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					IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
 IN FISHERY PRODUCTS ON FOOD
               SECURITY
                (IITFPFS)



                SENEGAL



                    2003


    ANDREW MURRAY, FAO (andrew.murray@fao.org)
    MAMADOU MAR FAYE, CRODT (mmfaye@crodt.isra.sn)
                           ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS




This study has benefited from the help and assistance from numerous people. The
authors would therefore like to thank Dick Coutts, Benoit Horemans and Helga
Josupeit for their support and input. Thanks also to M. Mamadou NDIAYE, Babacar
FALL , Abdoulaye OUDRAOGO, Awa KANE, El Hadj KANE, Pape DIALLO, Mor
DIA, Keba DABO, Abdoulaye SOGUE, Younouss DIAGNE, Dr Mamadou
GOUDIABY, Ibou COLY, Moustapha GUEYE, Saer SECK, among others, for
providing qualitative information for this study. Finally we would like to give
recognition to the authors of other works cited here, specifically the Cenetre de
Recherhes océanographiques de Dakar (CRODT) and the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP), who have provided detailed material on many of
the issues covered here.




                                       ii
                          CONTENTS

                                                    Page No.

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

2. INTRODUCTION                                           1
       2.1 ECONOMIC QUESTION                              3

3. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS                                    4
       3.1  DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT ORIENTATION             4
       3.2  MARKETS FOR SENEGALESE FISH                   5
       3.3  FISH SUPPLY CHAIN                             6

4. SECTOR ANALYSIS                                        11
      4.1  THE NATION                                     11
           4.1.1 FOREIGN EXCHANGE                         11
           4.1.2 EXPORTS (QUANTITY AND VALUE)             13
      4.2  THE FISH PRODUCERS                             16
           4.2.1 STRUCTURE OF THE FLEET                   16
           4.2.2 INCENTIVE TO EXPORT                      18
      4.3  THE FISH WORKERS                               19
           4.3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION                      19
           4.3.2 BACKGROUND TO LABOUR FORCE               23
           4.3.3 CONDITIONS OF LABOUR                     25
           4.3.4 KNOCK ON EFFECTS OF EXPORT ORIENTATION   26
      4.4  THE FISH CONSUMERS                             26
           4.4.1 PROFILE OF FISH CONSUMPTION              26
           4.4.2 FISH PRICES                              28
      4.5  THE FISH STOCKS                                32
           4.5.1 IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE            32
           4.5.2 MANAGING THE SITUATION                   38

5. FISHERIES EXPORTS AND FOOD SECURITY                    39
       5.1  IMPACT OF TRADE AGREEMENTS                    39
       5.2  SUBSIDIES                                     42

6. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS    42
      6.1  KEY ASPECTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS                45

REFERENCES

ANNEX




                               iii
1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


1. Senegal is an influential country in the West African region, it has a population of
   10.5 million, a GDP of $16.2 billion (2002), and a real economic growth rate of
   5.7%. However, approximately 58% of people live below the poverty line, there is
   48% unemployment, a population growth rate of 2.91%, and the economy is still
   overly reliant on a few primary industries.
2. The countries maritime resources extend 200NM along a coastline of 531km.
   These, nutrient rich, waters provided the fisheries sector with a turnover of CFA
   293 billion in 1999, providing work for 600,000 people (15% of the working
   population).
3. Government policy towards the fisheries sector has evolved from direct
   interventions, to establish a national industrial fleet (1960s and 1970s), to indirect
   market based measures designed to enhance exports (1980s and 1990s). There is
   still political hunger for a national artisinal fleet but Senegalese catches are
   dominated by the artisinal sector, accounting for around 70% of landings. The
   industries export orientation has been promoted through, government export
   subsidies, the series of Lomé agreements, and, most importantly, the 1994
   currency devaluation.
4. The nature of products has changed to meet growing demand from international,
   mostly European, markets. New fishing techniques have been adapted to target
   particular high value species, and the harvesting power of the artisinal fleet has
   grown to meet this demand.
5. Fish supply is organised through two processing and marketing chains, the
   industrial and artisinal sectors. The latter, which employs more people, is
   distributed all along the coast, generally involves smoking fish in order to preserve
   it. The industrial sector is based in Dakar and employs a relatively small labour
   force; it does however make a very substantial contribution to the countries
   foreign exchange earnings.
6. Foreign exchange from fisheries exports accounts for around 23% of all export
   earnings, which is double the countries annual debt repayment. Only 15% of
   pelagic fish is exported (a significant proportion of which is Tuna), but the
   proportion of demersal fish, cephalopod and shrimp landings that go to exports are
   80%, 100% and 95% respectively.


                                           iv
7. The fishing industry in Senegal employs 600,000 people (15% of the Senegalese
   population), 100,000 of these are in direct fishing related activities, of which
   90,000 are artisinal fishermen (UNEP, 2002). Changes to the fleet structure have
   been characterised by a gradually declining industrial sector, more pronounced in
   terms of foreign boats, and a rapidly expanding artisinal fleet.
8. While almost all industrial operations are based in Dakar, the artisinal processing
   and distribution activities occur along the entire coastline. There is a high degree
   of diversity amongst artisinal processors, in terms of physical and financial
   capital, are of origin and ago, while the industrial sector is more homogenous. The
   latter is also better provided for in terms of safety measures, and full time workers
   (not the majority) benefit from social security payments. For all workers though
   the majority of their wage, which represent their best available option, is used on
   food for themselves and their families.
9. Senegal is a country of fish lovers, fish accounts for more than 70% of animal
   protein intake, and average annual consumption is 26kg/year. Yet, many exported
   species are no longer available on local markets and significant price increases
   have been observed for demersal (54% increase) and pelagic (36% increase)
   landings between 1990 and 2000. These changes were not found to be
   significantly different from price movements for other foods, and there are other
   sources of animal protein available.
10. Senegalese demersal stocks are generally described as over-fished, while pelagic
   stocks are at least fully-exploited. Aggregate CPUE data shows a rapid decline in
   catch rates at the end of the 1980s, to 3800 kg/hr, before a gradual recovery in
   1998, to 5400 kg/hr. However, the fact that CPUE was roughly the same in 1998
   as in 1971 is still ominous as increases in technology have greatly increased each
   boats catching power, and there is evidence that stocks are being sequentially
   exhausted.
11. The Lomé Agreements, which allow products into EU markets without tariff or
   non-tariff barriers, have been an important aspect in the development of Senegal’s
   fisheries exports. In spite of the preferential treatment for Senegalese exports
   (reduced tariffs) the agreement may have distorted the industry’s orientation and
   reduced its focus on other markets, jeopardised the resource base, and undermined
   the competitiveness of the processing sector.



                                             v
12. Lomé IV expired in 2000 and was replaced by the Cotonou agreement, which
   seeks to phase out these benefits in order to meet WTO requirements. As yet there
   have been no shocks to Senegalese exports, though increased competition from
   Asia and Latin America is anticipated in the long term. Liberalisation of trade
   rules could therefore have a positive effect, on fish stocks and food security, as
   agreements such as Lomé have increased the incentive to over-fish and to focus on
   supplying export markets.
13. Senegal’s sanitary regulations are based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control
   Points (HACCP), and there have been a number of projects, with support from
   European donors, to bring the sector in line with EU Sanitary and Phytosanitory
   Standards (SPS). In the last inspection of processing facilities, in 1999, the EU
   noted the following issues; heavy metal contamination, need for improved systems
   to suspend exports, and poor quality of potable water.
14. In order to guarantee foreign exchange earnings from international trade the
   Senegalese government supports fishing and fish processing industries with
   reduced level of tax on fishing gear, direct subsidises for fuel, and through the
   establishment of fisheries sector financing bodies. There is also a direct (25%)
   subsidy for exports which has added to the incentive to fish and export.
15. A number of policy recommendations are suggested to improve the food security
   situation with respect to international trade in fisheries products.
   a. Increasing emphasis needs to be placed on the implementation of the central
       themes in the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries.
   b. Realisation from the relevant financial institutions that, unlike other industries,
       output in fisheries a maximum sustainable limit.
   c. Address the asymmetric bargaining position between the EU and West African
       countries, with respect to fishing agreements.
   d. Opportunity for the Government or international institution to ensure that the
       industry is able to adapt to the changing market conditions.
   e. Reduce the benefits (fuel and gear subsidies) for artisinal demersal fishermen,
       but not for the pelagic fleet.
   f. Enhance the post harvest utilisation of fish in domestic markets.
   g. Support to domestic marketing.
   h. Legislation on trade for fishmeal.



                                           vi
2. INTRODUCTION
As one of its most urbanised countries Senegal plays an important cultural and
economic role in West Africa. It has a population of 10.5 million, an annual GDP of
$16.2 billion and a real growth rate (GDP) of 5.7%. Indeed, in terms of most national
statistics it ranks as one of West Africa’s most important countries, and is relatively
well developed for the region. However, there are a number of statistics that reveal the
challenge that still lies ahead. Three quarters of the population depend on agriculture
for their livelihood, approximately 58% of the population live below the poverty line
(Republic of Senegal, 2002), and there is 48% unemployment. With population
growth at 2.91% there is a constant need to increase rates of economic growth and
food supply just to maintain current standards of living. The country is still dependant
on primary industries, the most important of which are, agriculture (accounting for
70% of labour), fishing / fish processing, phosphate mining, fertiliser production,
petroleum refining and construction materials. It is also saddled with an external debt
of $3.1 billion, and, as in many developing countries, there is a strong link between
exports from primary industries and debt repayment. Unfortunately, traditional export
industries, ground-nut and phosphate, have not performed well over the last few
decades and fisheries have been increasingly called upon to pick up the slack.


Recent trends in the economy are best described using the 1994 currency devaluation
(discussed in section 4.1) as a point of departure. This devaluation (by 50%) was part
of a wider economic reform program (influenced by the international donor
community), in which government price controls and subsidies were steadily
dismantled. After contracting by 2.1% in 1993, the economy has grown steadily, with
real growth in GDP averaging 5% annually during 1995-2001. Annual inflation had
fallen to less than 1%, but rose to an estimated 3.3% in 2001. Investment rose steadily
from 13.8% of GDP in 1993 to 16.5% in 1997. However, the countries debt burden is
a major factor affecting public spending and the struggle against poverty. The debt,
which is now estimated at $3.1 billion (World Fact Book, 2002), represented 86.2% of
GDP in 1994, 80.1% in 1996 and 71.3% in 2000 (Republic of Senegal, 2002). Indeed,
the requirement to meet regular debt repayments has compelled the government to
promote exports from the fisheries sector, and the country has seen a rapid expansion
in the level of fisheries landings over the last 30 years.



                                             1
In terms of fishery resources the country lays claim to an exclusive economic zone of
200 NM along a coastline of 531 km. These waters nutrient rich waters are especially
productive and there is an abundance of all forms of aquatic life. The most important
species being sardines, which account for over 80% of the artisinal catch (Republic of
Senegal, 2001). The sector as a whole provides paid employment for 15% of the
Senegalese population, 600,000 people (Republic of Senegal 2002), and in 1999 total
turnover was CFAF 293 billion1 (CFAF 108 billion from landings, and CFAF 185
billion from export receipts). The industry is divided into artisinal and industrial
sectors at both harvesting (though this is dominated by the former) and
processing/distribution stages. However, increasing supply of fish that was previously
consumed domestically, to industrial (export) processing units has raised concerns
about the availability of fish products and food security in Senegal.


Food Security is an important aspect of poverty, which is increasingly regarded as a
multi-dimensional phenomenon which cannot be measured in absolute terms (because
people can be in poverty for a number of different reasons). The World Bank and the
FAO describe food security as a situation in which all households, at all times, have
both physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for all
members, and where households are not at risk of losing such access. They identify
three dimensions of food security, i) food availability, ii) affordability, and ii) stability
of access. Another perspective is provided by the World Committee on Food Security,
who consider three classes of vulnerability, i) chronic food insecurity, ii) cyclic food
insecurity, iii) transitory food insecurity. These definitions provide a structure to help
understand the problem of food insecurity. In Senegal the poverty line, in terms of
food intake, has been set at 2,4000 calories per capita per day, which means that
57.9% of households were in food poverty in 1994, and 53.9% in 2001, i.e. 4% of the
population where removed from food poverty over 6 years. Relative to other countries
though this is not a critical situation, Shapouri and Rosen (1999) defined Sub Saharan
Africa as the most food insecure region in the world, because of its population
growth, but described Senegal as being “Moderately food insecure”. This means that
average food consumption accounts for between 75% and 99% of nutritional
requirements and the country is substantially more secure than some of its inland


1
    At the time of writing the exchange rate between US dollar and West African Franc (CFA) was 1:591.


                                                   2
neighbours. Indeed the special dimension is another important determinant of poverty
is its spatial distribution, and in Senegal there is an increasing level of poverty in rural
central areas, in the South and North East (Republic of Senegal, 2002).


2.1 ECONOMIC QUESTION TO BE ADDRESSED
When considering the negative impacts of international trade on food security a
number of themes are commonly discussed, these include the effect of deteriorating
terms-of-trade, the instability of world market prices, and the incentive to over-exploit
environmental resources. However, current thinking, among liberal economists and
politicians, claims that trade is still the best possible method to reduce poverty and
food insecurity. Even the export of food products from these countries is seen as a
way of enhancing food security, as it increases the availability of other food (that
cannot be produced domestically). Indeed, trade may improve food security by; i)
filling the gap between supply and demand, ii) reducing supply variability, iii)
fostering economic growth, and iv) encouraging the most efficient use of scarce
resources. Furthermore, liberalised world food markets should enhance food security
by producing a buffer for any country that suffers occasional gaps in food supply,
resulting from poor harvests or natural disasters.


These theories however, are not always backed up by real world experiences and there
are fears that poverty (and food insecurity) may be accentuated by trade when basic
economic assumptions do not hold. For example, when the revenue gained from food
exports in highly indebted countries is used exclusively for debt repayment (and not
food supply). Indeed, the promotion of Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) in
many of these countries has ensured that future earnings from fisheries and
agricultural exports are being explicitly assigned to this use. Senegal is a fisheries
intensive country, i.e. it has a relative abundance of fisheries resources as compared to
most other nations. As such, supply of some other food (X, Y & Z) should be made
more efficient if Senegal exports fish to earn foreign revenue, than if it was to try and
produce goods X, Y and Z domestically. However, in spite of the fact that the country,
as a whole, may benefit from the export of fisheries products there is no guarantee
that these gains will be spread equitably throughout society. The focus of this study is
therefore the basic premise that while the net benefit from international trade (in all
products) is positive, there are invariably some people who are made worse off.


                                             3
Specifically, trade in fisheries products, an important part of the domestic diet, may
have an impact that is not easily accounted for by normal economic indicators.


3. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS


3.1 DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERT ORIENTATION

Senegal gained its independence from France in 1960 and from that time on the
government has given active support to the fisheries industry. From the early 1960’s
to the late 1970’s this was in the form of direct “modernist” interventions to develop
the artisinal sector into a semi-industrial fleet, following the European model. Initially
this was to take the shape of a national tuna fleet, but later efforts where focussed on a
national (industrial) sardine fleet. However, both policies failed, and the approach was
widely viewed as too rigid, the focus on industrial operations being misguided
considering the higher efficiency and productivity of the artisinal boats.


During this period the highly dynamic artisinal fleet adapted to many of the
improvements made in fishing technology, this was achieved without government
support2. The sector was able to continually increase output, from tens of thousands of
tonnes in the 1970s to almost 350,000 tones in 1997, while industrial landings were
only 130,000 tonnes (UNDP, 2002). The artisinal fleets development was
characterized by two major turning points; i) uptake of motorised pirogues (in the
early 1960s), and, ii) the introduction of purse seine nets. These developments first
allowed fishermen to reach previously inaccessible resource rich areas, and then gave
them the means to harvest the resource more efficiently. At the same time though the
fleet has being specialising and many fishermen are now skilled at targeting specific
species, and it is therefore hard to make general statements about the fleet in the face
of such diversity. It is however, important to note that these boats are now operating
with increasingly advanced levels of technology, such as GPS, more powerful,
engines, and effective, the latter include the cephalopod jig, pot and crayfish fishing.
It is safe to say that the fishing power of this fleet has increased dramatically over the
last 50 years. This extent of this increase is shown in figure 1 below, with landed
quantities for Sardine, the most important species, from 1950 to 1999.

2
    Though the FAO was involved in the introduction of purse seines in 1972


                                                   4
Figure 1. Sardine landings from 1950 to 1999 (tonnes).
       180000
       160000
       140000
       120000
  tonnes




       100000
           80000
           60000
           40000
           20000
              0
                   1950

                          1953

                                 1956

                                        1959

                                               1962

                                                      1965

                                                             1968

                                                                    1971

                                                                               1974

                                                                                      1977

                                                                                             1980

                                                                                                    1983

                                                                                                           1986

                                                                                                                  1989

                                                                                                                         1992

                                                                                                                                1995

                                                                                                                                       1998

                                                                                                                                              2001
                                                        Madeiran sardinella                   Round sardinella

Source: Fish Base, FAO



Around the early 1980’s, when Senegal was confronted with seriously deteriorating
balance of payments deficits, the government recognised the need to adjust its
economy to the external environment and it became the Sub-Saharan country to sign
an extended fund facility with the IMF and a structural adjustment programme with
the World Bank. The latter process focussed on “growth through exports” and
increased the pressure on the fishing industry to support the economy and the debt
repayment burden. It also forced governmental support to shift from direct (fleet
building) to indirect measures; anyway it had already become clear that an industrial
fleet was neither necessary nor efficient. Export stimulating mechanisms such as free
exporting enterprise status and export subsidies have been used to help Senegalese
exports achieve deeper penetration into European markets (UNEP, 2002). These
mechanisms have been important factors in the industries orientation towards
external, and particularly European, markets. The most important event though was
the devaluation (by 50%) of the local currency (CFA) in 1994. The devaluation was,
in part, designed to stimulate international trade, as it simultaneously increased capital
charges and the profitability of exports, the total value of which increased by 20%,
from $83,822,000 in 1993 to $107,033 in 1995 (see figure 3).


3.2 MARKETS FOR SENEGALESE FISH
The most important development in the industries product mix has been the influence
of European preferences, which have directed the targeting behaviour of the fishing
fleets. The development of these export markets has significantly changed the fish



                                                                           5
content of the diet Senegalese diet. Almost no demersal fish are eaten locally and any
noble (demersal) fish that are sold to local restaurants or in expensive supermarkets
are likely to be export rejects for not meeting the increasingly stringent export quality
standards. A good example is Thiof (Epinephleus aeneus) which was one of the most
popular fish in Senegal, which is now impossible for local people to buy. Another
interesting example is Cybium (Yeet) which, until recently, was only exported in
small quantities. It is used as an extra ingredient in a number of dishes to add to the
meat content and flavour. Demand was therefore previously limited to domestic
outlets, and there was adequate supply. However, as traders learn more about Asian
markets this is one of the many products that have suddenly realised a high export
value and it is becoming less available for local consumption. A central fish market
was built in Dakar in 1993 (which has refrigeration storage facilities) to improve the
quality of marketed products, has improved the quality of products fish supplied in the
capital.


3.3 FISH SUPPLY CHAIN
While artisinal and industrial processors supply different markets, they are both
reliant on independent pirogue fishermen for their raw material. The artisinal
processing sector receives all its material from artisinal landings, while 60% of the
fish used by industrial processors comes from this fleet. Artisinal fishermen therefore
play an important role in maintaining each sector, their supply to the latter has often
been facilitated with the provision of material (pirogue, motor, lines and accessories)
in exchange for guaranteed supply at a fixed price. Independent fishermen however,
may not always land their catch at the same (local) port, as high value species receive
a better price if landed directly in Dakar. These landings into Dakar are bought by
industrial processors or wholesalers, and in local ports artisinal processors or
wholesalers who either export the fish directly, take it to the industrial processing
sector, or occasionally take it inland fresh.


Fishermen typically have loyalties to a number of specific wholesalers who may have
given them financial support. These implies that they don’t only respond to price
signals, as even if the export price is higher it is not uncommon for a fisherman to sell
part of the catch to the artisinal sector. This may be interpreted as a way of protecting



                                                6
     the artisinal market (a long term strategy), or may be because the fisherman is
     committed to selling to a specific artisinal processor/wholesaler.


     At the processing level artisinal and industrial sectors are important for domestic and
     export respectively. A schematic diagram of this chain is given below in diagram 1,
     the different processing sectors, a) artisinal, b) industrial, are discussed, along with, c)
     the industry standards.


     Diagram 1. Generalised Supply Chain (1999)

IMPORTS                                          DOMESTIC CHAIN                                                      EXPORTS
                                   Artisinal Landings                   Industrial Landings

                                     350,000 tons*                        130,000 tons*


                                  40%
                                Domestic
                               Wholesalers
                                               C                 60% 100%
                                                                 Export
                                                                Wholesalers
                                                                                                                Exports Americas
                                                                                                                    178 tons
                                                                                                                   CFA 300 bil
   Imports
 35,682 tons*                                                                                                      Exports Asia
 CFA 30 bil*                                                                                                     13,760 tons



                                                                         B
                                                                         Industrial
                                                                         Processors
                                                                        124,336 tons
                                                                    CFA 171,617 bil
                                                                                                                CFA 22,796 bil

                                                                                                                    Exports EU
                                                                                                                    78,643 tons
                                                                                                                 CFA 148,521 bil


                                           Artisinal
                                          Processors
                                            (local)
                                                          A              Artisinal
                                                                        Processors
                                                                         (foreign)
                                                                                                                  Exports Africa
                                                                                                                  13,760t
                                                                                                                CFA 13,844 bil




                                                                                                                     Total Exports
                                                                                                                    141,240 tons
                                                 Domestic Consumption                                               CFA 185 bil
                                                          636,633 tons*

     The data included in this diagram has been collected from a number of sources and may not be entirely consistent – it is meant
     for illustration only. * indicates data from 1997.




                                                                    7
A) The Artisinal Processing Sector                 These traders have better financial
The bulk or labour in this sector is               resources than the locals and can ensure
accounted for by temporary workers and             supply when prices increase and become
small scale enterprises. There is no               too high for Senegalese traders. They
formal structure to the supply chain,              have also brought their traditional
which is spread along the entire coastline         processing          techniques,     which    have
and may include many intermediaries.               helped the Senegalese industry develop.
Artisinally processed fish is either, sold         Diagram 2. Artisinal Chain (Joal)
locally, transported to markets in the                                     Artisinal
interior of the country, or exported to                                    Landings

neighbouring countries. This market
represents an important buffer for small                    4%               45%               51%
scale fishermen as prices are less volatile           Local                    Local             Export
                                                   consumption               processors        (wholesalers)
on this market than in the industrial
processing industry. Diagram 2 gives a                                    4%         30%
breakdown of the supply channels and                               Local                    Processed
                                                                consumption                  Exports
indicates   their   relative    importance.




                                                                  A
However, this means the industry faces                                                 58%
                                                                                                Burkina Faso
volatile supply patterns; other constraints
include transport and stocking problems,
                                                                                       40%
product loss and marketing / information                                                           Guinea

weaknesses. Two important features of
                                                                              66% 2%
this chain for food security to are; 1.                                                         Other W. Africa
Distribution, and, 2. Regional influence.                              Processed Domestic
                                                                          Consumption
1.   The    artisinal    processing   sector
supplies fish to many regions but                                 44%                  20%
distance is a constraint and inequalities           Kaolack                                  Dakar
                                                                         16% 14%
exist between coastal and inland, and
                                                               Diourbel                St. Lois & area
urban and rural areas.
2. The presence of foreign traders has             Source: Faye 1999


grown in recent years and as such a
                                                   Data showing the increasing trend in
higher proportion of artisinaly processed
                                                   volume going through the market in Joal
fish is now exported out of the country,
                                                   is given in annex 1.
mostly to Guinea and Burkina Faso.


                                               8
B) The Industrial Processing Sector                 d) Significant supply of rod caught tuna,
This sector, which is described in diagram          which is a bio-product.
3, is more homogenous, and is almost
exclusively based in Dakar. There are 3             Diagram 3. Industrial Chain



                                                   A
main    types    of    export     processing
                                                    Artisinal
companies:                                                        Artisinal      Industrial
                                                   Processing
                                                                  Landing         Landing
1. There are large societies such as
AFICAMER, AMERGER, SENEGAL
                                                                                                Direct
PECHE who own their own fleets and                                                             Exports
                                                                                              (EU boats)
generally export frozen goods (~5).                                    Industrial
                                                                       Processing
2. There are numerous smaller units who
export fresh products, these products are
                                                                  Tuna           Freezing
kept in store for a maximum of 2 to 3                            canning         Chilling




                                                                B
days. (~70).
3. Canning (Tuna, Sardine) firms such as                              Other Value
                                                                        adding
Sardine Africa and Inerco (~3).
Strategically the sector enjoys significant
comparative advantages relative to other
players in the industry:
a) Proximity to European markets, and                                      Exports

frequent flight allowing air-freight.
b) Recognised technical capacity.                                 Europe          Asia

c) Adaptive capacities, for example to
                                                                       America
supply small speciality orders.


Most of these firms are internationally owned, generally by European firms who
organise imports to support larger parent companies. Indeed this European influence
may have been a decisive factor in the level of support that the sector received from
the EU in order to meet health and safety measures (i.e. SPS). Many of the firms had
persuaded to enter the Senegalese industry by a range of preferential terms including
the establishment of an export free zone, which was extended a number of times and
now allows all enterprises exporting at least 80% of their production (fisheries and
agriculture) exemption from a number of tax and customs levies, and an export
subsidy of 25%


                                               9
In the Tuna canning industry a typical company might employ around 500 workers,
processing fish that comes in on lorries direct from the port. The Tuna is washed
down, boiled and then the bones and red meat are separated, the meat is cleaned up
again and put into tin cans, most of which goes to Europe. The industry has however,
been in long term decline and the number of active canneries fell from 7 (1970s) to 3
today, processing capacity has fallen from 45,000 tonnes annually (1960’s), to 20,000
tonnes in 1999. Recent problems have been related to the sectors reliance on foreign
landings, which are not always taken to Senegalese ports. Figure 2 below shows that
in spite of increasing catches in recent years, the volume processed has actually fallen.


Figure 2. Tuna catches and processed quantity 1991 - 1999

           4000                                                                     40000

           3500                                                                     35000

           3000                                                                     30000

           2500                                                                     25000

                                                                                            $ (000's)
  Tonnes




           2000                                                                     20000

           1500                                                                     15000

           1000                                                                     10000

           500                                                                      5000

             0                                                                      0
                  1991


                         1992


                                1993


                                       1994


                                              1995


                                                       1996


                                                              1997


                                                                     1998


                                                                            1999




                                 Bigeye landings                Skipjack landings
                                 Total tuna landings            Exports (canned)

Source: TradeFoodFish.org



The problems encountered by the tuna canning and other sections of the industrial
processing industry have a knock on effect for cargo ships, which either travel without
a full load or wait longer at the quayside, and fishmeal factories whose primary input
is the waste from the processing sector.


C) Industry Standards
Senegal has adopted sanitary regulations based on Hazard Analysis Critical Control
Points (HACCP) and now has the necessary infrastructure to allow its fisheries
products access to EU markets. Current European sanitary regulations were put in
place in 1993, and are based on the French model. It requires not only that the
characteristics of products conform to specified norms, but also that they are produced


                                                                10
and manipulated following methods, and in premises, that themselves conform to
European directives. Senegal has had quality standards on freshness of fish since 1969
but these where not brought into full force with export certification until 1996 (and
was renewed in 1999). This was made possible with financial support from EU
donors, training support from the Industrial Development Decade for Africa (IDDA)
initiative, and $0.8 million of government support (Tall, 2000). Senegal considered a
list 1 (fully compliant) country, however, recent EU inspections have noted the
following issues; lack of controls on heavy metal contamination, need for improved
systems to suspend exports, and poor quality of potable water (Megapesca, 2001).
Furthermore, this year a complaint about some cuttlefish that was sent to Italy led to
all exports to the EU, from that factory, being restricted.


4. SECTOR ANALYSIS


4.1 THE NATION


4.1.1 FOREIGN EXCHANGE
The most important export industry in Senegal is Fisheries, which has been the most
valuable since 1986, Phosphates and Groundnuts. Fisheries exports have accounted
for up to a third of all foreign exchange receipts (UNEP, 2002), but other references
suggest it is more typically around a quarter. Phosphate and groundnut exports
account for 22% and 10% of total exports respectively. The fisheries sector also
contributes to government finances through agreements, giving foreign boats access to
Senegalese waters. In the period 1997 – 2001 the direct financial compensation for
fishing rights granted to EU boats amounted to 48m euros, and the current agreement
2002 – 2006 is worth 64m euros. In total fisheries contributes 12% of primary
industries GDP, and 2.5% of total national GDP (Republic of Senegal, 2001). Figure
3, below gives a graphic representation of the trends in exported quantity and value
between 1976 and 1997.




                                            11
Figure 3. Volume and value of exports (1976 – 1997)

                                 350,000                                                                                                       160000

                                 300,000                                                                                                       140000

                                                                                                                                               120000
                                 250,000
  value (1000 US$)




                                                                                                                                               100000




                                                                                                                                                        volume (MT)
                                 200,000
                                                                                                                                               80000
                                 150,000
                                                                                                                                               60000
                                 100,000
                                                                                                                                               40000

                                  50,000                                                                                                       20000

                                        0                                                                                                      0
                                            1976

                                                     1978


                                                            1980


                                                                     1982

                                                                            1984


                                                                                   1986


                                                                                           1988

                                                                                                    1990


                                                                                                           1992


                                                                                                                  1994

                                                                                                                         1996


                                                                                                                                1998
                                                                                   value             volume


Source: TradeFoodFish.org



The trend from 1976 to 1991 shows a gradual (except 1986) incline in both statistics;
the economic problems in the early 90s almost halved the quantity exported; but
international trade increased dramatically after the devaluation with big annual
increases between 1994 and 1996. Figure 4 below compares the export value from
fisheries to total exports of merchandise and commercial services.


Figure 4 Total export values (1991 to 2001).

                                 1600
                                 1400
                                 1200
                                 1000
                     $ million




                                  800
                                  600
                                  400
                                  200
                                     0
                                     1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001

                                              fish                 merchandise                    comercial services                   total

Source: WTO 2002, TradeFoodFish.org




                                                                                          12
   According to these statistics fisheries exports represented between 13% and 24% of
   total export value, however, other references vary with the UNDP (2002) suggesting
   up to a third, and OECD (2000) quoting 25%. One way of portraying the importance
   of fisheries exports is to describe the fraction of total debt repayment that it accounts
   for3. In 1999 total debt repayment was 12% of export receipts (Republic of Senegal,
   2002). Fisheries exports in the same year where $0.314 billion (CFA 185.5 billion,
   Ndiaye, 2002), which represented almost 23% of total export earning. Therefore in
   1999 fisheries exports accounted for almost double the debt repayment burden!


   4.1.2 EXPORTS (QUANTITY AND VALUE)
   The pattern and content of exports from Senegal are greatly influenced by the
   European market, which absorbs around 63% of all exports. The remainder is
   accounted for by other African countries (25%), which includes a relatively larger
   share of frozen and processed products and are not exposed to export taxes. However,
   inter-African trade, which accounted for 31% of all exports in 1992, has fallen
   dramatically since the CFA devaluation. Asia (11%) is a new but growing market.
   Exported products include shark fins, octopus, and frozen molluscs, but it is
   anticipated that the product range will expand as traders become more experienced.
   The Americas (1%) are an, as yet, unexploited region, but may become more
   attractive in a liberalised world market. Table 1 gives a breakdown of product types
   and destinations (1999 and 2000), and annex 3 lists the product categories.


   Table 1. Market destination and volume of fisheries exports, 1999 and 2000 (tons)
Market                                           1999                                         2000
Destination                Europe   Africa   Asia       Americas   1999     Europe   Africa   Asia   Americas   2000
Fresh    Fish              9475     1        519        27         10022    10421             592    74         11087
         Molluscs          365      10       0          4          380      179               0      18         197
         Crustaceans       98                1          0          99       81                1      2          84
Total Fresh                9938     11       520        31         10501    10681             593    94         11368
Frozen   Fish              15140    25369    2100       1          42609    13763    24650    3145   0          41558
         Molluscs          35427    51       10880      110        46468    11158    33       2353   307        13851
         Crustaceans       7545     4        208        6          7763     7823     2        10     59         7894
TOTAL FROZEN               58112    25424    13188      177        96840    32744    24685    5508   366        63303
TOTAL CANNED               10539    1300                           11838    7682     1126                       8808
OTHER PROCES.              54       5021     52         30         5157     36       4402     100    2          4540
OVERALL TOTAL              78643    31755    13760      178        124336   51143    30213    6202   462        88019
   Source: Agro-ind 2002

   3
     The following calculations are made with figures from a number of sources and may therefore suffer
   from errors of inconsistency.

                                                              13
   The data shows how important the European market is; though for the categories of
   other processing and frozen fish the African market is in fact dominant. The actual
   quantity traded fell over the two years, but table 2, export values, shows that value
   actually increased over the same period. This is due to increased exports of high value
   fresh fish and the price elasticity of demand.


   Table 2. Value of fisheries exports, 1999 and 2000 (billion CFA)
Market                                           1999                                             2000
Destination                Europe   Africa   Asia       Americas   1999     Europe   Africa   Asia       Americas   2000
Fresh    Fish              26947    0        1419       58         28425    33955             1294       223        35472
         Molluscs          674      1        0          9          685      513               0          92         605
         Crustaceans       738               5          0          744      559               5          9          574
Total Fresh                28359    1        1424       67         29854    35027             1299       324        36651
Frozen   Fish              24806    9613     856        0          35276    30851    10879    2540       0          44270
         Molluscs          46079    21       18488      180        64768    29533    40       9563       810        39946
         Crustaceans       32102    5        423        7          32537    44882    5        74         309        45270
TOTAL FROZEN               102987   9639     19767      187        132581   105266   10924    12177      1119       129486
TOTAL CANNED               15752    1452                           17205    11       1614                           12909
OTHER PROCES.              1423     2752     1605       46         5825              2317     4593       88         7113
OVERALL TOTAL              14821    13844    22796      300        185466   151704   14855    18069      1531       186159
   Source: Agro-ind 2002



   Italy, then France, Spain, Belgium and Greece are the most important European
   destinations for most of these products (fresh, frozen, canned, cured and other
   processed). In general though Senegalese value added exports have preformed
   proportionally better than those from other (non APC) developing countries. This is
   because the tariff advantages (via the Lomé agreement) are more significant for
   processed then non-processed products. The implication being that countries in Asia
   and Latin America can compete more effectively on whole frozen products, which do
   not attract significant tariffs, than on processed goods (canned or prepared food) that
   have high customs duties.


   Time series data for exports were not available by species. However, CEMARE
   country files indicate that from the landed totals of small pelagic fish, tuna, demersal
   fish, cephalopods and shrimp, 15 90 80 100 and 95 percent (respectively) are
   exported. Figures 5 and 6 give this data, for product categories (crustacea, canned fish
   and fresh/frozen), by volume and value.




                                                              14
Figure 5. Volume of exports (1976 - 1997).

                  90,000


                  80,000


                  70,000


                  60,000


                  50,000
         Tones




                  40,000


                  30,000


                  20,000


                  10,000


                      0
                           1976

                                  1977

                                         1978

                                                1979

                                                       1980

                                                              1981

                                                                      1982

                                                                             1983

                                                                                    1984

                                                                                           1985

                                                                                                   1986

                                                                                                          1987

                                                                                                                 1988

                                                                                                                        1989

                                                                                                                               1990

                                                                                                                                      1991

                                                                                                                                              1992

                                                                                                                                                     1993

                                                                                                                                                            1994

                                                                                                                                                                   1995

                                                                                                                                                                          1996

                                                                                                                                                                                 1997
                           Crustaceans, molluscs                     Fish, canned                 Fish, fresh, chilled, froz                 Fish, dried, salted, or smoked


Source: TradeForrdFish.org



Figure 6 Value of exports (1976 to 1997).

                  200,000

                  180,000

                  160,000

                  140,000

                  120,000
  Value ($000s)




                  100,000

                   80,000

                   60,000

                   40,000

                   20,000

                           0
                        76
                        77
                        78
                        79
                        80
                        81
                        82
                        83
                        84
                        85
                        86
                        87
                        88
                        89
                        90
                        91
                        92
                        93
                        94
                        95
                        96
                        97
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19
                     19




                           Crustaceans, molluscs                     Fish, canned                 Fish, fresh, chilled, froz                 Fish, dried, salted, or smoked


Source: TradeForrdFish.org



In figure 3 we can see that over the period, 1976 – 1997, quantity fresh, chilled,
frozen exports reached a peak in 1991, when it was around 3 times the 1976 volume.
The period before the currency devaluation (1992 – 1993) was marked by a rapid

                                                                                              15
decline in exported quantity, and in spite of significant post-devaluation recovery the
quantity is still below its 1991 peak. Overall though the series shows a lot of variation
indicating a highly volatile sector. Exported quantities of molluscs, crustacea, and
canned fish (Tuna), show less volatility though the effect of devaluation is still clear,
and both roughly doubled their quantity over the period. However, in terms of value,
fish exports did not dominate the industry until after the currency devaluation, which
was followed by a period (1994 – 1997) in which their value increased more than 3-
fold! The export value for crustacea/molluscs, and canned fish however did not
increase by the same magnitude over the entire 20 year period.



4.2 THE FISH PRODUCERS


4.2.1 STRUCTURE OF THE FLEET
Around 100,000 people are employed in direct fishing related activities, of which
90,000 are artisinal fishermen4 (UNEP, 2002). The artisinal fleet, which accounts for
over 70% of landings, and is spread along the coast line and can be broken down by
gear type or targeting activity (details of the structure by boat type and region are
given in Annex 2). This information shows that the most common boat types are:
      Drift net (surface and bottom), in Sine Saloum and Casamanace.
      Bottom set nets, in Grand Cote and Cape Vert.
      Line fishing (normal), in Grand Cote and Cape Vert.
      Ice box pirogues , in Grand Cote and Petit Cote.
      Shrimp nets, in Casamanace.


The profitability of all boats fleets was affected by the devaluation of the CFA, which
lead to sharp rises in running costs and landed prices for exported species. This led to
increasing profits for boats targeting export species as their landed prices have
increased significantly. While boats catching fish for local consumption (purse seine
and surround gill nets) have become less profitable, because landed prices for sardine
has not kept pace with the cost of fishing (which increased due to the devaluation).
This former has therefore been expanding since the mid 1990’s through a process of
industry growth and effort displacement (from the artisinal pelagic sector). In fact


4
    Though this statistic seems to contradict another estimation from the same source, see table 3.

                                                     16
supply increased in both sectors but by very different margins, between 1996 and
1999 supply of small pelagic fish increased by 26 – 45%, while supply of demersal
fish for export went up by ~200%. Furthermore, seasonal targeting of migratory
export species during certain months has become more pronounced, for example in
Petite Côte the majority of boats target cephalopods from June to September, and
there can be temporary shortages on local markets. The increase in the number of
fishermen between 1980 and 1998, shown in table 3, has been dominated by growth
in demersal artisinal fishermen.


Table 3. Senegalese fishing fleet (1980 to 1998)
 Year                    Industrial fishing                     Small scale fishing
            National fleet     Foreign fleet    Total   No. Of Pirogues   No. Of Fishermen
 1980      121               163               284      8488              30707
 1985      154               85                239      5100              41770
 1990      132               135               267      10411             48122
 1994      137               102               239      9632              52498
 1998      176               75                251      10707             51197
Source: (UNEP, 2002)



The table above shows the decline in the foreign industrial fleet (dominated by tuna
boats and large trawlers), a 12% drop in the overall number of industrial boats
between 1980 and 1998. The artisinal fleet, on the other hand, has expanded rapidly,
increasing by 26% over the same period. The number of artisinal fishermen increased
by 67%, suggesting that the sector is becoming more labour intensive. This may be
because the boats are getting bigger and because techniques which target export
species are more labour intensive.


There is also a very important European presence in Senegalese waters, and up to
2001 there where 148 industrial vessels catching Tuna and demersal species. These
boats were allowed to fish in Senegalese waters with an agreement signed in 1997
(there have been EU/Senegal fishing agreements since 1980) worth 48m euros, for
access rights until March 2001. This agreement was extended twice, to allow for a
follow up agreement to be reached, but the talks broke down, and in January 2002 the
European boats where banned from Senegalese waters. The EU wanted to increase its
catch by 60% (from 10,000 to 16,000 tonnes) and fleet by almost 40% (from 148 to


                                               17
207 boats), while Senegal was seeking to reduce the fishing pressure from EU boats,
there was also disagreement on the areas to be fished and the length of fishing season.
Finally in June 2002, an agreement was reached worth 64m euros, 16m euros a year
(4m euros more per year than the previous agreement) for fishing rights until 2006.
The presence of European boats in Senegalese is a manifestation of the European
policy towards subsidising its fishing industry, as the EU boats only pay around 10%
of the actual resource access price (UNEP, 2002). The use of subsidies is widely
disputed as many argue that they distort the efficient use of capital, in this case it
seems likely that subsidies have increased the scale of the European presence, and
may mean that they have no incentive to stop fishing as stocks dwindle as their actual
operating costs are so low.


4.2.2 INCENTIVE TO EXPORT
All demersal fish landed in Senegal are exported, the only exceptions are the very
small quantities caught as by-catch and those fish which are rejected from export
because of some defect. As such there is no representative domestic market for these
fish and there is no possibility to compare domestic and international prices for these
species. These prices have given domestic fishermen a strong incentive to target
export species and as stock decline prices for these species have responded by
increasing. While there is anecdotal evidence of fishermen’s wages falling over the
last ten years it has ensured that a large amount of fishing effort is still focussed on
stocks that are becoming increasingly scarce. Their incomes, like those in the
processing sector allow for enough food and some investments to be made in housing
(which is normally done on a collective group basis).


For pelagic species on the other hand there are a number of factors which determine
price. The location of the landing site has a strong influence, with prices increasing
towards the capital. The destination market also affects price. For example, at the
fisherman-wholesaler stage, Sardines bought for export can receive around 500 CFA
per basket (~60 kilos) more from export wholesalers as opposed to a local wholesaler.
As prices for this product generally fluctuate between 1000 and 2000 CFA, this is a
very significant difference. However, in spite of this incentive, most fishermen (at
least around Joal) will sell their fish into both markets. While this may mean they
make less money in the short term, they are protecting their primary market, the local


                                          18
artisinal processing industry. Another reason which may explain their apparent non
profit maximising behaviour is the complex network of allegiances and relationships
that each fisherman has with a number of wholesalers. These wholesalers may have
provided financial aid to help him enter the fishing industry, carry out repairs, and
ensure that the fish is not left standing at the quayside to perish. There are many of
these informal professional allegiances which imply that the price is not always the
only factor in fish sales.


4.3 THE FISH WORKERS (PROCESSING AND DISTRIBUTION)


4.3.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Roughly 600,000 people (15% of the working population) are involved with some
form of post harvest fisheries work, and roughly two thirds of these are in the artisinal
sector. While almost all industrial operations are based in Dakar, the artisinal
processing and distribution activities occur along the entire coastline. The most
important areas though are Joal, Mbour, St. Lois and Kayar. These artisinal
(domestic) and industrial (export) are so different that the description of their nature,
capacity, employment and conditions is given separately below.


Artisinal Processing: The artisinal processing industry has no formal structure, and is
characterised by its flexibility and its adaptability of workers and techniques. A
general description of the processing activities around Joal, the most important
artisinal landing site, is provided here to give a representative view of the industry
(see Faye, 1999, for a more comprehensive description).


The vast majority of the fish processed is first smoked then dried; the fish can also be
packed in salt before drying (sel seche). Other forms of processing that include
fermenting (fish is left in water for up to 2 days), and variations on the smoking
technique to suit foreign markets. The processing sites have been expanding as the
industry has developed, indeed the towns of Joal and Mbour have both experienced
rapid population growth in recent years. However, the level of activity is highly
volatile and depends on landings; a good indicator is the price per basket of sardine,
which might vary between CFA 1000 and CFA 3000. The only permanent facilities at
these sites are a few (mostly disused) warehouse structures and the traditional ovens


                                           19
which are spread around the site. While it is not possible to make a full description of
all workers, a generalised summary of some of the categories is given below


Male >30 (with access to credit or some financial support). Most of the activity
around the processing site is organised by this group, typically each man owns 1 or 2
ovens (but this may be up to 3 or 4). They are relatively well off, and are involved in
buying fish, hiring groups of workers for processing tasks, and organising the sale.


Male 15 - 35 (without savings or access to credit, often migrants from other regions in
search of work, see 4.3.3). There are many men, not always young, hired on a day to
day basis for manual labour such as;
- Loading and unloading of material,
- Maintaining and unloading ovens to dry the fish ~ 2 days ~ CFA 500 per day,
- Gutting baskets of fish.
Their income is therefore highly dependent on the availability of fish and they may
have to start at 7am and have work until 11am, then wait until 5pm in order to have
work until 11 or midnight. On average, their earnings are up to CFA 2000 per day.


Female general workers. Women also fulfil a number of roles but are generally the
most vulnerable group, they often have to look after infants, are considered to lack
physical strength to carry our some tasks, and generally have poorer access to credit.
We did, however, meet one lady who owned two ovens and proved that these barriers
are not insurmountable. In general their tasks include:
- Loading the oven before smoking, ~ CFA 100 hour
- Gutting baskets of fish (~ CFA 25 per basket) ~ CFA 1000 per day.


Female fish smokers. Groups of women may operate together in order to buy fish
which they can process themselves. They can only afford to buy small quantities
when the prices are low, when the price increases they have to work for others. Their
fish is smoked on the ground producing a product that is preferred by local
consumers. They are a vulnerable group because they generally lack savings and can
only afford to process small volumes, and because buyers may not pay enough to
cover costs if the price of fish falls after during processing they may not recoup the
expenditure.


                                          20
Foreign processors (Burkina Faso, Guinea or The Gambia). Organised groups of fish
processors/traders come to supply external markets. They may hire local workers to
carry out manual tasks, and have a buying power is in excess of most local processors.
Processors from each country have developed the industry by introducing new
processing methods, and innovations such as the utilisation of waste products
(previously thrown away), for compost or chicken feed.


Industrial Processing: The industrial sector on the other hand is now heavily
regulated, with strict health & safety, and hygiene & sanitation standards. The sector
provides a limited number of managerial jobs, but these are often taken by Europeans,
and a significant amount of employment for manual workers. These are generally
young men and women, the former being involved in more physically demanding
tasks. Each company generally has a pool of permanent workers who earn around
70,000 CFA per month. Temporary (day to day) workers would earn a similar
amount but they have less job security, typically a male worker is paid around 3000
CFA per day, while a female is paid for specific tasks, i.e. 300 CFA per kg of
product processed. However, when there are no landings there will be no work for
either category.


Exact employment levels for each sub-sector are not available, but table 4 gives an
impression of the gender ratio in artisinal sites around Joal.


Table 4. Gender ratio at processing sites (Joal).
   Area                Male          Female           Total
Khelcom*                  99            191              290
Tann*                    113             89              202
Total                    212            280              492
* The two most important processing areas in Joal. Source, CRODT 2000



Overall, the artisinal processing industry around Joal is dominated by women (with
57% of the labour force). Indeed, previous studies in the same area found that 75% of
all women, in Joal, took part in the fisheries industry, in a full or part time capacity.
This may be due to the fact that many of the men are occupied with fishing activities.
The gender mix across the two sites is not consistent because of the relative



                                                           21
importance of different activities (specifically fish smoking on the ground) at each
site.


An informative analysis of the purchasing power of the wages gained from artisinal
and industrial processing is hard to achieve, but it is clear that the industry is
financially attractive relative to the alternatives. In one instance a respondent said that
when they arrived in Joal they had only 100 CFA ($0.2), but was able to save money
working as a labourer, invest in the sector, and now owns several smoking ovens and
two houses. Whether these opportunities still exist is not clear and average income
data, even if it were available, would not account for the variability that occurs in both
sectors. However, some rough calculations can be made. At the time of writing it was
possible to feed a family of 6 people with the traditional dish thiébou dieun (fish and
rice) for CFA 1500/2000 or with chicken and rice for CFA 5000/5500 (around Joal
and Mbour). If we take, as an example, a family of 6 with two active adults and two
active children (one male, one female), one child to young to work and one adult too
old to work). Then, assuming this family is totally dependant on the fish industry5,
their daily income (while landings are good) might be CFA 6000 (2x2000, 2x1000),
which could be enough to provide food for the whole family and leave some to spare.
However, if landings are poor, and incomes halved (assumption), there would barely
be enough money to pay for one meal!


There are also some statistics available on average incomes for fishermen, these also
hide the intra-annual variation, but are given in table 5. The trends seem to depend on
the gear type being used, as pelagic fishermen using purse seines and gill net have
suffered. At the same time as average salaries for icebox pirogue fishermen and
ADNP fishermen, who target demersal species, increased significantly.


Table 5. Annual average salary of individual fishermen in CFAF:
Boat type                                1993             1996          1999
Purse Seine                                650,000         764,111        522,056
Surrounding gill net                       572,367         797,944        643,796
Icebox pirogues                            380,824         976,446      1,535,174
ADNP pirogues*                             212,000         811,745      2,057,125
* Angling, Dormant, Net and Pot (ADNP) fishing


5
    Though in coastal areas tourism is also an important source of employment and income diversification.

                                                     22
4.3.2 BACKGROUND TO LABOUR FORCE
Artisinal: The majority of the fish processors from the artisinal sector come from
elsewhere in Senegal typically from îles du Saloum and the regions of Diourbel and St
Lois but increasingly from the interior of the country. There are also others from
neighbouring countries, Guinea, Burkina Faso, Gambia, and Mali. An important
recent trend has been an increasing number of young men sent to these processing
centres to support their families in areas where farming has been difficult, as in the
past 5 years agriculture has been characterised by low rainfall and poor harvests.


There is some evidence that the area of origin has an influence on the form of
employment in terms of fish processing activity, these activities are given in the
heading to table 6. The table shows that only processors from Burkina Faso use
Metoraa, and indicates that foreign processors are unlikely to be involved with Yeet,
Tambaheng or Sali. It also shows that the most important processing activities, in
terms of employment are Keccax salé (adult or juvenile sardines salted, smoked and
dried for local consumption) and Keccax non-salé (not salted), and Guédj (dried
fermented shark, sea bream, capitan, ray etc).


Table 6. Type of fish processing activity by region of origin and activity (Joal).
 Origin       Keccax Keccax Metoraa                   Guédj         Yeet /       Tamb-          Sali   Total
               salé  non -salé                                      Tuufa        ajeng
Dakar            8       1                                5                        4                    18
Diourbel        27       3                                7            1           5                    43
Fatick          51      12                                6            1           4                    74
Joal            20      12                                9            3           10                   54
Kaolack         23      19                                1                        4                    47
Kolda                    1                                                                               1
Louga            8       8                                5            1            3                   25
St Louis         4       1                                5            1            1            1      13
Thies           84      18                               24           11            21           2     160
Touba            1                                                                                       1
Ziguinch         3       7                                                          2                   12
Burkina          1             13                                                                       14
Gambie           4                                        1                                              5
Guinea           8      10                                                                              18
Mali             2                                        2                         3                    7
Total          244      92     13                        65           18            57           3     492
* Keccax non-sale is oven smoked sardines dried without salt – consumed in Burkina and Guinea
Sources, CRODT 2000




                                                              23
For the sites described here, Khelcom and Tann, the average ages were found to be 39
(men) and 43 (women), and 43 (men) and 44 (women) respectively. The influence of
gender on age may be attributable to the fact that as men are more often the owners of
ovens they can build up capital and diversify, and are therefore not locked into the
industry long term.


Most of the Senegalese migrants had previously been involved in agriculture or trade
and did not work with fish before, but poor agricultural conditions and harvests have
threatened their livelihoods. Joining the fish processing sector is therefore a coping
strategy in response to agricultural problems and each migrant may be responsible for
providing for many people in their home village. Those coming from abroad on the
other hand are more likely to have worked in the sector before. There are no formal
systems of recruitment, labour is taken on when there is work to be done and is
generally arranged through informal social and professional links. As such it is not
difficult for immigrants to have access to employment opportunities in the region.


While no exact figures on previous earnings were collected in this study there was
sufficient anecdotal evidence to suggest that for most workers coming from inland
regions, or abroad, the income gained from fish processing is higher than in their
previous occupations. This conclusion seems logical considering the distances that
many of these workers have travelled to be part of the industry – such upheavals are
not taken lightly.


The money made by artisinal fish processors is mostly used to support their families,
whether they are in the vicinity or in more distant villages. This generally includes the
provision on food and housing. In this respect there is no great difference between the
behavior of migrant and local workers, apart from the distance over which the money
is distributed. The money they make is also saved specifically for the annual days of
celebration such as the tabaski and the Korité (which are Muslim customs).


Industrial: The workers in the industrial sector are generally quite young and include
men and an increasing number of women especially in the canned food and value
added sectors. The requirement for women and men therefore generally depends on
the requirement of skill and force respectively. These workers come from all over


                                           24
Senegal; Dakar is a major magnet for urban migration, and ma or may-not have
worked in the fish industry previously. However, there are much fewer foreigner
labourers working in the industrial sector (there are more foreign executives though).
Recruitment is not a very complex procedure, normally just requiring a reference from
a friend and to be available when there is work.


Once again the majority of the money earned by these workers is used to look after
their families, the most significant daily expense is still food, but accommodation,
transport and clothing are all likely to be more expensive in an urban centre (such as
Dakar) than in a rural area. There is no significant difference in the spending patterns
of immigrants and non-immigrants, only that the money has to be sent further if the
workers family do not live in Dakar, this may means the income is being used to
support two groups as he/she will have to provide separate meals and accommodation
for him/her-self at the same time.


4.3.3 CONDITIONS OF LABOUR

Artisinal: In the artisinal sector there are no security or safety standards and the
workers have to make do with the equipment and facilities that are available at the
time, indeed during the course of this study the authors saw a number of processors
with cuts on their hands as they did not have access to protective gloves. Furthermore
the material they do have to work with is often not in good working condition (it may
be dirty or broken) and may increase the risk of accident. The artisinal sector also
lacks any social security system, and all hiring and payments are done informally on a
daily informal basis. As such there is no health insurance, sick leave or organised
planning for retirement.


Industrial: While the state does play a more active role in the operation of the
industrial sector the employment situation for each worker remains very unstable.
Work depends on landings, and as many stocks are migratory or are now over-fished
supply is inconsistent and hence there is variability in the demand for labour. There
are a number of standards too which the sector must adhere in order to protect the
safety of its workers, which have been improved by the imposition of European
standards in order to export. The state also ensures that social security payments,
covering sick leave etc, are made on behalf of all full time staff. Temporary workers

                                          25
however do not receive any social security benefits and for this reason the processing
firms are reluctant to take on any more permanent staff than they have to.


4.3.4 KNOCK ON EFFECTS OF EXPORT ORIENTATION

The development of Senegal’s export processing sector has had a profound impact on
the structure of processing activities in both industrial and artisinal sectors. High value
demersal fish are no longer processed in the artisinal sector yet it seems that demand
for labour has been maintained through increased landings of pelagic fish, and no
evidence was found to suggest that there have been significant job losses. Processors
previously concerned with demersal fish, which are no longer locally available, have
probably been able to adapt to the changing conditions, by focusing on different
species. Indeed, the industries adaptability appears to be its greatest strength. The
current level of coastal migration (typically by young adults) is an indicator of the
opportunities improved incomes these areas offer in the tourism and fisheries sectors.
The fact that the towns of Mbour and Joal, the most important areas for artisinal
landings, have roughly doubled in size over the last 10 years (and continue to grow),
suggests that the development of the export processing industry has not led to job
losses in the rural / artisinal sector. However, this may come to pass if the continued
over-exploitation of resources leads to serious declines in catches.


There is some evidence that the most vulnerable group, female workers, are
experiencing difficulties in adapting to changes in the marketing of pelagic fish.
Increasing competition from foreign processors (from Burkina and Guinea), and
demand for fresh (pelagic) fish, which can be transported inland directly by
wholesalers and more recently exporters (to S. Korea), have driven the price of
sardine up considerably. Ten years ago the price per basket (~60kilo) was rarely over
1500 CFA, but it can now be as expensive as 2500 CFA, and it is the female fish
smokers who are the first to loose out as the price gets increased.


4.4 THE FISH CONSUMERS


4.4.1 PROFILE OF FISH CONSUMPTION
Senegal is a country of fish eaters and all parts of the population rely on fish as an
integral part of their diet. On average per capita consumption is around 26 kg/year

                                            26
(equivalent fresh), and fish accounts for over 70% of animal protein intake in all areas
of the country (TradeFoodFish.org). However, other sources of animal protein are
available as Senegal has a relatively well developed livestock industry (Republic of
Senegal, 2002), though it has been badly affected by recent droughts. Beef, whose
price increased significantly in response to the CFA devaluation (1500 – 2000
CFA/kg in Dakar), still represents a substitute for fish, but is not consumed with the
same frequency. Other important sources of animal protein include eggs, milk, lamb,
and poultry. Pork is not common as the population is 94% Muslim. Non-meat staples
include millet, maize and sorghum, all of which are produced domestically. Rice, on
the other hand, is imported in large quantities from Asia as the varieties produced in
Senegal are all high value and destined for export markets.


The most important factors affecting the patterns of fish consumption are, social status
(rich or poor), location (inland or coastal, village or town), and season. Socially, the
rich have better access to fish resources than the poor (who can only buy poor quality
smoked fish), but the contrast is more important in inland areas where there is no
physical link to the sea. Indeed, coastal areas appropriate 80% of the domestically
traded quantity, and in some periods fish may not be available for some inland
communities. Another feature of fish availability is that most supply chains lead to
large towns and not to small villages, as such fish availability is much better in larger
communities (average annual fish consumption in Dakar is 43kg, against 26kg for the
country, and 8.2 for the continent as a whole).


The temporal aspect of dependence on fisheries resources is related to the cycle of
agricultural production and inland food availability, defined in 4 periods below:
Period 1)      October to December: Post harvest period (millet, maize etc), food is
               abundant, stores are full, prices are low and most people have money.
Period 2)      January to March: Staples are in good supply and the harvest of
               groundnuts in this period means that there is still money to spend on
               food (much of it on rice imports).
Period 3)      April to June: Reliance on food in store, there is still enough food but
               prices start to rise.




                                           27
Period 4)      June to September: This is the most difficult part of the year in terms
               of food security (especially in inland areas). Reserves begin to be run
               down and prices rise, if the harvest (in period one) was poor then there
               is food insecurity.


As mentioned above, fish is consumed year round throughout Senegal, but during
period 4, many remote communities are cut off from traders because the rainy season
makes roads impassable. In order to cope with the problem of disrupted supply (of all
food types) these communities specifically rely on fish, as it is the one form of meat
that can be preserved and stored without freezers. As such, they stock up on smoked
fish before July in preparation for the following months – this livelihood strategy
appears to be particularly dependant on the availability of processed pelagic fish.


In terms of general nutritional status Senegal is relatively food secure compared to
other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The State Of Food Insecurity in the World
1999 reports showed that under nourishment is moderately low and food availability
is adequate to meet requirements, but found medium to high levels of underweight,
stunting and wasting among children nationwide. Similarly, a nutritional study in Joal
where fish landed in large quantities \found only low levels of malnutrition (~15%),
more significant was the level of anaemia, which is related to the low intake of
vegetables in the diet.


4.4.2 FISH PRICES
There is only a limited amount of data for fish prices in Senegal, the best time series
information was available from Deme (2002), at landing. This data is analysed below
to give an indication of the availability/affordability of fish in Senegal.


Landed fish prices at 4 different ports, Joal, Mbour, Kayar, and St Lois, have been
analysed for the period 1990 to 2000, this data is presented graphically for Joal in
figures 7 and 8, for pelagic and demersal fish respectively (figures for the other
villages are given in annex 4). Similar figures for the other ports are given in annex.
Only 4 pelagic species showed significant price increases over the period, Brochet,
Mulet, Grande carangue, and Maquereau bonite, with price increasing by between 2



                                            28
and 4 times from 1990 to 2000. Tuna prices stayed relatively stable, as did sardine
(ronde and plate) which are the most important in terms of local consumption.

Figure 7. Landing prices for pelagic species at Joal, CFA/kg (1990 to 2000)
               500

               450
               400
               350

               300
      CFA/Kg




               250
               200
               150
               100
                   50

                   0
                        1990



                                          1991



                                                        1992



                                                                      1993



                                                                                    1994



                                                                                                   1995



                                                                                                                     1996



                                                                                                                                   1997



                                                                                                                                                 1998



                                                                                                                                                                  1999



                                                                                                                                                                                   2000
                               Elthmalose                         Sardinelle ronde                           Sardinelle plate                           Brochet
                               Mulet                              Carpe blanche                              Pelon                                      Grande carangue
                               Plat plat                          Maquereau bonite                           Thonine

*data was not available for 1995, 1997 (some) & 1999. Excel trend was used to estimate this data to facilitate interpretation only.



Figure 8. Average landing prices for demersal species at Joal, CFA/kg (1990 to 200)

   1600
   1400
   1200
   1000
     800
     600
     400
     200
               0
                    1990



                                       1991



                                                 1992



                                                               1993



                                                                             1994



                                                                                            1995



                                                                                                              1996



                                                                                                                            1997



                                                                                                                                          1998



                                                                                                                                                           1999



                                                                                                                                                                            2000




                    Machoiron                      Pagre aux points bleus                                 Sole de roche                   Seiche                         Poulpe

*data was not available for 1995, 1997 (some) & 1999. Excel trend was used to estimate this data to facilitate interpretation only.



The evolution of demersal (landed prices over the same period is quite different. Of
the five species only Machorion was relatively stable, prices for the other 4 all
increased by between 2 and 10 fold, from 1993 to 1994 alone. This shows the effect
of currency devaluation and export orientation on fish prices. It is also possible to


                                                                                           29
compare the trends in fish prices to other important food sources, such as millet and
rice, two of the most important parts of the Senegalese diet. Figure 10 gives annual
price series for these goods at 4 different markets.


Figure 10. Rice and Millet prices in 4 regions, 1988 to 2002, (CFA/kg)
              350


              300


              250


              200
     CFA/Kg




              150


              100


              50


               0
               1988   1989   1990     1991      1992   1993     1994    1995      1996       1997   1998        1999   2000       2001      2002
                                    Dakar (m)           Fatick (m)             Kaolack (m)          Thies (m)                 Average (m)
                                    Dakar (r)           Fatick (r)             Kaolack (r)          Thies (r)                 average (r)




Source: Office of Food Security



These price series show a general increasing trend. For millet, domestically produced,
prices rose 58% over the period, though there was a lot of variability. This was caused
by the effect of devaluation (1994), which seems to have been lagged by a year, as
prices did not increase until 1995. There has also been a sharp price increase since
1999 in response to poor harvests (due to climate change6). The price series for rice
shows even more variability up to 1998, since when there has been a period of relative
stability, and even a decline in price. In the first half of the period, wide regional price
differences suggest supply problems between the regions, the overall variability may
also have been caused by price fluctuations on world markets (as this good is
imported). At the end of the period the two products had arrived at roughly the same
price, and, if trends continue, there will be a price inversion, suggesting that Senegal
is indeed becoming more reliant on international markets for food security.




6
  There is some concern that climate change is affecting the rainy season and that poor harvests in
recent years may become a regular problem.

                                                                       30
For the period in which we can make a comparison, millet prices only increased by
20%, less than both demersal (between 38% and 72%) and pelagic fish (between 13%
and 47%) prices. Yet taking the surrounding years into account reveals a price
increase of 58%. Table 7, below, shows that rice prices also increased significantly,
by 36%, and also gives the proportional changes of all prices between 1993 and 1995
(devaluation).


Table 7. Proportional changes in landed fish prices (%)
    Fish                  1993 – 1995                         1990 - 2000
    landings       Demersal            Pelagic         Demersal            Pelagic
    Joal                60                34               38                24
    Mbour               54                32               72                38
    Kayar               44                35               55                34
    St Lois             36                29               51                47
                                      Staple food
    Rice                         15                                  36
    Millet                       41                                  20*
*
 This value is 58% for the entire period (1988 – 2002) represented in figure X.



The statistics in table 4 confirm the trends shown in figures 5 and 6 for Joal, landed
fish prices have been increasing significantly over the last decade, and this increase
has been proportionally more significant for demersal than pelagic species.
Furthermore, a significant part of this price increase occurred between 1993 and 1994,
which represents the period when export orientation began. In order to assess whether
these price increases are more significant that other living expenses7, fish prices are
compared to alternative foods such as millet and rice. The Millet price changes are
roughly similar, to fish price changes, during the period of devaluation, while rice
price was less affected because of the dominant influence from world markets, but it
has been increasing almost continuously in response to recently liberalised trade rules.
If we consider the overall price changes (1988 – 2002 for millet = 58%) then the price
trends between millet and demersal fish are similar (in the region of 38 – 72%). Rice
price increases on the other hand are more closely related to the pelagic price series
(in the region of 24 – 47%). This analysis might suggest that, the already popular, rice
and (pelagic) fish dish, Kaja, will remain a very important part of the local diet.

7
 The general rate of inflation, which is currently 3.3% annually, would lead to a general price increase
of 38% over the period (1990 – 2000) through the compounding effect of interest over time.

                                                                31
Analysis of the trends in exported volume of fish and their landed prices does not
appear to show any strong relationship. The correlation coefficients for landed prices
at Joal, Mbour, St. Lois, and Kayak where calculated with the export quantities for the
period 1990 to 1997 (values for pelagic landed prices were tested against
dried/salted/smoked exports, while values for demersal landed prices tested against
fresh/chilled/frozen exports). From the 8 (2 price series (pelagic and demersal) x 4
ports) correlation coefficients calculated the most significant values were for pelagic
landings in Mbour (0.74) and Joal (0.41), these are the two most important landing
sites for pelagic species in Senegal. For demersal species the correlation relationship
was highest in St. Lois (0.35). This result suggests that domestic prices are not
strongly related to exported quantities (though only a short time series was available
for comparison), but the limited influence of export quantity on domestic price is
stronger for pelagic than demersal species. There may be a few reasons to explain this
finding, first of all we should emphasize that it was landed prices and not consumer
prices that have been used here. It is important to note that the majority of pelagic
exports go to other West African countries (artisinal processing), demersal exports are
largely sold to the EU (industrial processing). The relative sizes and operational
features of these markets may therefore also be important factors determining the
price elasticity with respect to quantity exported.


4.5 THE FISH STOCKS


4.5.1 IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
The waters around Senegal, and much of West Africa, are especially productive
because of the local oceanography, i.e. nutrient up-welling at the edge of the
continental shelf. As such these waters are naturally abundant with many forms of
marine life including large stocks of pelagic and demersal fish, and crustacea. The
most socially and economically important stocks for each category are listed below:


Pelagic: Madeiran Sardine (Sardinella maderensis), Round Sardine (S. aurita), Scad,
European Anchovy, Pelon, Tuna (albacore, listao and patudo).
Demersal: Thiof (Epinephleus aeneus), Sompatt, Sole de roche (Soleae
senegalensus), Dorade (Pagellus bellotti and mediterraneus), Pageot (Pagellus


                                           32
bellottu),           Rouget              (Pseudupeneus                     prayensis),               Blue           Sea           Bream               (Sparus
coeruleostictus).
Crustacea: Lobsters, pink shrimp (Parapenaeus notialis), Tiger shrimp (Panurus
regius), and Yeet.
Molluscs: Octopus (Octopus vulgaris).


Yet, in spite of its productive capacity these waters are being fished to their limits.
Various references (Kebe, 1997; UNEP 2002; MacKenzie, 2002) describe the
demersal stocks as being over fished and pelagic (sardine) stocks as fully exploited,
and even that they are going the same way at the Canadian Grand Banks 15 years ago!


Indeed, the basic information available for this study paints a grim picture of the level
of exploitation, but does not fully confirm the worst case scenarios that have been
built up. Some Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) and catch length data is presented and
analysed below, but comments on the relationship between fishing pressure and status
of the stocks are left to the conclusion, section 6. Information on aggregate CPUE (for
all species) is presented graphically in figure 10, which shows a rapid decline in catch
rates at the end of the 1980s, then a gradual increase until 1998 (full data in annex 5).


Figure 10. Overall catch per unit effort in Senegalese waters (Kg/hr)

             8000


             7000


             6000


             5000
   kg/hour




             4000


             3000


             2000


             1000


                0
                    71
                         72
                              73
                                   74
                                        75
                                             76
                                                  77
                                                       78
                                                            79
                                                                 80
                                                                      81
                                                                           82
                                                                                83
                                                                                     84
                                                                                          85
                                                                                               86
                                                                                                    87
                                                                                                         88
                                                                                                              89
                                                                                                                   90
                                                                                                                        91
                                                                                                                             92
                                                                                                                                  93
                                                                                                                                       94
                                                                                                                                            95
                                                                                                                                                 96
                                                                                                                                                       97
                                                                                                                                                            98




Source: UNDP (2002)




                                                                                33
The authors of the data emphasized the extent of the over fishing problem by making
the following statement “Total catches (all species) for the whole of Senegal’s
continental shelf fell from about 500kg per hour in 1986 to 500kg per hour in 1991,
which represents a reduction by 50% (UNEP, 2002). However, this interpretation
seems to exaggerate the situation, by choosing a peak year (1986) and a relatively low
year (1991) to make the comparison. In fact, in terms of CPUE over time there does
not appear to have been an overall decline in catch rates, though analysis of this sort
of information is never simple. Two important factors which cannot be fully account
for are large scale environmental changes (such as El Nino), and technology creep.
Oceanic phenomena and climatic regimes have a large impact on the abundance of
fish, and particularly pelagic, stocks that represent the bulk of the Senegalese catch.
The availability of fish in Senegalese waters may therefore follow a cyclical pattern
that can only be appreciated with a longer data set, patterns of this nature have been
observed other fisheries at the same latitude. Furthermore, as fishing technology
improves it becomes easier to catch a given number of fish from a constant
population, or, put another way, the same amount of fish can be caught from a
declining population. Therefore, with constantly improving technology (which is the
case for Senegal); even constant CPUE levels are an indication of a declining resource
base. Furthermore, the pattern observed in figure 8 may also be the result of the fleet
changing its targeting behaviour and sequentially over-exploiting different stocks.
Perhaps more interesting then is the analysis of catch rates for individual species,
some of which are targeted for exports. Figure 11 below presents the CPUE for White
Groupers (Epinephelus aenus), an export fish that has been exposed to heavy fishing
pressure.




                                          34
Figure 11. CPUE rates for White Groupers (Epinephelus aenus) (kg/h)

             160


             140


             120


             100
   kg/hour




              80


              60


              40


              20


               0
                   71
                        72
                             73
                                  74
                                       75
                                            76
                                                 77
                                                      78
                                                           79
                                                                80
                                                                     81
                                                                          82
                                                                               83
                                                                                    84
                                                                                         85
                                                                                              86
                                                                                                   87
                                                                                                        88
                                                                                                             89
                                                                                                                  90
                                                                                                                       91
                                                                                                                            92
                                                                                                                                 93
                                                                                                                                      94
                                                                                                                                           95
                                                                                                                                                96
                                                                                                                                                     97
                                                                                                                                                          98
                                                                                    year



Source: UNDP (2002)



The declining abundance for White Grouper is clear and catch rates have fallen from
80 kg/hour in 1971 (140 in 1973) to 8 kg/hour in 1998; it is probably no longer
commercially viable as a target species. The data CPUE shows a similar trend for
Grey Sea Bream (local name Pagre), see figure 12 below, CPUE rates fell from 92
kg/hour in 1971 (147 kg/hour in 1977) to 10 kg/hour in 1998.


Figure 12. CPUE rates for Grey Sea Bream (kg/h)

             160


             140


             120


             100
   kg/hour




             80


             60


             40


             20


              0
                   71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98
                                                                                    year


Source: UNDP (2002)




                                                                               35
Sea Bream was also an important export fish but with current catch rates so low it is
unlikely to be a profitable target species. Similar declining trends were also found in
populations of White Shrimp, Badeches, Thiof (Epinephleus aeneus). The relative
stock level indicator for Badeche (Mycteroperca rubra) fell from 50 Kg/h in the
1970s to less than 10kg/h in 1998, while the CPUE for African Threadfin
(Pseudolithus spp) declined from over 2 tonnes at the end of the 1970s to less than 10
Kg/h. The indicator for red seam bream which exceeded 300 Kg/h in 1975, fell to 50
Kg/h in 1998, and that of Pageot (Pagellus bellottii), which was over 1000 Kg/h at the
start of the 1980s, declined sharply in the second half of that decade, and since 1990
has fluctuated between 200 and 400 kg/h. CPUE of Machoirons (Arius spp) has
followed the same pattern as that of Pageot, falling sharply in the second half of the
1980s (from over 4000kg per hour in 1981 to approx 1000kg/ hour in the early 1990s
(UNEP, 2002).


There are however a few species for which the data set shows increasing levels of
CPUE, such as Sompatt, Cuttlefish, and Octopus. However, these species have only
recently become targets themselves (as a result of new markets in Asia) and with
current catch rates it unlikely to be long before the CPUE values starts to decline.


Another informative way of interpreting the status of fish stocks from landing data is
to analyse the average landed size. This information is relevant as it gives an
indication of the average age of stock. Age structure in a population is particularly
important for stocks as most fish don’t reach sexual maturity until they are a few years
old, and then fecundity is positively related to age/size. Figure 13 shows the average
landed size for 5 important export species, and there seems to have been a steady
declining trend since at lease 1980. The results suggest that these stocks of these fish
are under heavy fishing pressure and there are fewer and fewer mature adults
remaining. In fact, by 2000, the average landed size of all species (except Thèikem)
had fallen below that which represents sexual maturity. There is therefore reason to
believe that spawning population for these (and probably other) stocks are severely
diminished.




                                           36
Figure 13. Average sizes (cm) landings by ice box trawlers (1980, 1985, 1995, 2000)

                 45

                 40

                 35

                 30
   length (cm)




                 25

                 20

                 15

                 10

                 5

                 0
                           1980           1985           1990        1995             2000

                      Captaine    Grey Sea bream   Pink Sea bream   White sea bream     Thièkem


Source: UNDP (2002)



On top of the direct fishing pressure, stocks of fish are also threatened by
environmental degradation. In Senegalese waters this takes the form of
environmentally damaging fishing practices such as rolling steel diabolos in order to
capture bottom living species, such as thiof (Epinephleus aeneus ) (UNEP, 2002).
These gears have lead to the deterioration of vast rocky areas, destroying the natural
rocky benthic structure and impacting the ecosystems natural balance. This may have
lead to the replacement of the previously dominant species such as bass and groupers
(which have shown marked declines in CPUE); by cephalopod species which have
shown a marked increase in abundance in the 1990s and have only more recently
become target species themselves.


Conflict between fishermen is becoming increasingly common, as the fleet size grows
and the resource base shrinks, fishermen are forced onto the same area with
incompatible gear types. The problem often arises in the interface between artisinal
and industrial boats, as artisinal fishermen use standing gear (surface and bottom-set
gillnets), while industrial fishermen use mobile gear (gill nets, beach seines, cast nets,
lines, shrimp nets). In some cases artisinal fishermen may leave their nets across
passes, which either blocks access to mobile gear types, or leads to their gear being
destroyed and catch being lost if boats do pass through the area. Indeed there are
reports that these sorts of interactions are not always accidental. The situation is
aggravated at night times when industrial boats can fish illegally with their lights off

                                                    37
as cover, increasing the risk of collision. This sort of problem has lead to heated
conflict and even violence. Around the Saloum Delta the fishing grounds are zoned
and the waters up to 6 km offshore are for artisinal operations only, but there are
reports of incursions by industrial boats (Kane, 2001). It is hoped that the new
international regulations8 on the responsibilities each country has for its fleet and the
sharing of information on non-compliance will reduce the extent of this problem with
respect to foreign boats. However, conflict also occurs between artisinal fishermen,
from Senegal and neighbouring countries. In areas such as the Bolongs (channels),
were the resource is restricted to a particular local group, conflict has occurred with
incursions from other artisinal fishermen. Conflicts between nationals has also
occurred when local groups try and defend their waters from all others, this has
caused problems in Kayar where Guetndarien fishermen where forcibly excluded.


4.5.2 MANAGING THE SITUATION
Up until 1998 Senegal maintained a policy of open access to fishery resources for
artisinal fishermen, an arrangement which has been deemed appropriate because; i)
for many communities there are no other sources of food or income available, any
restrictions would therefore seriously jeopardize livelihoods, and, ii) direct
management of small scale fisheries in tropical countries is an especially difficult
thing to do. However, with the implementation of a new fishing code in 1998 all boats
are now required to posses a licence, which can be revoked for non-registration, use
of unauthorized gears etc. The code also outlawed the use of fish collection boats with
packaging and processing facilities, as they meant fish would by-passed the
Senegalese market reducing the potential for value adding or food security. The code
also outlines the legal gear types, net mesh sizes, and zones where different fleets can
operate. For example the area within 6 NM of the coast is for the exclusive use of
small scale fishermen.


The management of Senegal’s coastal demersal stocks, an area of direct competition
between national and international fleets9, has been especially difficult because of the
pressure applied by foreign countries (most importantly the EU) who want to fish in

8
  UN Agreement to Promote Compliance with International Conservation and Management measures
by Fishing Vessels on the High Seas, brought into force in November 2001.
9
  European engagement is, in theory based a principal of complementarity, which would imply that
their presence should be restricted to those resources that the Senegalese fleet cannot itself exploit.

                                                   38
Senegalese waters. However, when the last EU fishing contract came up for renewal
in 2001 the Senegalese government took a tough line and rejected European calls for
expanded fishing rights (see section 4.2.1). The new agreement has reduced the size
of the European fleet, by around a third, and there are now longer rest periods, two
months, when no fishing is allowed in order for stocks to recover.


5. FISHERIES EXPORTS AND FOOD SECURITY


5.1 IMPACT OF TRADE AGREEMENTS
A number of factors have contributed to the level of fisheries exports from Senegal
(see section 4), however the favourable terms of trade between the 46 ACP10 countries
and the EU (Lomé agreement) has been on of the most significant. A succession of
Lomé conventions have provided one way trade preferences, which were extended to
include piscatorial products in 1982, between the ACP countries and EC member
states. The agreements have allowed fisheries (and other) products to enter the EU
market with neither tariff (customs) duties or non-tariff (quota) barriers, though the
final (Cotonou) agreement envisages the phasing out of some of these benefits
(Panagari, 2002). These favourable terms provided an irresistible incentive for
Senegal to intensify its export orientated fishing operations towards Europe, which
now receives almost 70% of its exports. However, in spite of the direct rent transfer
(through tax exemptions) for each unit of fish sold, the agreement has caused a
number of negative effects. For example, the industry’s structure and orientation have
been distorted by the preferences, which have retarded the industries focus on other
potentially lucrative markets in Africa, Asia and the Americas. It may also have
threatened the long term viability of the resource base by creating an incentive to
increase fishing pressure beyond that which is sustainable11. Indeed the rapid increase
in export volumes in the mid 1990’s suggests that trade may have reached a level that
would not be (competitively) possible in a liberalised world market. Market
distortions have also and undermined the competitiveness of the domestic processing
sectors competitiveness. This is likely to cause problems when world markets are



10
   Africa, Caribbean and Pacific countries, which had been colonized by European nations.
11
   If all markets are liberalized then fishing effort should be spread relatively evenly, but to only
liberalize certain markets implies that these stocks will be exposed to disproportionately high levels of
fishing pressure.

                                                   39
liberalised, indeed there is anecdotal evidence of inefficiencies in the Senegalese fish
export sector.


However, in spite of the preferential status for Senegalese exports to Europe, traders
still report the presence of informal non-tariff barriers in the EU. These barriers often
take the form of restrictions on the use of appellations by importers, for example in
French markets; mostelle must be called brotule, and turbot tropical is changed to
ronclavele indo-pacifique (OECD, 2000). Being forced to use less familiar product
names has allowed importers to buy Senegalese fish for less, and exporters are left
with the prospect of high costs associated with the promotion of non-traditional
appellations. Fortunately this form of discrimination does not occur in all markets, the
report suggests that it is not the case in Italy, but nevertheless Senegalese exporters
seem to suffer from a poor bargaining position in EU markets.


The Lomé preferences are in the process of being phased out (under the Cotonou
agreement), as they run counter to the WTO Most Favoured Nation Clause12, and will
cease to be in effect from 2007. As such, there have not been any significant shocks to
the orientation of Senegalese fish exports as a result of the WTO agreements on fish
trade. Indeed the geographical proximity and level of demand generated by the EU
suggests that, in spite of tariff barriers to other markets being lowered the EU is likely
to remain the most important export market for demersal fish. More worrying though
is the potential incentive for pelagic species, such as sardine, to be exported to newly
liberalised markets, as (in the absence of demersal fish) sardine has become a
mainstay of the Senegalese diet. Indeed, there are already signs of international
demand for this resource, for example a processing plant was opened near Joal in the
last two years in order to supply frozen sardine to South Korea.


It therefore seems that the WTO calls for liberalised trade in fisheries products may
have two separate effects, i) increasing competition for demersal fish in Europe,
where Senegal will become relatively less competitive over the long run, and, ii)
increasing demand for pelagic species in distant markets such as Korea. These effects



12
  Which bans, in principle, the application of different trade preferences to different countries at the
same stage of development.

                                                    40
will have important consequences for both food security and the sustainability of the
resource base.


i) Liberalised trade may have a positive impact on demersal stocks because existing
trade agreements have increased the incentive to fish, because the previous Lomé
agreements made Senegalese fisheries appear falsely super-profitable. However, with
ever increasing demand from European markets the loss of preferential trade status is
more likely to lead to a reduction in market share than a real decline in exported
quantity. The impact of trade liberalisation agreed in the Uruguay round will also be
limited by the fact that all West African countries are also ACP members and will be
affected in the same way. The affect of trade liberalisation in fisheries products may
therefore be best measured at the regional level, as the competitiveness of West
African entrepreneurs, particularly with regard to species such as crustaceans and
Tuna that can be sourced from other markets, will be affected (Bonzon, 1995). An
indirect effect however may be that as artisinal capacity continues to grow its focus
will change towards domestic or new markets, such as Asia.


ii) The extent to which demand from other (non-EU) markets affects future exports
from Senegal will also be a crucial factor affecting fish availability. While no direct
evidence (data) is available to confirm this, indirect (anecdotal) evidence of increasing
product ranges and new factories suggests that this process is already underway.
Increasing exports of Sardine, upon which the country has become particularly
dependant, is a particularly important issue.


While the documentation presenting the SPS mechanism stresses the benefits the
measures will provide to traders in developing countries, this does not seem to have
been the case in Senegal. The country already had large volumes of exports to Europe,
and the measure imposed a significant extra cost on local taxpayers. Indeed, the EU
contribution towards the costs of meeting these new standards, which was provided
for in the Cotonou agreement, was a payment the developed world was morally
required to make. Even so portion of the costs of compliance were borne by
Senegalese taxpayers, in order to protect an industry that is being used to maintain
debt repayments, it seems only fair that the EU (relevant developed countries) should
have made a significant contribution to the cost of its implementation.


                                           41
5.2 SUBSIDIES
In order to enhance foreign exchange earnings from international trade the Senegalese
government supports its fishing and fish processing industries in the following ways.
At the harvesting level it imposes a reduced level of taxation for the purchase of
fishing gear, it provides direct subsidises for fishermen’s fuel requirements and has set
up a number of fisheries sector financing bodies. At the processing/exporting level
there was a direct subsidy for exports designed improve the penetration of Senegalese
fisheries products into external markets. The subsidy added to the value added already
achieved by processors, and was designed to address the governments concern about
consolidating foreign exchange revenues. Initially, the export subsidy was not meant
for the fisheries sector, it was instituted in 1980 to boost agricultural exports, but was
extended to Tuna in 1983 (at 15%). Under its second reform in 1986 it reached 25%
and was extended to cover all fisheries products, but was cancelled at the time of the
devaluation. Referring to the impact of this subsidy, the UNEP (2002) said that the
multiple objectives of developing the fisheries sector, food security and export
requirements could result “in an ever increasing pressure being brought on the main
stocks of exported species of fish. It thus contributed to threatening the supply to the
domestic market and the regeneration of coastal demersal species to equilibrium
level.”


If the agreement on subsidies and countervailing measures is extended to include the
subsidies provided to fishing fleets then there will be a very significant impact on the
role of EU boats in Senegalese waters. These boats only pay around 10% of the real
resource access cost. Subsidies reduction would therefore significantly reduce their
presence, this would reduce the foreign income gained from the sale of fishing
licences, but would also reduce the overall level of fishing pressure.


6. ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
The evolution of Senegal’s fishing and fish export industries hinges on a number of
key factors. These include the countries international debt burden and repayment
obligations, devaluation of the CFA, and the demand generated from European
markets. Their combined effect can be seen in the rapidly rising levels of catch and
export from Senegalese waters. However, there are now signs that this trend is coming
to an end. Round Sardine landings were 26% less in 2001 than in 1997 (fig 1), Tuna


                                           42
landings have been in long term decline (fig 2), and the overall quantity of
fresh/chilled or frozen demersal fish has not increased significantly since the 1980s
(fig 5) in spite of massive increases in artisinal fishing pressure (table 3). The
industrial fleet did not expand as the government stopped actively supporting it at the
start of the 1980’s, and has since focused on market based interventions to encourage
this trade (and generate foreign revenue). This position was somewhat forced on them
by international institutions and their debt repayment burden. For example their PRSP
(Republic of Senegal, 2002) still talks about increasing the levels of foreign exchange
that can be generated from fisheries. At the same time however, the international
community is encouraging countries to reduce their use of subsidies and liberalise
international markets. This creates a difficult and often contradictory set of
circumstances for the government to operate in, and one in which the current situation
(characterised by subsidies, bi-lateral trade agreements, and over-fishing) seems
unsustainable.


The export of fishery products plays a very significant role in the Senegalese
economy, it accounts for almost double the debt repayment burden and socially it has
created jobs in and around Dakar. Based on the current analysis it would appear that
these (export) jobs have been created without causing significant loss of work from
the domestic processing sector, and at present the sector employs around 600,000
people (15% of the working population) in different post harvest roles (UNDP, 2002).
The artisinal sector employs both local and immigrant workers in a number of
different roles. Work is highly dependent on quantity of landings at local ports, no
social support mechanisms are available, but in some coastal communities alternative
employment is available in the growing tourist industry. In general, even the worst
paid workers in this sector can afford a basic diet from the abundance of pelagic
resources that reach the local market. The industrial sector is based around Dakar and
employees fewer foreigners, but does offer some social security benefits, such as
health insurance for permanent workers. Both sectors employ men and women, but
the average age is higher in the artisinal sector.


Senegal, with per capita consumption of 26 kg/yr, is a fish eating country, and
Sardine, the most important fish, is a particularly good source of many vitamins and
protein. The figures in section 4.4.2 have shown that fish has generally become


                                            43
relatively more expensive (during the 1990’s) when compared to millet, rice, or the
national level of inflation. However, in figure 14 (food availability), indicates that
exports do not appear to have reduced the volume of fish available on domestic
markets. Furthermore, there are other sources of meat available, Senegal has a large
livestock industry, and prices for poultry have been falling (anecdotal, Commissariat à
la Sécurité Alimentaire).


Figure 14. Total exports and food supply (prod + imp – exp), 1976 to 1997

             350000


             300000


             250000


             200000
    Tonnes




             150000


             100000


              50000


                  0
                      1976
                             1977
                                    1978
                                           1979
                                                  1980
                                                         1981
                                                                1982
                                                                       1983
                                                                              1984
                                                                                     1985
                                                                                             1986
                                                                                                    1987
                                                                                                           1988
                                                                                                                  1989
                                                                                                                         1990
                                                                                                                                1991
                                                                                                                                       1992
                                                                                                                                              1993
                                                                                                                                                     1994
                                                                                                                                                            1995
                                                                                                                                                                   1996

                                                         fish supply                        export                  domestic consumption                                  1997

Source: TradeFoodFish.org



The analysis presented here also raised serious concerns about the long term
sustainability of Senegal’s fisheries, as many demersal and pelagic species have been
showing signs of stock depletion for a number of years. The fact that total landings
have not yet declined may be related to, increasing fleet size, continuous
improvements in fishing technology, and the sequential targeting of different
(previously unexploited) stocks.


Two definitions of food security were presented in the introduction to this paper, these
definitions included 6 dimensions; i) food availability, ii) affordability, iii) stability of
access, iv) chronic food insecurity, v) cyclic food insecurity, vi) transitory food
insecurity. With the general outline of food consumption and availability provided
here it appears that problems with the agricultural cycle (related to climate change)

                                                                                     44
has led to cyclic food insecurity (v) in certain in land areas. However, if international
demand for Senegalese fish continues to grow, the future is likely to bring
affordability (ii) problems, which could lead to a situation of chronic food insecurity
(iv).


6.1 KEY ISSUES AND RECOMENDATIONS
While the information presented on each of the above topics is quite superficial, the
combination of topics provides a description of an important phenomenon. The
analysis has raised a number of key issues regarding the impact of trade in fishery
products on food security. These key issues will be used to make relevant policy
recommendation, and include; 1. The level of exploitation, and the long term future
for Senegal’s stocks, 2. The influence of European markets and fleets, 3. Changes to
international trade regulations, and 4. Other issues.


1. While at present Senegal is not a highly food insecure country (Shapouri and
Rosen, 1999), it is dependent of fish for around 43% of the animal protein in the
national diet (TradeFoodFish.org). As such the countries future food security is highly
dependent on the sustainable use of its fisheries resource, which implies the continued
supply, and effective management of these stocks. At present some Senegalese stocks
are severely degraded, in some cases ecosystem flips may have occurred (with
cephlopods replacing Sparidae, UNEP, 2002), and more conservative management
measures are called for. Where possible then increasing emphasis needs to be placed
on the implementation of the central themes in the Code of Conduct for
Responsible Fisheries. Improved enforcement of existing laws is a prerequisite for
fisheries management in Senegal, but there is also a need to consider the access cost
to these resources. Particularly in the over-fished demersal section, where artisinal
fleets are profitable and expanding, and European vessels only pay around (10% of
the entry fee (subsidies from the EU). Whether this will require the removal of
existing subsidies or the implementation of some quota system is not yet clear.


Furthermore, there needs to be a realisation from the relevant financial institutions
that, unlike other industries (such as agriculture), output in fisheries a maximum
sustainable limit, and that constantly increasing revenue streams from this sector does
not represent a viable financial strategy for the country to adopt. As many export


                                           45
stocks are already over-fished, the net present value of this resource the medium term
may in fact be greater if fishing pressure, and catches, are reduced. Future strategies
designed to generate more revenue from fisheries should therefore concentrate on
increasing the unit value of exports, rather than total quantity. In the industrial sector
this may be achieved by adjusting the existing free trade zones to make the export of
value added products more attractive. In the artisinal sector support could be given to
organisational development of workers groups and to improved infrastructure.


2. Europe, the most important external factor, has adopted a very aggressive approach
to the utilisation of Senegal’s natural resources. Its current position, as both a major
harvester, and dominant importer, has placed incredible pressure on the countries fish
stocks and its influence seems hard to justify in terms of the Code of Conduct for
Responsible Fisheries. Under various articles the Code implies that all states
participating in trade share the responsibility for its conservation:
Article 11.1.11: States should ensure that international and domestic trade in fish and
fishery products accords with sound conservation and management practices.
Article 11.2.2: International trade in fish and fishery products should not compromise
the sustainable development of fisheries and responsible utilization of aquatic
resources.
At present this responsibility seems to have been taken quite lightly, and the Code has
not been closely adhered to. Where possible then increasing emphasis needs to be
placed on the implementation of the central themes in the Code of Conduct for
Responsible Fisheries (as above). From the European perspective this may be
achieved by closer adherence to the principle of compatibility, upon which their
presence is justified. Since it is clear that the Senegalese fleet is capable of fully
exploiting its own coastal resources, the compatibility argument only seems to apply
to high seas stocks, and in future foreign fleets should not be given access to coastal
stocks. In 2001 the Senegalese government took a tougher stance towards European
fishing rights (this is discussed in section 4.2.1). However, the difficulties encountered
and the political will that this took was a sign of the difficulties the government, and
the differences in opinion between the EU and West African fisheries managers. One
way to improve the decision making process with respect to access of foreign fleets
may be to address the asymmetric bargaining position between the EU and West
African countries. This could be achieved through bilateral agreements, which has


                                            46
already occurred between Senegal and Spain, or by several West African nations
uniting to create a more united front. Such a structure would create a more balanced
bargaining relationship with other multi-lateral groups, such as the EU.


3. As the World Trade Organisation (WTO) imposes more liberal policies for fisheries
products and oversees the phasing out of subsidies, the Senegalese fisheries industries
are faced with another period of change and upheaval. This process will make
Senegalese exports less competitive in European markets, as its preferential trade
status is eroded. The industry level effect is likely to be mixed with possible benefits
for artisinal (local) processors and the status of fish stocks, but a negative effect on the
export processing industry. In the short term the exports are is unlikely to be
dramatically affected because all of the countries in West Africa were also involved in
the Lomé agreement. This may give the processing sector time to adjust to a more
competitive market place. However, competition from Asian and Pacific producers
will cause the sector problems in the medium and long term. There is therefore an
opportunity for the Government or international institutions to ensure that the
industry is able to adapt to the changing market conditions. This could be done by
providing information on diversification possibilities into under-exploited markets
(i.e. all non EU markets), and by helping to stream line the industries costs. These
new regulations will not pose a direct threat for artisinal processing or for the fish
stocks; in fact any negative effects on in the export sector are likely to be felt as gains.


The WTO has a mandate to remove industry subsidies, which encourage overcapacity,
and to reform of the support given to the Senegalese fleet. However, Senegal’s
reliance on fish as a source of food may give reason for special treatment. In the
analysis provided above, fleets and stocks have been broken down into demersal
(export) and pelagic (domestic) sectors. Their respective situations appear quite
different. The demersal fleet, which targets over-exploited stocks of high value export
species, remains profitable because of increasing landed prices. While the artisinal
pelagic fleet, which supplies full-exploited pelagic fish for local consumption, has
become less viable in the face of increased factor costs. In this light it seems
appropriate to reduce the benefits (fuel and gear subsidies) for artisinal demersal
fishermen, but not for the pelagic fleet.



                                            47
4. Other issues that may benefit from policy interventions include opportunities to
enhance the post harvest utilisation of fish in domestic markets. There are a number
of projects already underway in this field, including improved port facilities (this
money is often associated with the access of EU boats in Senegalese waters). Yet
there have been problems with the uptake of technology dissemination programmes
designed to increase output and to improve hygiene (UNEP, 2002). It may be that a
more people centred, participatory, approach is required. In one instance rows of half
built fish drying platforms were found, they had been constructed in order cut post
capture losses and reduce potential threats to human health. However, the platforms
were too high for the workers and were left unused. Support to domestic marketing,
practically non-existent at present, would likewise facilitate the population’s access to
fish and fish products (UNEP, 2002).


Finally another aspect of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries that might
have increasing relevance in the near future, as fish meal prices continue to rise:
Article 11.1.9: States should encourage the use of fish for human consumption and
promote consumption of this whenever appropriate.
At present Senegal makes significant export earnings from its demersal stocks, while
the majority of pelagic landings go to support the national, and regional, diet. If
however, demand for fishmeal pushes the international price for sardine to the point
where fishermen prefer to land their catch in Dakar, the food security question would
be thrown into a new light. The Code already, implicitly, accepts that this is a threat,
but some more binding form of legislation on trade for fishmeal may be required to
ensure this outcome does not arise.




                                           48
                                      REFERENCES


Agro-Ind. 2002. European Union – West Africa agro-business sector meeting –
Senegal. www.agro-ind.com/html-en/senegal2


Bonzon A., 1995. Demand and supply of fish and fish products in Sub-Saharan Africa
perspectives and implications for food security, in International Conference on
Sustainable Contribution of Fisheries to Food Security. Kyoto, Japan, 4 – 9 December
1995.


Deme M., Thiao., Diop M., 2002. Prix au débarquement des produits de la pêche
artisanale   maritime   sénégalaise    de   1990   a   2000.   Centre   de   recherches
océanographiques de Dakar Thiaroye.


Faye M. M., 1999. Memoire de DEA de socio-anthropology. Universite Cheikh Anta
Diof de Dakar (UCAD).


Kane A., Fall M., Kandji M., 2001. Natural Resource Management Conflicts in the
Saloum Delta Biosphere Reserve. Senegal. UNESCO Coastal region and small inland
papers 12 Annex IV.


Kebe M., 1995. Socio Economic Aspects of the Small Pelagic Fisheries in Senegal,
Proceedings of Socio-economics, Innovation and management on the Java sea pelagic
fisheries, 4-7 December Bandungan


MacKenzie D., 2002. African Fisheries on the Brink of Collapse. New Scientist,
2351, pp – 5.


Megapesca, 2001. Health Conditions and trade in fishery products.


Organisation for Co-operation and Economic Development (OECD), 2000. Towards
Good Practices for Donors on Capacity Development for Trade. Senegal Case Study.
DC(2000)10/ANN3. www.oecd.org/pdf/M00002000/M00002222.pdf
Panagariya A., 2002. EU preferential trade agreements and developing countries.
World Economy, 25 (10) 1415 – 1432.


Republic of Senegal, 2001. Peche maritime et continentale aquaculture, anaysis
descriptive et diagnostic. Ministere de la Peche et des Transports Maritimes.
Republique du Senegal.


Republic of Senegal, 2002. Republic of Senegal, One People, One Goal, One Faith,
Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.


Shapouri S. & RosenS., 1999. Food Security Assessment: Why are countries as risk.
Economic Research Service, USDA. Agriculture Information Bulletin No. 754.


Tall A., 2000. Current Situation of HACCP application in Africa. IIFET conference
2000.


Trade Food Fish, 2003. www.tradefoodfosh.org


United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 2002. Integrated Assessment of
Trade Liberalization and trade related policies: A country study on the fisheries sector
in Senegal. UNEP Publications.


World Fact Book, 2003. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook


World Trade Orgainsation, 2002, International Trade Statistics.
ANNEX
Annex 1. Quantities at each stage of artisinal chain, Joal, 1993 – 2002 (tonnes)
            35000000



            30000000



            25000000



            20000000
   tonnes




            15000000



            10000000



            5000000



                  0
                       1993




                              1994




                                           1995




                                                        1996




                                                                        1997




                                                                                        1998




                                                                                                     1999




                                                                                                                 2000




                                                                                                                         2001




                                                                                                                                      2002
                              local consumption       internal market          export          total processed




Annex 3. Composition of export categories
Product range                             Species
Whole fish                                Dentex, dorado, sea bream, red carp, gurnard, John Dory, thiof, grouperr, scorpion fish,
(fresh or frozen)                         chinchard (false scad), stargazer fish, pagrus, sea pike, white carp, red cock, sardines and
                                          shads
Crustaceans                               Prawns and shrimps: frozen, cleaned, cooked and tailed
(fresh or frosen)                         Lobster: live or frozen
Molluscs                                  Sole: flat filleted, cut in blocks, in protinos, rolled, and pan ready
(frech or frozen)                         Mostel, starfish, red hind, cabrilla, dorado, turbot, John Dory, scorpion fish, threadfin fish,
                                          sea trout
Tuna canning, curing and                  Albacore (Yellow fin tuna), blackfin tunny, big-eyed tuna, in salted water (natural), whole
processing                                or flaked
                                          In oil, and oil and tomato
Pilchard and sardine canning and          Pilchards/sardines, in spicy tomto sause
curing                                    In salted water
Fish flour                                Wastes from tuna, sardine and pilchard fishing
Salted and dry salted                     Tuna (ravil and bonito, shark fin, rays, conger eel, scad, umbra, mackerel, machoiron (arius
                                          africanus), sardines, mullet, bonga shad, etc.
Source : Infopeche
Annex 2. Number of boats by type and region
Type                                  Grande Cote   Cap Vert   Petite Cote   Sine Saloum   Casamanace   Total
Senne tournante / Pirogue filet       207           57         123           2             5            394
Senne tournante/Pirogue Portuguese    141           5          46                          8            200
Pirogue Navette                       40            1                        4             24           69
Senne plage diguel                    0             1                        10            1            12
Senne plage normale – opane           2             51         29            130           55           267
Filet maillant encerclant             0             9          135           35            1            180
Bottom Drift Net                      16            2          91            82            261          452
Surface Drift Net                     132                      57            284           402          875
Bottom set nets                       643           299        201           45            168          1356
Surface set nets                      98            31         16            13            8            166
Termail                               0                        27            164                        191
Casiers                               6                        6                           1            13
Line fishing (normal)                 938           805        352           27            11           2133
Ligne traine                          32            3                                                   35
Ligne pouple                          25            192        181                                      398
Ligne seiche                          1             5          12                          1            19
Ice Box Pirogues                      278           129        255                         27           689
Palangre                              7             13         5             8             133          166
Shrimp nets                           0                                      130           672          802
Killi                                 0                                      43            1            44
Epervier                              17                                     11            125          153
Cueillette huitres                    0                                      160           46           206
Peche sous marine                     1             6                                                   7
Divers                                1             3          10            49            54           117
Senne de plage / autres               0             2          1             40            8            51
Filet maillant encerclant / autres    0                        3             39            3            45
Drift net bottom / surface            9             1          5             144           263          422
Drift net bottom / surface / other    41            262        140           92            44           579
Casiers / autres                      2             2          81            80                         165
Lignes diverses / auters              1             307        98            11            10           427
Diverses mixites                      0             1                        42            31           74
Total                                 2638          2187       1874          1645          2358         10702
Source: Republique du Senegal, 2001
Annex 4. Fish landing prices
i) Landing prices at Mbour (demersal)
   5000

   4500

   4000

   3500

   3000

   2500

   2000

   1500

   1000

     500

       0
       1990              1991          1992       1993        1994       1995          1996          1997          1998          1999        2000

                                  Machoiron                          Badecje                                Thiof
                                  Merou de Mediterranee              Merou de Goree                         Merou rouge
                                  Carpe rouge                        Dorade grise                           Pagre aux points bleus
                                  Sole de roche                      Seiche                                 Poulpe

*data was not available for 1995. Excel trend was used to estimate this data to facilitate interpretation only.


ii) Landing prices at Kayar (demersal)
   4500

   4000

   3500

   3000

   2500

   2000

   1500

   1000

    500

       0
           1990




                           1991




                                         1992




                                                     1993




                                                                 1994




                                                                                1995




                                                                                              1996




                                                                                                            1997




                                                                                                                          1998




                                                                                                                                           1999




                                                                                                                                                    2000




                  Saint Pierre                      Badecje                              Thiof                                    Merou de Mediterranee
                  Merou de Goree                    Dente aux gros yeux                  Dent aux taches rouges                   Pageot
                  Pagre aux points bleus            Brotule                              Seiche                                   Poulpe

*data was not available for 1995, 1996 and 1999. Excel trend was used to estimate this data to facilitate interpretation only.
iii) Landing prices at St Lois (demersal)
                     4500                                                                                                                                                     6000


                     4000
                                                                                                                                                                              5000
                     3500


                     3000                                                                                                                                                     4000




                                                                                                                                                                                     Price (Lobster) CFA/Kg
    Price (CFA/Kg)




                     2500
                                                                                                                                                                              3000
                     2000


                     1500                                                                                                                                                     2000


                     1000
                                                                                                                                                                              1000
                     500


                            0                                                                                                                                                 0
                            1991          1992              1993           1994              1995           1996               1997          1998           1999           2000

                                   Thiof                                   Merou de Mediterranee                   Dorade grise                     Otolithe nain
                                   Pagre aux points bleus                  Sole de roche                           Seiche                           Lobster

*data was not available for 1995, 1996 and 1999. Excel trend was used to estimate this data to facilitate interpretation only.


iv) Landing prices at Mbour (pelagic)
   600



   500



   400



   300



   200



   100



               0
                     1990




                                   1991




                                                     1992




                                                                    1993




                                                                                      1994




                                                                                                     1995




                                                                                                                        1996




                                                                                                                                      1997




                                                                                                                                                     1998




                                                                                                                                                                    1999




                                                                                                                                                                                     2000




                                                 Sardinelle ronde                 Sardinelle plate                   Brochet                        Croco
                                                 Pelon                            Plat plat                          Maquereau bonite               Thonine

*data was not available for 1995, 1997 (some). Excel trend was used to estimate this data to facilitate interpretation only.
v) Landing prices at Kayar (pelagic)
  700



  600



  500



  400



  300



  200



  100



     0
         1990




                        1991




                                       1992




                                                          1993




                                                                          1994




                                                                                        1995




                                                                                                            1996




                                                                                                                             1997




                                                                                                                                                1998




                                                                                                                                                                  1999




                                                                                                                                                                                    2000
                  Sardinelle ronde            Sardinelle plate          Coryphene              Grande carangue               Plat plat             Tassergal             Thonine

*data was not available for 1995, 1996 and 1999. Excel trend was used to estimate this data to facilitate interpretation only.


vi) Landing prices at St Lois (pelagic)
   800

   700

   600

   500

   400

   300

   200

   100

     0
           1991




                               1992




                                              1993




                                                                 1994




                                                                                 1995




                                                                                                   1996




                                                                                                                      1997




                                                                                                                                         1998




                                                                                                                                                               1999




                                                                                                                                                                                   2000


                                      Elthmalose                        Sardinelle ronde                  Sardinelle plate                Brochet
                                      Mulet                             Chinchard jaune                   Tassergal

*data was not available for 1995, 1996, 1998 & 1999. Excel trend was used to estimate this data to facilitate interpretation only.


Source: (Deme, 2002)
Annex 5. Annual average of relative stock level indicators (kg/sea hour) of retained speices. Data on Dakar based icebox trawler.

Year                  71       72       73       74       75       76        77        78        79        80        81        82        83        84
Badeches            23.8    18.04    48.22    36.71    39.26    28.54     17.84     34.48     55.79     43.08     27.85     24.87     11.94     12.43
Brotules             2.4     0.32     5.66   344.04   226.74   277.47    886.65       238    584.51    307.09    448.97    663.35    159.07    439.36
Captains          10.227   333.15   869.14    592.1   501.84   973.55   1257.61   1937.08   2151.34   1974.32   1534.68   1185.82    814.04    692.39
Red bass            0.52      0.2     1.69     0.78     0.61     2.19      2.91      5.96     12.16      4.43      7.63      2.11      4.25      0.61
Coubine             0.19     4.94     5.83     2.06     3.98     8.48      6.65     13.85     25.97     20.03     32.97     32.61     15.11     27.18
White Shrimp      900.73   722.34   717.66   705.29    752.6   656.71     418.9    438.47    474.44    405.22    262.63    273.69    244.55    329.81
Prof. Shrimp        2.62    41.22     2.76     0.03     0.14      1.2         5         0      0.01      1.43      2.04      0.08         0         0
Grey Sea Bream     71.66    44.65    91.51    68.84   115.09   108.32    147.42     96.31    115.13     88.61     71.52     67.59     74.02     61.64
Pink Sea Bream      42.4     54.3   138.05   203.99   321.52    262.8    210.28     83.69    106.64    108.33    141.61    120.88     84.36     85.17
Machoirons             0     0.93    12.86    11.37    20.69    39.76    289.06    629.53     763.3    559.93   1151.67   1248.63   1273.75    967.17
Hake                8.13     3.95    16.88      9.1    19.23    12.96     13.27     12.58      7.72      5.24      4.91      6.23       4.4      1.99
White sea bream   154.36     90.7   192.67   176.89    177.8   169.59   1338.41    378.66    372.97     731.7    943.48      1250   1341.82   1480.18
Red mullet        142.41   163.56   111.14   193.13   252.73   209.77    169.43     174.2    113.41      85.7     97.03     98.42    123.06    136.18
Cuttlefish          2.28    27.91     9.85    29.11    11.48    30.82     41.08     62.77      38.1     44.24     35.47     54.78     51.77     58.49
Soles             678.18   839.29    788.2   913.42   709.56   1032.1    800.85   1149.67    959.34    796.04    700.15    675.88    763.45    552.32
Roc soles          32.65    14.15    15.11     19.4    40.82    20.43     71.48     52.81     72.73     80.92     32.36     46.86     18.16     22.04
Sompatt            16.19    49.38   224.33   120.66    91.59   215.52    280.11    228.81    315.98    416.25    588.04    520.36    538.76     627.7
Thiekem                0    42.89   337.53   165.42   143.08   294.68    467.68    465.81    608.71    861.37   1041.79    899.79    849.59    854.87
Thiof              78.41    69.36   139.97    69.07    62.88    44.96     78.23     65.75    100.54     54.39     45.93     59.89      51.1     54.52
Ceinture               0        0        0        0        0        0         0         0         0         0         0         0         0         0
Octopus                0        0        0        0        0        0         0         0         0         0         0         0         0         0
Year                         85         86        87       88        89       90       91       92       93       94       95        96        97        98
Badeches                   9.73       5.29      6.23     3.32      7.85     4.06     2.78     2.62     9.67     1.48     2.23      6.16      12.3      9.34
Brotules                1147.42     715.21    593.53    152.7     68.95   180.51   490.84   337.41   597.51   254.69   284.67    487.18    341.61     567.7
Captains                 443.22     343.48     53.25    23.54      2.03     1.35     3.63     2.72        0    12.43    11.13      2.19      9.56      7.19
Red bass                   4.83       6.63      0.37       0.6     1.14     0.84     0.32     0.88      8.8     0.38      0.5      0.22       9.4      4.96
Coubine                   31.46      43.52     20.85     11.3     16.69     4.58    16.55    15.88     4.09    11.44     2.99      8.56     19.45       4.4
White Shrimp             245.88     376.77    265.83   148.08    123.78     97.5    42.14    28.82    41.23   279.15    76.45      39.8     77.59     62.45
Prof. Shrimp                  0          0         0     0.03         0     0.04        0     0.22     0.04    30.12        0      0.33      1.66      4.29
Grey Sea Bream            56.15      32.55     28.63    24.91     18.62    48.25    18.41    18.69    19.65    73.66     7.93     14.29     49.94     10.78
Pink Sea Bream           113.69     108.45     47.51    44.32     46.38    76.84    75.73    85.68    67.81   178.29    68.08     74.95    132.78     46.05
Machoirons               935.07      528.3    433.43      329    235.97   168.54    89.84   300.04   203.74   341.01   127.89     210.7   1377.49   1172.76
Hake                       2.29       1.89      3.91     3.45      0.58     0.93     0.79     0.26     0.43     0.31      0.7      0.58      9.38     23.64
White sea bream          1430.9     836.41    644.01   189.44     60.39   159.11   105.22   195.36   217.24   146.14   178.38    275.49    351.49    371.97
Red mullet               108.48     104.48    160.41   212.57    140.36   237.61   189.61    263.1   337.32   156.27   284.78    204.68    203.76    229.02
Cuttlefish                97.41     108.05     73.89    73.08    207.67   189.45   359.23   391.96   275.73   561.09   188.41    251.84    305.01    530.61
Soles                    578.85     596.47    491.64   426.97    323.67    370.9   594.92   762.52   650.81    595.5   315.33     807.8    454.45    706.31
Roc soles                 82.73      43.75    145.03    37.06     38.52    77.82    67.03    55.56    87.96   452.08   119.49    101.79     44.08    109.19
Sompatt                  447.41     384.56     356.7   379.06    371.18   261.77   152.83   198.92   170.02   499.19   127.74   1206.15   1272.94    689.12
Thiekem                  922.58     770.81    554.61   557.43    468.98   441.77   282.31   460.93   192.61   246.41   136.81       291    389.07    396.42
Thiof                     61.13      41.53     40.49    31.49     21.34    20.14     17.9    28.58    37.47    21.75    12.82     24.08     28.94      8.17
Ceinture                  98.78      79.55      23.5     22.7     21.11    13.96     3.46     2.74    13.94    30.76    21.77     15.23     10.84     14.42
Octopus                   45.12     687.36     26.66    69.32    443.54   272.57   776.26   206.99    247.9   508.76   121.52     77.77     73.76    363.47
* Thiof = Epinephelus aenus = white grouper
77     73.76    363.47
* Thiof = Epinephelus aenus = white grouper

				
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