هلا التويجري مشروع قضايا[1]

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					                                                ٞ‫االسُ : ٘ال ادّذ سؼٛد اٌرٛ٠جش‬
                                                   123202644 : ٟ‫اٌشلُ اٌجاِؼ‬
                                            ‫اٌّادج : لعا٠ا ِٚشىالخ فٟ اٌرشجّح‬
                                                           ‫ِٛظٛع اٌثذث : اٌذتٍجح‬




                                                                                : ًّ‫اٌؼ‬
    ‫اٌؼًّ ػٍٝ اٌشسَٛ اٌّرذشوح (ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ) ٚاسرخشاج ِماؼغ ِٓ اٌىشذْٛ تاٌٍغح‬
     ٓ١‫االٔجٍ١ض٠ح ٚدتٍجرٙا تاٌؼشت١ح ٚا٠جاد اٌفشٚق ت١ٕٙا ٚو١ف١ح اخرالف اٌّسّ١اخ ت‬
                                                                      . ٓ١‫اٌثمافر‬

The story of Aladdin in English :

Jafar, Grand Vizier to the Sultan of Agrabah, is attempting to access the Cave of
Wonders for a magical oil lamp containing a genie. He and his talking parrot, Iago,
learn that only the metaphorical Diamond in the Rough can enter the cave.

Jasmine, the Sultan's daughter, frustrated with "having her life lived for her" and the
obligation of marriage, escapes the palace and goes to Agrabah's marketplace.
There she meets street rat Aladdin and his monkey, Abu. Jafar uses a machine to
discover that Aladdin is the "diamond in the rough", and has him captured. Jasmine
orders him released, but Jafar lies, telling her Aladdin is dead.

Jafar, disguised as an elderly man, releases Aladdin from prison and leads him to the
Cave of Wonders. The tiger-shaped head of the cave tells them to touch nothing but
the lamp. Aladdin enters the cave and encounters a magic carpet who guides him to
the lamp. Abu tries to steal a ruby, which causes a cave-in, but the carpet helps them
to the entrance. Jafar tries to kill Aladdin after getting the lamp, but Abu bites Jafar
and takes the lamp back. Abu, the carpet and Aladdin fall back into the cave just as it
collapses.

When Aladdin awakens, he rubs the lamp, unleashing the Genie who reveals he will
grant Aladdin three wishes. Aladdin dupes Genie into freeing them from the cave
without using up a wish. While contemplating his wishes, Aladdin asks Genie's
opinion. Genie admits he would wish for freedom, since he is a prisoner to his lamp.
Aladdin promises to wish him free for his last wish. For his first wish, Aladdin asks to
become a prince so he can marry Jasmine.

Jafar decides to trick the Sultan into arranging a marriage between himself and
Jasmine, and then kill both the princess and her father. His plans are interrupted

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when Aladdin parades into the Sultan's palace as "Prince Ali". Jasmine rejects Ali,
considering him a buffoon. That night, Aladdin meets Jasmine, and takes her "around
the world" on a "magic carpet ride." Jasmine realizes that Ali is the boy from the
marketplace; Aladdin fabricates a story that he sometimes dresses as a commoner to
escape palace life. Aladdin returns her home and they kiss.

After delivering Jasmine, Aladdin is captured by Jafar who tricks the guards into
chaining Aladdin and throwing him into the ocean. Aladdin summons Genie, who
rescues Aladdin as his second wish. Aladdin returns to the palace, revealing the
vizier's plot to Jasmine and the Sultan. Jafar realizes Aladdin's identity, and escapes
from the Sultan's bodyguards. Surprised by Aladdin's bravery, the Sultan decides
Aladdin should be his successor. Aladdin faces a moral dilemma, and decides to wait
before wishing Genie free. Then Iago steals Genie's lamp and brings it to Jafar, who
uses his first wish to become sultan. Jafar's second wish turns him into a powerful
sorcerer sending Aladdin to a far-off place.

Aladdin uses the magic carpet to return to Agrabah. Jasmine distracts Jafar as
Aladdin attempts to steal the lamp, but the vizier notices and attacks the boy. Jafar
boasts that he is "the most powerful being on Earth", and Aladdin reminds him Genie
is more powerful. Jafar uses his final wish to become a genie, but forgets that genies
are not free entities and is sucked into his new black lamp, dragging Iago with him.
Genie flicks the lamp into the Cave of Wonders.

Aladdin wishes for Genie's freedom, much to Genie's surprise and happiness. Since
Jasmine loves Aladdin, the Sultan changes the law so they can marry. Genie leaves
to explore the world while Aladdin and Jasmine celebrate their engagement.

                                                                                        : ‫قصة عالء الدين بالعربي‬

     ٗ١‫٠ذاٚي جؼفش، اٌٛص٠ش سٍؽاْ أجشتاٖ، اٌٛصٛي إٌٝ وٙف اٌؼجائة ٌٍذصٛي ػٍٝ اٌّصثاح اٌسذشٞ اٌزٞ ٠ٛجذ ف‬
 .‫اٌجٕٟ. ٌٚىٓ ٠ؼشف ٘ٛ ٚ تثغائٗ اٌّرىٍُ (الجٛ) أْ شخص ٚادذ فمػ "جٛ٘شج فٟ اٌٛدً" ٘ٛ اٌزٞ ٠ّىٕٗ دخٛي اٌىٙف‬

    ٟ‫أدثؽد ٠اسّ١ٓ، اتٕح اٌسٍؽاْ، ِٓ أجثاس٘ا ػٍٝ اٌضٚاج ٚسفعد وً اٌخؽاب، ٌٚٙزا ذٙشب إٌٝ سٛق أجشتاٖ. ذٍرم‬
‫تاٌصؼٍٛن ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ٚلشدٖ (ػثٛ)، اٌز٠ٓ ظٙشٚا ٌٙا فٟ اٌسٛق. أورشف جؼفش، تاسرخذاَ آٌح أْ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ٘ٛ "اٌجٛ٘ش‬
               .‫فٟ اٌٛدً"، ٚلثط ػٍ١ٗ. أِشذٗ ٠اسّ١ٓ تاالفشاج ػٕٗ، ٌٚىٓ جؼفش وزب ػٍ١ٙا، ٚلاي اْ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ِاخ‬

ً‫ذٕىش جؼفش فٟ صٞ سجً ِسٓ، ٚاالفشج ػٓ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ِٓ اٌسجٓ ، ٚر٘ة تٗ إٌٝ وٙف اٌؼجائة. إٌّش اٌزٞ ػٍٝ شى‬
       ٍٝ‫سأط اٌىٙف لاي ٌُٙ اال ٠ٍّسٛا شئ سٜٛ ِصثاح. ٠ذخً ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ اٌىٙف ٚ٠جذ تساغ سذشٞ لثً اٌؼثٛس ػ‬
   ‫اٌّصثاح. ٠ذاٚي ػثٛ سشلح صِشدج األِش اٌزٞ ذسثة فٟ أٔٙ١اس اٌىٙف ، ٌٚىٓ اٌثساغ ٠ساػذُ٘ ػٍٝ اٌٙشٚب. ٠ذاٚي‬
‫جؼفش لرً ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ تؼذ اٌذصٛي ػٍٝ اٌّصثاح، ٌٚىٓ ػثٛ ٠ٍذؽ جؼفش، ٚ٠سرؼ١ذ اٌّصثاح. ٚ٠مغ ػثٛ، ٚاٌثساغ، ٚػالء‬
                                                                          .ُٙ١ٍ‫اٌذ٠ٓ فٟ اٌىٙف ٚتؼذ أٙ١اسٖ ػ‬

     ‫ػٕذِا ٠فٛق ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ، ٠ذه اٌّصثاح، ٚتؽٍك اٌؼٕاْ ٌجٕٟ اٌزٞ ٠ىرشف أٗ س١ّٕخ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ثالثح إِٔ١اخ. ٠خذع‬
.ٟٕ‫ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ اٌجٕٟ ٌ١خشجُٙ ِٓ اٌىٙف ِٓ دْٚ اسرخذاَ إِٔ١ح. ٚت١ّٕا ٘ٛ ٠فىش فٟ سغثاذٗ، ٠ؽٍة ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ سأٞ اٌج‬
 ، ٌٝٚ‫٠ؼرشف اٌّاسد أٗ ٠شغة فٟ اٌذش٠ح، ألٔٗ أس١ش ٌّصثادٗ. ٚ٠ؼذٖ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ اْ ٠ذمك إِٔ١رٗ ٚ٠ذشسٖ. فٟ إِٔ١رٗ األ‬
                                                      .ٓ١ّ‫٠ؽٍة ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ اْ ٠صثخ أِ١ش ٌ١رّىٓ ِٓ اٌضٚاج ِٓ ٠اس‬

 ‫خؽػ جؼفش ٌخذاع سٍؽاْ فٟ اٌضٚاج ِٓ ٠اسّ١ٓ جؼفش، ثُ ٠مرً وً ِّٕٙا. ٌٚىٓ خؽؽٗ فشٍد ػٕذِا أمؽاع جاء ػالء‬
ٓ١ّ‫اٌذ٠ٓ ٌمصش اٌسٍؽاْ ػٍٝ أٔٗ "األِ١ش ػٍٟ". ٚسفعرٗ ٠اسّ١ٓ، ٚأػرثشذٗ ِٙشج. ٚفٟ ذٍه اٌٍ١ٍح، لاتً ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ٠اس‬
 ‫، ٚأخز٘ا ػٍٝ اٌثساغ اٌسذشٞ. ػشفد ٠اسّ١ٓ أْ ػٍٝ ٘ٛ صثٟ اٌسٛق ؛ ٌٚىٓ أخرشع ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ لصح أٗ واْ اد١أا‬
                                     .‫٠رٕىش فٟ ث١اب اٌؼاِح ٘شتا ِٓ د١اج اٌمصش. ٚأػاد٘ا ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ إٌٝ ِٕضٌٙا ٚلثٍٙا‬

   ٓ٠‫تؼذ ذٛص١ً ٠اسّ١ٓ، ٠خؽف جؼفش ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ٚ٠أِش دشاسٗ ترم١١ذ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ٚسِ١ٗ فٟ اٌّذ١ػ. ٠سرذػٝ ػالء اٌذ‬
     .ْ‫اٌجٕٟ، اٌزٞ ٠ٕمزٖ ِٓ اٌغشق وإِٔ١رٗ اٌثأ١ح. ٠ؼٛد ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ إٌٝ اٌمصش، ٠ىشف ِؤاِشج اٌٛص٠ش ٌ١اسّ١ٓ ٚاٌسٍؽا‬

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 ْ‫ٚ٠ىرشف جؼفش شخص١ح ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ اٌذم١م١ح، ٚ٠ٙشب ِٓ دشط اٌسٍؽاْ. فٛجئ اٌسٍؽاْ تشجاػح ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ، ٚلشس ا‬
     ‫ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ س١ىْٛ خٍ١فرٗ. ٚٚاجٗ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ِشىٍح أخالل١ح، ٚلشس االٔرظاس لثً اْ ٠رّٕٝ ِٕخ اٌجٕٟ اٌذش٠ح. سشق‬
   ٍٗ‫الجٛ ِصثاح اٌجٕٟ ٚجٍثٗ ٌجؼفش، اٌزٞ ذّٕٝ ٠ٗ إِٔ١رٗ األٌٚٝ فٟ اْ ٠صثخ سٍؽاْ. ٚاألِٕ١ح اٌثأ١ح ٌجؼفش وأد جؼ‬
                                                       .‫ألٜٛ سادش فٟ اٌؼاٌُ ٚأتؼذ جؼفش ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ إٌٝ ِىاْ تؼ١ذ‬

        ‫أسرخذَ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ اٌثساغ اٌسذشٞ ٌٍؼٛدج إٌٝ أجشتاٖ. صشفد ٠اسّ١ٓ أرثاٖ جؼفش درٝ ٠ذاٚي ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ سشلح‬
  .ِٕٗ ٜٛ‫اٌّصثاح، ٌٚىٓ جؼفش ٠ٕرثٗ. ٚ٠فرخش جؼفش تأٔٗ "ألٜٛ ِٓ ػٍٝ األسض ،" ٌٚىٓ ٠زوشٖ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ اْ اٌجٕٟ أل‬
‫ٚاسرؼًّ جؼفش إِٔ١رٗ األخ١شج فٟ أْ ٠صثخ جٕٟ ٌٚىٓ ٔسٟ أْ اٌجٓ فٟ وائٕاخ غ١ش دشج. ٚسمػ جؼفش فٟ ِصثاح أسٛد‬
                                                       .‫أخزا ٠اجٛ ِؼٗ. ٚ٠شسً اٌجٕٟ اٌّصثاح إٌٝ وٙف اٌؼجائة‬

   ْٛٔ‫٠رّٕٝ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ٌٍجٕٟ اٌذش٠ح، ِّا ٠ث١ش ِفاجأج ٚسؼادج اٌجٕٟ. ٚالْ ٠اسّ١ٓ ذذة ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ، غ١ش اٌسٍؽاْ اٌما‬
    .‫درٝ ٠رّىٕٛا ِٓ اٌضٚاج. ٚ٠شدً اٌجٕٟ السرىشاف اٌؼاٌُ فٟ اٌٛلد اٌزٞ أدرفً ف١ٗ ػالء اٌذ٠ٓ ٚ٠اسّ١ٓ تخؽٛترّٙا‬




Aladdin note :


Princess Jasmine, the only female character in Aladdin (1992),
is a lot like Disney's other women.

But there is another very worrying thing about this movie, its racism.
Listen to some of the songs, for example:

The opening song “Arabian Nights” at the beginning of
Aladdin is one of the most contentious messages found in the
film and begins the movies “depiction of Arab culture with a
decidedly racist tone” . An Arab merchant sings the lyrics:
"Oh I come from a land/From a faraway place/Where the
caravan camels roam./Where they cut off your ears/If they
don’t like your face./It’s barbaric, but hey, its home" . The
message that is given right at the beginning of the film is that
the Middle East is a desolate wasteland where the justice

And look at the characters.
The evil characters, like Jafar, look very Arabic. On the other
hand, Aladdin, the hero, looks and sounds like a fresh-faced
American boy: his skin is much paler, and he asks people to
call him 'Al', an American name, not an Arabic name.

Names:

Aladdin = ٓ٠‫ػالء اٌذ‬       Jasmine = ٓ١ّ‫٠اس‬


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Of course, Disney does not intend to offend people - that would be bad business.
Most people who watch the movies are probably caught up in the Disney magic and
don't notice these things. But that's the problem. One way in which Disney creates
the magic is by using stereotypes that people respond to without thinking. Aladdin
looks 'right' for a hero; Jafar looks 'right' for a villain. We don't think about it.

system runs on a simple limb-removal policy. These words caused an uproar in Arab
countries and the lyrics were later changed to: “Where it’s flat and immense/ And the
heat is intense” which replaced the original verse, “Where they cut of your ear/ If they
don’t like your face” . Not only were these lyrics violent but they were truly an
example of the worst kind of racism.

Aladdin depicts the Arabic world and its people as exotic, humorous, and violent. The
American cartoon portrays all Arab men as either street thugs,...
* Extra :

INTRODUCTION

The following entry presents criticism on The Arabian Nights from 1953 through
2002. For additional information on The Arabian Nights, see CMLC, Vol. 2.

The Arabian Nights is one of the world's best-known collections of stories. Although
the tales, which were orally transmitted and composed over the course of several
centuries, are mainly of Asian and Arabic origin, they have become an inextricable
part of the Western cultural heritage as well. The stories of Princess Scheherazade,
Aladdin, Sinbad the sailor, and Ali Baba, for example, are firmly established in the
Western imagination. The original collection, comprised of legends, fairytales,
romances, and anecdotes, stems from a number of folk traditions and contains motifs
and fables from various geographical areas and historical periods. Since the
eighteenth century, when it reached Western audiences, The Arabian Nights has
been one of the most popular works of world literature, spawning numerous
adaptations, imitations, and tributes from major Hollywood film adaptations. Since the
twentieth century The Arabian Nights have also received serious critical attention and
scholars have been almost unanimous in their praise of the way in which these tales
transcend cultural and linguistic boundaries.

Plot and Major Characters

The frame story of The Arabian Nights describes the vindictive fury of King Shahryar
who, upon executing his adulterous wife, vows to marry a different virgin every night,
only to have her killed the following morning. Scheherazade, the daughter of the
King's vizier, or principal officer of state, takes it upon herself to save the women of
the kingdom from Shahryar's wrath, and offers herself as a bride to the King. The
vizier, her father, tells Scheherazade two stories to try to convince her to change her
mind—these are substories within the frame story—but she remains unconvinced
and marries the King. With the help of her younger sister, Dunyazade, she obtains
the King's permission to tell him a story just as their wedding night is about to end.
This first tale is the story of the merchant and the demon—a traveling merchant stops
to rest and eat, and tosses date pits onto the ground. An old demon appears and tells
the merchant that he must kill him because the date pits the merchant tossed away
struck the demon's son and killed him. The merchant pleads with the demon for his
life. The parallels between this story and the fate of Scheherazade are obvious, as
both the merchant and the young bride are to be killed despite being innocent of any

                                           4
crime. The story remains unfinished at daybreak, when the King must rise and attend
to the affairs of state; his curiosity piqued, Shahryar resolves to postpone
Scheherazade execution so he can hear the end of the story. But the following night
only brings another tantalizing fragment, and the King postpones his wife's execution
yet again.

What follows is a series of interlocking stories that cover a vast array of subjects. The
tales have a deeply nested structure, with stories within stories within stories. They
vary in length greatly, the shortest being around 700 words and the longest, the tale
of Aladdin and his magical lamp, being nearly 40,000 words. The hundreds of
fairytales, legends, romances, fables, anecdotes, and other fictions include, among
other tales, the discovery of the unearthly City of Brass, Abu Hassan's waking
dreams, the bizarre peregrinations of Sinbad the sailor, Ali Baba's dangerous and
tempting encounter with the forty thieves, Aladdin's entry into the world of magic, the
insomniac caliph Harun al-Rashid's wanderings throughout Baghdad, and many
others. The stories and their connective narrative threads constitute an entire
universe of human experience. The king eventually falls under the spell of
Scheherazade storytelling magic and, fascinated by her seemingly inexhaustible fund
of tales abounding in fantastic events and breathtaking denouements, willingly
spares her life and accepts her as his queen.

Major Themes

Critics point out that the stories in The Arabian Nights deal with many fundamental
questions about human life and experience. They address universal concerns such
as love, death, happiness, fate, and immortality in a manner that transcends linguistic
and cultural boundaries. They also cover spiritual matters, exploring questions about
how to live in a world that contains both good and evil, with these opposites
represented by various characters, such as tyrannical and kind rulers, magicians and
witches, good and bad demons, and so on. In addition, the stories also address
matters such as the relationship between the sexes, the inevitability of human desire,
and the quest for spiritual perfection. The frame story of Scheherazade immediately
introduces important themes of power, gender, justice, forgiveness, and the ability of
art to transform beliefs and vanquish death. Many of these themes are also
developed in subsequent tales.

Although The Arabian Nights covers a vast array of themes and subjects, the
concept of power is particularly prominent throughout the tales. The depiction of the
awesome might of rulers who hold absolute power, and the effects of such control
are often highlighted. Another focus of the tales is the strength of women—many are
represented in the tales as slaves and concubines who must obey the men who own
them, and yet display incredible strength in overcoming adversity. Scheherazade is
the most striking example of this type of figure. Notions of justice and forgiveness are
also explored in many stories, with good eventually overcoming evil. Again, this
theme is first developed in the frame story, as the king finally understands the true
meaning of justice. The theme of the transforming power of art is also most obvious
in the frame story as King Shahryar, entranced by his wife's tales, in the end
understands forgiveness, justice, and humanity.

Critical Reception

The tales of The Arabian Nights have been an important part of Middle Eastern folk
culture since medieval times. Their long history of transmission and development
over the course of centuries are a testament to their enduring appeal. However, while

                                            5
the work has been an integral part of the cultural landscape of that region, it has not
always enjoyed the status of high art. When the tales were first introduced to the
Western world in the eighteenth century, they were regarded as little more than
entertaining diversions with little literary merit. Arabic scholars also viewed the tales
as mere popular fiction, unworthy of inclusion in the canon of classical Arabic
literature. Early Western scholars also objected to what they perceived as the
immoral beliefs and behavior of the Islamic characters in the tales. In contrast to the
attitude of literary critics, the tales were well received by many Western poets,
especially during the Romantic period. Writers such as Goethe, Wordsworth, Samuel
Taylor Coleridge, and Edgar Allan Poe saw the collection as a work of unique
imaginative power, and the tales were deeply influential on their thinking and work.
They also gripped the popular European imagination, spawning a number of pseudo-
Oriental works that depicted a highly extravagant, sensual, exotic East.

In the twentieth century the stories also began to receive serious and systematic
critical attention. With the advent of interdisciplinary criticism, the tales of The
Arabian Nights began to be studied by scholars from a variety of fields, including
anthropology, linguistics, psychology, and literary theory. As a result, The Arabian
Nights has been hailed not only as a brilliantly entertaining narrative, but also as a
profound work of art. Modern scholars have extolled the ability of the tales to
address, in accessible form, universal concerns ranging from love, death, and
happiness to fate and immortality. It has been noted that the stories are of particular
value for modern life because of the insights they provide into the individual's
struggle with overpowering and frequently incomprehensible forces. A psychological
analysis of the tales has pointed out that the stories speak to the unconscious and
enable the individual to transform destructive impulses into harmless fantasies. Late-
twentieth-century analyses of The Arabian Nights have focused more heavily on the
manuscript history of the tales, their structure and narrative technique, the influence
of classical European traditions on the stories, and their impact on Western literature
and culture. Scholars continue to investigate the history and development of the
work, regarding it as a complex text that is deserving of detailed textual and critical
analysis. This commentary has taken a number of forms, including feminist,
deconstructionist, and poststructuralist analysis. In terms of popular appeal, the
stories of The Arabian Nights remain some of the most recognizable in all of
literature. A number of stories from the collection have been adapted for the screen
and collections of the stories continue to appeal to young and old audiences, having
become part of the collective imagination not only of the cultures from which the
stories originally emerged, but of people all over the world.




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