Crime and crime prevention in SA by pengtt

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									  Crime, crime
 prevention and
corrections in SA
Presentation to the Portfolio Committee on
                Corrections
    Anton du Plessis and Makubetse
               Sekhonyane

           05 November 2005
The Criminal Justice Monitor
          (CJM)
   An information portal that monitors trends and
    performance of the South African Police Service,
    the Department of Justice and Correctional
    Services.
   What is the Criminal Justice Monitor?
      The CJM is an independent source of

       information for both the public and the state
       on crime, the criminal justice system, and
       public opinion.
      Through its website, regular seminars, and

       written materials, it will engender intelligent
       public debate and inform policy makers.
                     CJM (Cont…)
   How does it work?
       The CJM involves three main streams of activity:
         • Compiling and analysing a regular flow of statistical
           information from all stages of the criminal justice process.
         • The creation and monitoring of several “Sentinel Sites” in
           areas around the country, where data on criminal justice
           functioning can be gathered longitudinally.
         • Continuous review of all relevant policy and legislation.
                 CJM (Cont…)
How can the CJM help the Correctional Service?
 The CJM can assist in the setting of performance
  measurement indicators and targets. For example, the
  time use study will provide data vital to the creation of
  benchmarks.
 The CJM can assist in developing and updating the DCS
  Strategic Plan by providing information and analysis for
  the whole criminal justice system.
 The CJM can assist in continuously assessing public
  opinion of corrections and levels of „client‟ satisfaction,
  which will help inform and gauge service standards.
     Crime trends:
what the statistics show
                        Crimes recorded by SAPS,
                            1994/95-2003/04
                   250000 0



                   200000 0
Number of crimes




                   150000 0



                   100000 0



                   500000



                         0
                              94/95   95/96   96/97   97/98   98/99   99/00   00/01   01/02    02/03   '03/04


                                  Violent crime       Violent property        Property        Other
        Reporting of crime to the
              police, 2003
                 Car theft                                      97


Theft out of motorvehicle                             64


           Housebreaking                         57


                  Assault                        55


             Bicycle theft                  44


Theft of personal property                 41


Damage to motor vehicles              36


           Livestock theft            36


                 Robbery         29

                             0        40                   80        120

                                 % of victims who reported
Responses to crime
How is the state responding?
   Past 5 years - focus on law enforcement:
       Police: „Operation Crackdown‟
       Justice: improving court efficiency & focus on
        organised crime
       Corrections: trying to cope with increasing numbers
        of inmates
   More recently - signs of move towards more
    preventive approach:
       emphasis on rehabilitation of prisoners
       diversion of young offenders
       „moral regeneration‟ campaign
South African Police
     Services
       Police: the numbers issue
    England                                                 347

       USA                                            300

  Columbia                                      275

   Australia                                    275

South Africa                              236

      Korea                         204

     Turkey                      190

               0   100           200             300              400

                   No. of police per 100 000 people
    Increasing police numbers
 One sworn cop for every 439 South Africans
 Plans to increase this by 40 500 by 2005:
       One cop for every 373 citizens
       About 13 500 cops would need to be trained per year
       Basic training has been streamlined to meet demand
       Capacity exists for training only 8 000 per year -
        quality of field supervision & mentoring new intake?
        Main policing challenges
   Quality and use of resources
       On paper, SAPS is not under-resourced
       Personnel & vehicular coverage is more a matter of quality,
        distribution & use, than numbers – often basic skills & equipment
        are lacking
   Operational supervision & management of a huge
    organisation (130 000 in 2003)
   Training in use of force when making an arrest
   Improving perceptions and service delivery
       Monitoring and dealing with misconduct, torture, abuses
       Reducing corruption
       Better response times and visibility
       Focus on public contact situations
 Justice and
Constitutional
Development
      Cases processed by the
      prosecution, 1996-2002
     1,100,000


       900,000


       700,000


       500,000


       300,000


       100,000
                  1996      1997      1998      1999      2000      2001      2002
Prosecutions     267,491   263,050   259,145   247,995   307,547   358,123   402,613
Convictions      207,203   204,937   203,071   193,399   250,774   289,301   326,630
Cases withdrawn 178,705    191,715   201,316   236,429   294,920   423,890   420,124
Cases to court  529,276    527,373   524,127   562,821   602,467   756,801   1,111,107
                    Average time accused are
                    imprisoned awaiting trial
                                                          138               143
              140                                130
                                                                   134


              120                       115


              100              91
No. of days




               80     76

               60

               40

               20

                0
                    June '96 June '97 June '98 June '99 June '00 June '01 Sept '02
        Challenges for the courts
   Battling to reduce backlogs - too many new cases are
    coming in
   Convictions as a proportion of cases referred to court
    are low (35% average in 2002); especially for serious
    violent crimes
   However, conviction rates of cases that go to trial are
    high (+-80%)
   Too many cases are withdrawn by courts
   Courts remain a bottleneck in the criminal justice
    process:
       Rising numbers of awaiting trial prisoners
       Increase in the average period awaiting trial prisoners
        incarcerated
        Courts’ achievements
   Reduced turnaround time of cases, especially
    for sexual offences
   Increased the number of finalised trials
   Increased average court hours
   Scorpions and Asset Forfeiture continued to
    perform well
   Established over 50 sexual offences courts
   Appointed many maintenance officers
   Diverted over 30 000 child offenders
   Department of
Correctional Services
DCS’s budget: 2004/5 - 2006/7
                         After care
                            4%
              Development             Facilities
                  5%                    18%
               Care
                8%

      Corrections
          6%




                                               Administration
                                                   29%

              Security
               30%
        What are the resources?
   There are 239 prisons
       137 Male prisons
       72 men and women
       8 Women prisons
       13 Juvenile centres
       20 farm prisns
       2 private prisons
 The cell accommodation is at 114 000
 DCS employs 35 000 people (managers, admin
  and correctional officials
 Projected population in 2006/7 - 208 000 in a
  cell accommodation of 120 000
        What is the workload?
   ATDs increased by over 50% between 1994-
    2003; sentenced by 42%
   No. of children (<18 years) in prison increased
    by 161% between June 1995 & June 2002
   Undocumented migrants
   The increase in prisoners dying of natural death
   Lack/loss of specialised personnel (medical,
    psychologists etc)
        Corrections: key issues
 Impact of police and courts on Corrections
 Reducing overcrowding
       Build extra prisons
       Use of alternatives to imprisonment
       Early releases
 Rehabilitation of prisoners
 Repeat offending
 Awaiting trial population/undocumented migrants
 Reintegration (Restorative justice, after care and
  supervision)
         International incarceration
                 rates, 2002
          Japan         53
     Switze rland        68
        Swe de n         73
         France              85
       Ge rmany               91
    Ne the r lands            93
            Italy              100
       Austr alia                  112
        Canada                     116
          Spain                     125
Engla nd & Wale s                    139
    South Afr ica                                                400
         Russia                                                                            628
            USA                                                                                    702

                    0        100           200      300        400       500       600           700     800

                                             No. of prisone rs pe r 1 00 000 popula tion
          Resources vs workload in the
                   prisons
         200000


         160000


         120000
Number




          80000


          40000


              0
                  1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004
                      Prisoners       Cell accommodation        Staff
     Challenges for prisons
 Reducing  overcrowding
 Reducing levels of repeat offending
 Reducing corruption
 Rehabilitation
 Lobbying police and courts to adopt a
  more integrated approach to criminal
  justice
 Implementation of the new parole policy
           Challenges (Cont..)
   Care of offenders (health, physical and mental
    care) vs resources
   Aligning the white paper with the legislation
   Women with children in prisons
   Children in prisons (Child Justice Bill)
   The impact of minimum sentencing legislation
    and new sentencing jurisdiction of courts
    Achievements overall since
             1994
   Many new policies and laws to deal with crime:
       Crime prevention & policing
       Organised crime
       Terrorism
       Sexual offences and domestic violence
       Firearms
       Children‟s rights
       Corruption (the Jali commission, SIU)
       New parole policy
 Achievements overall since
        1994 (cont)
 Mechanisms   in place for oversight of
  policing
 Substantial organisational transformation
  in the CJS
 Many state and civil society partnerships
  to deal with crime and strengthen the CJS
    Thank you
Institute for Security Studies
     http://www.iss.co.za

								
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