
extended memory options from version 3.0.
mkszip (on Windows NT, since release 4.0). A program that can be used for backup
mlsomadm. Controls the storage of the logon data for the R/3 system in a coded configuration
profile. This is necessary to be able to receive Internet messages in SAPoffice.
mlsomail. Controls the receiving of Internet messages in SAPoffice.
mlsopop3. This program is needed if you want to make an installation of a POP3 (Post Office
Protocol version 3) server. Messages from the SAPoffice inbox can then be loaded onto a local
storage medium of a POP3 client and be processed there locally. Messages from the POP3 client
are sent to SAPoffice via SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).
mlunxsnd. Controls the sending of Internet messages from SAPoffice. The messages are passed
on to the UNIX mailing program sendmail.
msg_server. The message server. Refer to the "Message Server" section in Chap. 2.
msstats (Windows NT/SQL Server). A program used for collecting statistics and monitoring the
Microsoft SQL Server database.
niping. A program to test the connection between SAP hosts with the saprouter program.
ntscmgr (Windows NT). The utility that can be used for handling NT services. Additional
programs for setting environment variables and registering keys and commands available for NT
are ntenv2reg,
ntreg2cmd, and ntreg2env.
R3check. Useful for checking the consistency of the actions which will be performed by the
R3trans utility without actually performing it. The syntax is R3check <options><control_file>.
R3load. A program used mainly within installation, upgrade, or system copy utilities for
loading R/3 data into the database.
R3trans. R/3 transport program. It was the main program for transport until it was refined in the
tp program. It is called by the tp and can perform special actions such as copying clients at the
operating system level, performing logical backups, and more. For more information on R3trans,
refer to Chap. 6.
rfcoscol. The program used for collecting statistics remotely. It is commonly used in
installations with standalone database servers.
rfc−ldap (only Windows NT). The SAP RFC−LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
rfcexec. Can be used for starting RFC server programs and for calling external programs using
rslgcoll. The system log collector. All programs starting with rslg manage diverse aspects of the
log collection.
rslgview. A utility program that allows users to view the system log messages from UNIX.
When this command is issued it prompts with a ? sign. At the prompt, type an h for help on
available commands.
         The syntax is rslgview pf=profile.
rslgsend. System log sender.
rstrana and other programs starting with rstr. A collection of diverse utilities for tracing,
analyzing, and displaying system events.
rstsmain. A program which allows the display and management of TemSe objects (temporary
sequential objects) from UNIX.
rspomain and all programs starting with rspo. Allow the display and management of spool
requests in the SAP system.
sapcpe. The program which copies SAP executables from a central directory to a local−run
directory with the purpose of synchronizing versions and having all systems with the same
up−to−date versions of programs. It's called by the SAPSTART program.
sapdba. SAP database administration utility for the Oracle and Informix databases.
sapevt. SAP event trigger program. It's used to send events to the background job scheduler for
the release and execution of batch jobs.
sapftp. is an ftp client that can be called from R/3 using RFCs.
sapinstance. Used to create the necessary files and directory for a SAP instance.
saplicense. SAP licensing program. Administrators must use it to obtain the customer key and
later enter the official SAP license when receiving the license key from SAP.
sapntchk and sapwntchk. Programs that can be used for checking configuration problems under
Windows NT, including the verification of important profile parameters, hardware configuration,
paging, host files, and many others. (Refer to R/3 note 65761.)
sapntkill. Can be used for "killing" Windows NT processes.
sapntstartb. The SAP Service used in Windows NT environment. As of release 4.5B it has been
replaced by sapstartsrv, which is the SAP Service with DCOM interface.
saposcol. The SAP operating system collector program, which sends all relevant parameters to
the R/3 database for monitoring and analyzing.
sappad. The SAP editor for configuration files located on the operating system.
saproot. Program that creates the SAP directory structure.
sappfpar. Used to test and calculate certain profile parameter values to better tune the memory
needs of the system.
saprouter. Program that acts as a firewall for managing the access from local R/3 systems to
SAP support servers and the SAPnet, and that can also be used for managing the connections in
R/3 networks. Refer to the section entitled "SAProuter" in Appendix A.
sapsecin (as of release 4.5). The initialization program for the SAP Security Library.
sapsrvkil. A program that is used for stopping (killing) SAP processes. It is called from the
stopsap program.
sapstart. SAP startup and shutdown program, which calls the instances start profiles. It's called
from the SAP shell scripts files and other parts of the SAP system.
sapxpg. Utility to start external programs from R/3.
sdtextD.dba. sapdba help text in German.
sdtextE.dba. sapdba help text in English.
showipc. A program used for displaying the current SAP IPC objects in UNIX systems.
sservmgr (Windows NT). The SAP Services Manager. It is used for starting and stopping all R/3
ssfrfc. Part of the SAP Security library.
startdb. Shell script to start the Oracle database.
startsap. A program used for starting the SAP system processes.
stopdb. Script to stop the Oracle database. It's called from the stopsap script and other programs
(such as R3trans, sapdba, or from within R/3) when requested to stop the full system.
stopsap. A program used to stop the SAP system. It is usually called from other programs or
shell scripts, or from the Service Manager (Windows NT).
tp. Transport control program. It's used to perform transport functions at the operating system