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Radio Frequency identification system in supply chain management

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					  RFID in
Supply Chain
Management
 -by Bhupendra
What is Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ?

  RFID is the use of small devices that can be electronically
  identified at a distance, through many obstruction, using
  radio waves or adjoining frequencies.


  Advantages
     Works under adverse conditions
     Reading is done without any human intervention
     Read writer can be used to record new information on the tag
RFID Label
RFID Label
Types of RFID

 Passive
 Semi-Active
 Active
Passive RFID

                                     Most Simple
 When RFID tag is within the
                                     Do not require
 interrogation zone of the reader    integrated power
 (i.e.. interrogator) equipment,     source
                                     The most
 sufficient power is extracted       inexpensive tag
 from the interrogator to power
 up the tag or circuit, or special
 reflective material. It then
 transmitting data back to the
 interrogator. This is known as
 Passive RFID.
Semi-Active RFID

The battery is used to back up    More complex
                                  Requires integrated
the memory and data, but not to   power supply
boost range.                      Higher cost
Active RFID

These RFID incorporate a            More complex
                                    Requires integrated
battery to increase range           power supply
(typically by a factor of 3 over    Higher cost
passive) for collating data, tag-
to-tag communication etc.
Short range Passive RFID tag system

                  Tagged
                   Asset
                            Reader


         Tagged
                                     To System
         Asset




Tagged
 Asset


                  < 60 cm
Short range Passive RFID tag system

 Short range passive system works at a range
 of upto 60 cm and monitors seperated single
 products on conveyor belt or by hand
 scanning.
  Medium range passive RFID system




          Tagged   Tagged
           Asset   Asset

          Tagged   Tagged
Reader     Asset   Asset
                                 To System

               < 3. 5 m
Medium range passive RFID system

 These systems have a range of upto 3.5 m.
 Used with sensors around warehouse door.
 Entry to the aircraft.
Long range two way active RFID system

Tagged
Asset
                   Tagged
Tagged
                   Asset
Asset                         Reader


          Tagged
                                       To System
          Asset


                     Tagged
 Tagged              Asset
  Asset
                     Tagged
                     Asset


                   100 m
Long range two way active RFID system


 Large numbers of packages can be
 managed.
 Wide area can be covered.
 Range from 50 to 100 m.
Real time locating system

Tagged
Asset
                     Tagged
Tagged
                      Asset                                  To System
Asset                                      Reader


          Tagged
          Asset                                     Reader


                       Tagged     Tagged
 Tagged                 Asset     Asset
                                                                Reader
  Asset
                       Tagged     Tagged
                        Asset     Asset


                   500 - 1000 m
Real time locating system



 Range upto a 1000 meter
 Real time location for large active area
 High accuracy
Retail supply chain




  Supplier        Retailer   Consumer




                      RFID
Data recorded on tag



 Serial number
 Production date
 Filling dates and sites
 Tare weight etc.
Packaging applications
Maximum Example of                 Purpose                    Mode
Range   application
40 Microns   Touch outsid of       Anti- counterfeit and      Disposable tag
             paper packaging to    tracking
             sense tag inside

Few          Retail products tag   Track, trace and anti-     -
centimeter   like a label          counterfeit

1 meter      Automatic sorting of Track and trace, security   -
             air freight and      status update
             courier parcels

Up to 100    Location of large                                Read only
meters       crates etc. (Large                               Reusable tag
             heavy tag needed)                                Active


Up to a                            Read only tag
kilometer
Benefits


 Inventory Reduction
    Reduced Safety Stock
    Reduction in lost/ misplaced inventory
    First in First out (FIFO) status
    most accurate physical inventory/cycle
    counting
Benefits


 Better ware house management
    reduction of misplaced product
    improved labor production
    physical inventory time saving
    eliminate paper work and data entry
    reduced search time
    reduced shipping returns
Benefits


 Improved space utilization
    reduced inventory results in more usable space
    and better utilization of resources

 Increased picking accuracy
Approach to an RFID project


 The majority of projects will involve
 replacing of existing manual, barcode
 magnetic stripe or other system for tracking
 or tracing.
 Scope for improved must be noted.
 An estimation of cost must be made.
 Necessary process changes and adjustments
 should be analyzed.
Frequency considerations



Frequency        Benefits            Possible           Uses
                                     Problems
Low frequency    Low interference    Tag thickness      Manufacturing
RF               Low cost            Expensive          Logistics
(50- 150 KHz)    Globally approved

High frequency   Low interference    Range              Libraries
RF               Globally approved                      Packages
(13.65 MHz)
UHF              Longest Range       Water and some non Freight
(900 MHz)        High bit rate       metals can obscure
                                     tag
                                     Large tag
Disadvantage


 Reading the discarded tags
 Injury from tags
 Accidental eating of tags in food
 Shielding of tags accidently or deliberately so the
 product is not paid for at the checkout
 Global standards
 Adequate range
 Radiation laws and public perception
thanks

				
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