Biosensors and Bioelectronics

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					               Biosensors and Bioelectronics

                             Guide for Authors

1. Aims and scope

Biosensors & Bioelectronics is the principal international journal devoted to re-
search, design, development and application of biosensors and bioelectronics. It is
an interdisciplinary journal serving professionals with an interest in the exploitation
of biological materials and designs in novel diagnostic and electronic devices includ-
ing DNA chips, electronic noses and micro total analysis systems. Biosensors are
defined as analytical devices incorporating a biological material (e.g. tissue, micro-
organisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, natural
products etc.), a biologically derived material (e.g. recombinant antibodies, engi-
neered proteins, aptamers etc) or a biomimic (e.g. synthetic catalysts, combinato-
rial ligands, imprinted polymers) intimately associated with or integrated within a
physicochemical transducer or transducing microsystem, which may be optical,
electrochemical, thermometric, piezoelectric, magnetic or micromechanical. Biosen-
sors usually yield a digital electronic signal which is proportional to the concentra-
tion of a specific analyte or group of analytes. While the signal may in principle be
continuous, devices can be configured to yield single measurements to meet spe-
cific market requirements. Biosensors have been applied to a wide variety of ana-
lytical problems including in medicine, drug discovery, the environment, food, proc-
ess industries, security and defence. The emerging field of Bioelectronics seeks to
exploit biology in conjuction with electronics in a wider context encompassing, for
example, biological fuel cells and biomaterials for information processing, informa-
tion storage, electronic components and actuators. A key aspect is the interface
between biological materials and electronics. While endeavouring to maintain co-
herence in the scope of the journal, the editors will consider reviews and papers on
other subjects of obvious relevance to the community, which describe important
new concepts, underpin understanding of the field or provide important insights
into the practical application and commercialisation of biosensors and bioelectron-

Synthetic Receptors section

The special section of Biosensors and Bioelectronics on Synthetic Receptors is dedi-
cated to contributions focussing on the complementary intersection between syn-
thetic receptors, nanotechnology, molecular recognition, molecular imprinting and
supramolecular chemistry. Particular areas of science and applications covered by
this section include:
• Molecular imprinted polymers and other types of template directed synthesis
• Design and study of molecular and supramolecular structures with molecular bio-
recognition and biomimetic properties
• Mechanistic investigation of the molecular recognition process in synthetic sys-
• Development of a new generation of stable chimeric and biomimetic sensors for
extreme environments, environmental and clinical monitoring
• The study of nanoelectronic elements with biorecognition/biomimetic signal
• Identification and optimisation of new smart affinity separation matrices (adsorb-
ents, membranes, capillaries, microchips) and separation processes based on syn-
thetic receptors and smart materials
• Evaluation of new manufacturing procedures for large-scale production of syn-
thetic receptors and for their integration with functional elements (adsorbents, sen-

sors, bioreactors)
• Application of synthetic models of biochemical receptors in drug design
• Molecular imprinted polymers and other types of template directed synthesis

2. Types of contributions

Full papers should describe original research work not previously published, and
should be complete descriptions of full investigations comprising around 5000
words and with up to 6 figures/tables/schemes.

Short Communications should be concise but complete descriptions of original lim-
ited investigations comprising around 3000 words with up to 3 fig-

Review Articles should comprehensively cover a subject of current interest, com-
prise around 8000 words and be extensively referenced (generally focussing on
publications for the last five years). Authors are expected to go beyond a simple
compilation of references and analyse trends, shortcomings and accomplishments
in their chosen field, charting possible future directions of the research. Authors are
urged to arrange the subject matter clearly under the general headings of: Ab-
stract; Keywords; 1. Introduction; 2. Main text (The heading and the sub-headings
of the main text are left to author’s discretion); 3. Summary and Conclusions; 4.
Future Perspectives; Acknowledgements; References. Illustrations and summary
tables are encouraged. Contributions may be submitted or invited.

Book Reviews should cover a subject of current interest. They are by invitation

Please note that relative standard deviations (RSD) or coefficient of variation (CV)
and error bars should be included in tables and figures, respectively.

Please also note that the length of a paper is strictly restricted. However, online
submissions can include electronic supplementary material (text, data sets includ-
ing figures/tables, animation sequences, high-resolution images, etc) to support
and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files supplied will be published
online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, in-
cluding ScienceDirect: For more detailed information
please visit

3. Submission of contributions

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published
previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or
academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that
its publication is approved by all Authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible
authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be pub-
lished elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the
written consent of the Publisher.

Online submission.

Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Use the following guidelines to
prepare your article. Via the Elsevier online submission tool for this journal
( you will be guided stepwise through the creation
and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to

a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review
process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF
at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further
processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Edi-
tor’s decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author’s
homepage, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail.

The above represents a very brief outline of this form of submission. It can be ad-
vantageous to print this "Guide for Authors" section from the site for reference in
the subsequent stages of article preparation.

There are no page charges

4. Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts should be typed using double spaced text on consecutively numbered
pages, with a wide margin on the left. Some flexibility of presentation will be al-
lowed but authors are urged to arrange the subject matter clearly under such
headings as Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials & Methods, Results, Dis-
cussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References.

4.1. Language
Papers will be published in English. Authors' manuscripts must be consistent in
style, spelling and syntax. English language help service: Upon request, Elsevier
will direct authors to an agent who can check and improve the English of their pa-
per (before submission). Please contact for further

4.2. Title
Articles should be headed by a concise but informative title. This should be followed
by the name(s) of the author(s) and by the name and address of the laboratory in
which the work was carried out. URL addresses may be included if desired. If the
address of the author(s) at the time when the paper will appear is other than the
laboratory in which the work was carried out this may be stated in a footnote, but
footnotes should otherwise be avoided. The name and complete address of the per-
son to whom the proofs should be sent must be given, inclusive of e-mail address,
telephone and fax numbers, on a separate cover sheet. Recognition of financial
support should not be made by a footnote to the title or name(s) of the author(s),
but should be included in Acknowledgements at the end of the paper.

4.3. Abstract
The abstract is the part of your paper which will be read by the largest number of
scientists so it plays a crucial role. The abstract is a condensation of the information
(facts) in the paper; it is not a description of the contents of the paper. The ab-
stract should be brief (150 - 250 words), specific and self-contained. The abstract
should not include trivial experimental details, references, figures or equations.

The abstract may include the following:
1. The context for the work.
2. Theoretical or experimental methods used.
3. Brief results including the sensitivity, the detection limit and the linear range of
biosensors and bioelectronics and its application..
4. Main merits and limits of the method.
5. Safety information concerning dangerous compounds or procedures if relevant.

4.4. Keywords
A maximum of six keywords should be given below the abstract to describe the
contents of the paper.

4.5. Introduction
Articles should have a concise Introduction. This should state the reasons for the
work (what is the research question or problem and why it is important), with ref-
erences to previous publications on the subject. It should include a description of
the advantages and disadvantages of the method compared to the other estab-
lished techniques. It should not include the conclusions from the work being pre-
sented and should avoid extensive self-citation.

4.6. References
References to published work should be indicated in the appropriate place in the
text, according to the Harvard system (i.e. using author(s) name(s) and date), with
a reference list, in alphabetical order, at the end of the paper. The list should give
name(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year of publication and the exact title of the
journal or book. Titles of articles or chapters should not be given. For journals vol-
ume number and initial and final page numbers of the article should be included.
For books the name(s) of the editor(s) (if appropriate), the name of the publisher
and the town of publication should be included. Where appropriate, initial and final
page numbers should also be quoted. All references in this list should be indicated
at some point in the text and vice-versa. Unpublished data or private communica-
tions should not appear in the reference list.

Journal article:
Paivio, A., Jansen, Becker, L.J., 1975. Cognition 37(2), 635-647.

Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, 3rd ed. MacMillan, New-

Edited Book:
Letheridge, S., Cannon, C.R. (Eds.), 1980 Bilingual Education: Teaching English as
a Second Language. Praeger, New-York.

Proceedings book:
Chaddock, T.E., 1974. In: Daniel. E.E. (Ed.), The Interactional View. Norton, New-
York, pp. 71-87 (reprint from Acta Psiquiatrica Psicologica de America Latin 11,
321-330 (1965).

4.7. Tables
Please note that a full paper should contain no more than 6 single figures/ ta-
bles/schemes. A short communication should contain no more than 3 single fig-
ures/ tables/schemes. Please note relative standard deviations (RSD) or coefficient
of variation (CV) should be included in tables.

Tables should be typed in double spacing on separate pages and provided with a
suitable heading. Tables should be clearly referred to in the text using Arabic nu-
merals. Considerable thought should be given to layout so that the significance of
the results can be easily grasped. Each table should have a title which makes the
general meaning understandable without reference to the text. Vertical lines should
not be used to separate columns. Column headings should be sufficiently explana-
tory, and presented in a way consistent with the column width. Columns of figures
multiplied by the same power of ten should not be presented as such. The power of
ten should be indicated in the column heading, e.g.:
104[NaCl]/mol l-1

rather than
[NaCl]/mol l-1
4.2 x 10-4
3.5 x 10-4
2.6 x 10-5

In order to demonstrate the repeatability/reproducibility of the method, Authors are
asked to include relative standard deviations (RSD) or the coefficient of variations
(CV) in tables.

4.8. Illustrations
Preparation of electronic illustrations
Submitting your artwork in an electronic format helps us to produce your work to
the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail.

General points
• Always supply high-quality printouts of your artwork, in case conversion of the
electronic artwork is problematic.
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Save text in illustrations as “graphics” or enclose the font.
• Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times,
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files, and supply a separate list-
ing of the files and the software used.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:

You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are
given here.

Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please
“save as” or convert the images to one of the following formats (Note the resolution
requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given be-

EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as “graphics”.
TIFF: Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300
TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale): a minimum of
500 dpi is required.
DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft
Office applications please supply “as is”.

Please do not:
• Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation)

• Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the
resolution is too low;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Colour illustrations
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF, EPS or MS
Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article,
you submit usable colour figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge,
that these figures will appear in colour on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other
sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in
the printed version. For colour reproduction in print, you will receive information
regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indi-
cate your preference for colour in print or on the Web only. For further information
on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting col-
our figures to “grey scale” (for the printed version should you not opt for colour in
print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the colour

Supplementary material
Online articles can include electronic supplementary material (data sets, animation
sequences, high-resolution images, etc) to support and enhance your scientific re-
search. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the elec-
tronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: For more detailed information please visit

4.9. Further information
For enquiries relating to the submission of articles (Including electronic submission
where available) please visit This also provides
the facility to track accepted articles and set up e-mail alerts to inform you of when
an article's status has changed, as well as detailed artwork guidelines, copyright
information, frequently asked questions and more. Contact details for questions
arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, are pro-
vided when an article is accepted for production.

5. Symbols and terminology

5.1. General
It is strongly preferred that authors follow the recommendations of the IUPAC Man-
ual of Symbols and Terminology for Physico-chemical Quantities and Units, edited
by I.M. Mills, Blackwells, Oxford, 1988. Some examples of recommended usage are
given here.
If authors depart from these recommendations, articles may be returned for correc-
tion or corrected in the Editorial Office. In the latter case, no responsibility for er-
rors can be assumed. S.I. units should be used. "Equivalents" and "Normalities"
should not be used. Meaningless units (e.g. e.u.) should not be used. Concentration
should be denoted by the chemical formula in square brackets, or by lowercase c.
Units of concentration should be given as mol dm-3, mol cm-3, M, mol l-1, etc.
Mixtures should be indicated by a plus sign, e.g. Zn + Cu, H2O + CH3OH etc. Inter-
faces should be indicated by a vertical bar (see equations (1) and (2) below.) The
function G should be called Gibbs energy, not Gibbs free energy or free enthalpy.
Some terms of historical interest only should be avoided, e.g. depolarizer, polariza-
tion (of electrodes).

5.2. Mathematical formulae
Subscripts and superscripts should be set off clearly. Special care should be taken,
if a dot-matrix printer is used, that subscripts and superscripts are legible. Greek
letters and handwritten symbols should be explained in the margin where they are
first used. Special care should be taken to show clearly the difference between zero
(0) and the letter O, and between one (1) and the letter l. The meaning of all sym-
bols should be given immediately after the equation in which they are first used, or
a list of definitions provided. Abbreviations not in common use should be defined.
For fractions, especially in the text, space can be saved by using the solidus (/) or
by using negative exponents instead of a horizontal line, e.g.
Ip/2m or Ip(2m)-1 rather than
If necessary, parentheses can be used to avoid ambiguity. All equations (mathe-
matical and chemical) should be numbered sequentially in parentheses in the right-
hand margin. They should be treated as part of the text. The use of fractional pow-
ers instead of root signs is recommended. Complicated powers of e are often more
conveniently denoted by exp(...). Natural or Napierian logarithms should be de-
noted by ln, whereas decadic logarithms should be denoted by log. The multiplica-
tion sign should be used in floating point numbers to avoid confusion, e.g. 4.25 x
105. The decimal point should always be denoted by a full stop.

5.3. Chemical formulae and nomenclature
Nomenclature should follow IUPAC recommendations. For inorganic chemistry, see:
Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, Butterworths, London, 1971. For organic
chemistry, see: Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, Pergamon, Oxford, 1979.
Structural formulae should be numbered with roman numerals: they should be
submitted on separate sheets in a form suitable for direct reproduction. Drawn
structural formulae should use upright lettering.

6. Proofs

One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding
author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by
post). Elsevier now sends PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need
to download Adobe Reader version 7 available free from Instructions on how to
annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. The exact system requirements are
given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections
(including replies to the Query Form) and return to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list
your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then
mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query
Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail,
or by post.
Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and
correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as ac-
cepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the
Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and ac-
curately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent
back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclu-
sion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely
your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your ar-
ticle if no response is received.

7. Copyright

Upon acceptance of an article, Authors will be asked to transfer copyright (for more
information on copyright see This transfer will
ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. A letter will be sent to the
corresponding Author confirming receipt of the manuscript. A form facilitating
transfer of copyright will be provided.
If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the Author(s) must obtain
written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the arti-
cle. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by Authors in these cases: contact El-
sevier's Rights Department, Oxford, UK; phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44)
1865 853333, e-mail: Requests may also be completed
on-line via the Elsevier homepage (

8. Offprints

The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article
via e-mail or, alternatively, 25 free paper offprints. The PDF file is a watermarked
version of the published article and included a cover sheet with the journal cover
image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.