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C26 S2 Webnotes

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					                               The Indian Perimeter
                               History and Culture (C26, S2)

History
Harappan civilization – Indus Valley
      Mohenjo Daro

Empires—Ancient
Aryans
Persians
Greeks under Alexander the Great
Two Indian empires (Mauryan and Gupta)
Turkic Muslims from Afghanistan
       Islam – Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives
Muslim Mughal Empire
Europeans – British

Empires – Modern Period
Indian independence – 1947
       India divided (India & Pakistan)
              India – Hindu
              Pakistan – Muslim
                     West Pakistan & East Pakistan
       Government – centered WP
       1971 – EP becomes Bangladesh

Sri Lanka – British colony 1802 – Ceylon
       1948 - gains independence

The Maldives – British protectorate
      Full independence – 1965

Bhutan – British protectorate
      Full independence – 1949
              (India guides Bhutan's foreign policy)

Nepal – ruled by dynasties until reforms in 1951
       Today – constitutional monarchy

CULTURE
Multiethnic
       Three major religions dominate
       Many languages spoken



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People and Languages
Pakistan's traditional regions culturally distinct
       Some common features (importance of Islam)
       Urdu – Pakistan's official language
              Indo-European language
              Similar to Hindi
              Written in a form of Persian script
       Some Pakistanis also speak English

Nepal, most ethnic groups – Indian Aryan
       Indo-European languages
              Nepali – official language
       Sino-Tibetan languages

Bhutan's population – 3 main ethnic groups
         Bhote, largest
         Nepalese, second largest
         Tribal peoples, third group
Official language – Dzongkha (Sino-Tibetan)
         English – widely used
Most people in Bangladesh – Bengalis
         Mix of region's early settlers with Turks & other SW Asians
         Most speak Bengali

@75% – Sri Lanka's population – Sinhalese
    Tamils – rest of the population
    Bloody conflicts btwn two ethnic groups

Education
Education levels/literacy rates – generally low
       Tried to increase literacy
               Too few schools/teachers
               Women less likely to be able to read
                       Cultural attitudes (women's role in the home)

Religion
Main religions – Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam

Pakistan, Bangladesh, Maldives – mostly Muslim
       Hindus & Christians also

Nepal and Bhutan
       Most Indian Aryan – Hindu
       Tibetan origin – Buddhist


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      Bhutan's population
             Buddhist (75%)
             Hindu (25%)
      Nepal – world's only officially Hindu state
      Sri Lanka
             Sinhalese – Buddhist
             Tamils – Hindu

Religions – reflected in traditions and customs
       Pakistan
               Islamic influences shape life
                      People pray several times a day
                      Muslim holidays – important
                      Women often wear veils in public

      Sri Lanka
             Buddhist festivals
                   Poya Days mark Moon’s phases
                   Most important festival – held in Kandy each August




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posted:1/1/2011
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