Cultural Diversity PowerPoint - Cultural Diversity

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					Cultural Diversity
      Teresa Rogers
    Butler County ATC
      Summer 2010
                               Objectives
•   Students will:
•   List the four basic characteristics of culture
•   Differentiate between culture, ethnicity, and race
•   Identify some of the major ethnic groups in the United States
•   Provide an example of acculturation in the US
•   Create an example of how bias, prejudice, or stereotype can cause barriers to
    effective relationships
•   Describe ways to avoid bias
•   Differentiate between a nuclear and extended family
•   Identify ways in which language, personal, space, touching, eye contact, and
    gestures are affected by cultural diversity
•   Compare and contrast the diverse health beliefs of different ethnic/cultural groups
•   List five ways health care providers can show respect for an individual’s beliefs
•   Identify methods that can be used to show respect for cultural diversity
                          Culture
                              Includes:
• The values, beliefs,
                              • Family relations
  attitudes, languages,       • Child rearing
                              • Education
  symbols, rituals
                              • Occupational choice
  behaviors, and customs      • Social interaction
                              • Spirituality
  unique to a particular
                              • Religious beliefs
  group of people that is     • Food preferences
  passed from on              • Health beliefs
                              • Health care
  generation to another
                    Culture
•   Culture is learned.
•   Culture is shared.
•   Culture is social in nature.
•   Culture is dynamic and constantly changing.
                    Ethnicity
• A classification of      Common Ethnic Groups
  people based on          • African American
  national origin and/or   • Asian American
  culture.
                           • European American
• Members share a
  common heritage,         • Hispanic American
  geographic location,     • Middle Eastern / Arabic
  social customs,            American
  language, and beliefs.   • Native American
                        Race
• Classification of people based on physical or
  biological characteristics including:
  – Color of skin, hair, and eyes
  – Facial features
  – Blood type
  – Bone structure
• Cuts across multiple ethnic/cultural groups
               Cultural Diversity
• Differences based on         •   Includes:
  culture, ethnicity, and      •   Family organization
  race that influence one’s    •   Language
  behavior, self-perception,
  judgment of others, and      •   Personal space
  interpersonal                •   Touching
  relationships                •   Eye contact
                               •   Gestures
                               •   Health care beliefs
                               •   Spirituality
                               •   Religion
          Cultural Assimilation
• Absorption of a culturally distinct group into a
  dominant or prevailing culture
• Requires that a cultural group alter their
  unique beliefs and behaviors and adopt the
  ways of the dominant culture
• However, in the US, we are striving for a
  society where cultural differences are
  appreciated and respected.
                Acculturation
• The process of learning the beliefs and
  behaviors of a dominant culture and assuming
  some of the characteristics.
• Occurs slowly over a long period of time.
• Example:
  – Recent immigrants are more likely to use the
    language and follow the behavior patterns of their
    origin country than their children or grandchildren
                  Sensitivity
• The ability to recognize and appreciate the
  personal characteristics of others.
• It is essential for health care professionals to
  understand and respect these differences to
  provide care that meet the needs of all
  individuals.
                        Bias
• A preference that inhibits impartial judgment
  of others
• Common biases:
  – Age
  – Education
  – Physical size
  – Occupation
  – Sexual preference
  – Gender
                 Prejudice
• A strong feeling or belief about a person or
  subject that is formed without reviewing facts
  or information
• Causes fear and distrust of others
• Interferes with interpersonal relationships
• Health care workers must be aware of our
  prejudices and to make every effort to obtain
  as much information about a situation as
  possible
                    Stereotyping
• Process of assuming that everyone in a particular
  group is the same
• It ignores individual characteristics and “labels”
  the individual
• May occur with regard to:
   –   Race
   –   Gender
   –   Body size
   –   Occupation
   –   Ethnicity
              Overcoming
   Bias, Prejudice, and Stereotyping
• Be conscious of your own personal and
  professional values and beliefs
• Learn as much as you can about different
  ethnic/cultural groups
• Be sensitive to behaviors and practices that
  are different from your won
• Remember that you do not have to adopt
  others’ beliefs, but you must respect them
               Overcoming
    Bias, Prejudice, and Stereotyping
• Develop friendships with a wide variety of people
• Ask and encourage questions from others to
  share ideas and beliefs
• Evaluate all information before forming an
  opinion
• Be open to all differences
• Avoid offensive language and jokes
• Understand that mistakes happen. Apologize and
  forgive.
                Holistic Care
• Care that provides for the well-being of the
  whole person
• Meets not only physical needs, but includes
  social, emotional, and mental needs
• Health care workers must understand the
  cultural and ethnic beliefs in order to provide
  care the meet each of these needs
           Family Organization
• Refers to the structure of a family and the
  dominant or decision-making personal in a
  family
• Nuclear family – usually consists of a mother,
  father, and children or a single parent and
  children
• Extended family – includes grandparents,
  aunts, uncles, cousins
                      Language
• Based on the 2000 census, almost 20% of the
  population under 65 speaks a language other
  than English at home.
• Health care provides must determine a patient’s
  ability to communicate and intervene to help
  those who do not understand English by use of:
  –   Translators
  –   Family members
  –   Gestures or pictures
  –   Cue cards
             Personal Space
• The distance people require to feel
  comfortable when interacting with others
• Varies greatly among ethnic/cultural groups
• Health care providers must be alert to a
  patient’s verbal and nonverbal cues to
  determine personal space
                 Eye Contact
• Eye contact is affected by cultural beliefs
• Lack of eye contact is usually interpreted as
  “not listening” but in some cultures is a sign of
  respect
• Health care workers must be alert to an
  individuals comfort level when using direct
  eye contact and adjust accordingly
                 Gestures
• Are used to communicate many things
  including agreement or disagreement
• Can vary among ethnic/cultural groups
• Health care providers must be aware of how a
  patient responds to gestures and avoid any
  that seem to be offensive
           Health Care Beliefs
• Vary widely throughout all groups
• Can affect an individuals response to health
  care
• Most cultures have common conceptions
  regarding:
  – The cause of illness
  – Ways to maintain health
  – Appropriate response to pain
  – Effective methods of treatment
           “Western” Medicine
        or Biomedical Health Care
• Based on the cause of disease and eliminating,
  treating, or preventing those causes
• Providers receive training and are licensed to
  practice as professionals
• Beliefs of this system include:
  – Encouraging patients to learn about their illness
  – Teaching self-care
  – Using medications and technology to treat illness
  – Teaching preventive care
 Alternative Health Care Methods
• Becoming more widely accepted in the US and
  includes:
  – Nutritional methods – organic, herbs, vitamins
  – Mind and body control methods – meditation,
    hypnotherapy, biofeedback
  – Energetic touch therapy – massage, acupuncture,
    acupressure
  – Body-movement methods - chiropractic, yoga, tai
    chi
  – Spiritual methods – faith healing
                 Spirituality
• The beliefs individuals have about themselves,
  their connections with others, and their
  relationship to a higher power
• Is often described as an individual’s need to
  find meaning in life
• Is often expressed through religious practices,
  but is not the same thing as religion
                   Religion
• An organized system of belief in a
  superhuman power or higher power
• Are associated with a particular form or place
  of worship
• May include beliefs about birth, life, illness,
  death, and dietary practices
          Other Belief Systems
• Atheist – a person who does not believe in
  any deity
• Agnostic – an individual who believes that the
  existence of God cannot be proved or
  disproved
    Respecting Cultural Diversity
• Each individual must be regarded as a unique
  individual
• Ways to achieve this goal is to:
  – Listen as patients express their beliefs
  – Appreciate individual different differences
  – Learn more about cultural and ethnic groups in
    your area
  – Recognize signs of prejudice, bias, or stereotyping

				
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