Docstoc

Ch.2 Notes - Origins of US Government

Document Sample
Ch.2 Notes - Origins of US Government Powered By Docstoc
					    CHAPTER 2                        AMERICAN
                                        HOLT


                                    GOVERNMENT
    Origins of U.S. Government
    Section 1: Early Influences
    Section 2: Independence
    Section 3: The First National Government
    Section 4: The Constitutional Convention
    Section 5: Ratifying the Constitution




1                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
    Origins of U.S. Government              AMERICAN
                                               HOLT


    Section 1:                             GOVERNMENT
    Early Influences
    Objectives:
     What political ideals did English colonists bring with
      them to North America?
     What major documents limited the power of English
      monarchs?
     How were the ideals of limited and representative
      government evident in colonial governments?



2                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
    Origins of U.S. Government                                                        AMERICAN
                                                                                            HOLT


    Section 1:                                                                       GOVERNMENT
    Early Influences
    Political ideals of English colonists:
      limited government
      representative government

      Marsiglio of Padua        >
                                (Italian Philosopher) Believed that the line of power should be
        People, State, Church. Strong Believer in in Majority rule and making laws according to
        people’s will.
              a. Separation of Church and State
      Baron de Montesquieu > Believed that the Government should be divided into 3 separate
        branches of government.
              a. Executive
              b. Legislative
              c. Judicial
     *Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances*

    Voltaire
    * Freedom of the Press - "I may disagree with what you say but I will defend until death your right to say it."


3                                                                                  HOLT, RINEHART          AND   WINSTON
    Origins of U.S. Government                                            AMERICAN
                                                                               HOLT


    Section 1:                                                           GOVERNMENT
    Early Influences
    Major documents that limited the power of English
    monarchs:
     the Magna Carta 1215 > Limited the powers of the King. (John) “Cornerstone of
       Liberty:” Became main defense against arbitrary powers of unjust rule in England.
     the Petition of Right 1628> Required Monarchs to receive approval from Parliament.
       (ie. Imprisoning people unjustly, house soldiers, military rule in times of peace.)
     the English Bill of Rights > clearly established that a monarch couldn’t rule with out
       the consent of Parliament. (right to petition the king without fear,monarch couldn’t keep an
       army without the consent of Parliament, Free Parliamentary elections)
       All of these documents lead to the protection of English citizens rights from
       being violated. This ideal helps ensure that government servers to protect
       the publics best interest.


4                                                                      HOLT, RINEHART        AND   WINSTON
    Origins of U.S. Government                                           AMERICAN
                                                                               HOLT


    Section 1:                                                           GOVERNMENT
    Early Influences
    Evidence of English political ideals in colonial
    governments:
     Most charters limited government.(Charter > Written grant of authority from King)
       Royal > belonged directly to the crown (8) ie. Virginia Co. set up a water route to the orient.
       Proprietary > Proprietor in charge of colony,by king. (ie. Maryland Lord
       Baltimore,Pennsylvania/William Penn
       Corporate > Governor elected by property owners, king suppose to give approval (not asked)
       (ie. Connecticut and Road Island)
     The governor of each colony served as the chief executive for that colony’s
      government. (Ruled with instruction from London)
     Governors were appointed or elected.
     Assemblies of elected representatives existed in most colonies. (Upper house,
       House of Lords/Lower House, House of Commons)
     Assemblies and councils served to limit governor’s power. (ideals from
       Documents.
       Power of the Purse > Power to Tax and spend
5                                                                      HOLT, RINEHART       AND   WINSTON
    Origins of U.S. Government             AMERICAN
                                              HOLT


    Section 2:                            GOVERNMENT
    Independence
    Objectives:
     What were two early attempts at unity among the
      colonies?
     What British policies pushed the colonies to cooperate
      with one another?
     What were some of the ideals that influenced the
      writing of the Declaration of Independence?
     How were the governments of the newly independent
      states similar?

6                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
    Origins of U.S. Government                                             AMERICAN
                                                                                  HOLT


    Section 2:                                                            GOVERNMENT
    Independence
    Responsibilities of London:
              1.Colonial Defense & Foreign Affairs
              2. Uniform system of Money/Credit
              3. TRADE (gave colonies and England a Market)

    Attempts at unity:
      New England Confederation of 1643 > Mass,NH,MD,CT/Defense against
         American Indians (If one colony disagreed it would stop the Confederation from
         taking action)
      Albany Plan of Union> Purpose to discuss problem of colonial trade and dangers of
         attacks by the French & Native American (French Indian War)
               a. annual congress delegates (rep.) from each of the 13 colonies
               b. power to raise military and naval forces
               c. make war or peace
               d. regulate trade,tax and collect customs duties
     (proposed by Ben Franklin, turned down by colonies and the crown)

7                                                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
    Origins of U.S. Government                                                   AMERICAN
                                                                                      HOLT


    Section 2:                                                                  GOVERNMENT
    Independence
    British policies that brought the colonies together:
         Trade regulations:
         a.    Navigation Acts 1660’s - 1773 > The twofold object of this act was to protect English shipping, and
               to secure a profit to the home country from the colonies. .Certain items could only be imported and
               exported. (ie. Tobacco, cotton, tea,sugar)
               - exports must arrive in England before ultimate destination
               - transported in British ships.
         Acts/Taxes:
         a.    Sugar Act 1764> raised import costs on wine, molasses and sugar
         b.    Quartering Act 1765> colonial authorities must provide barracks and supplies for
               British troops. (if no barracks, unoccupied dwellings or inns)
         c.    Currency Act 1765> colonial legislatures couldn’t issue legal tender. (Paper Money)
         d.    Stamp Act 1765> imposed a tax on all legal documents and other items,
                          - Must have a stamp from the British Treasury
         I.e. licenses of practicing professionals, land transfers, exports and imports, private contracts,
                newspapers, college diplomas, playing cards
         (Show Timeline)


8                                                                             HOLT, RINEHART          AND   WINSTON
    Origins of U.S. Government                                            AMERICAN
                                                                               HOLT


                                                                         GOVERNMENT
         Events that lead to Declaration of Independence

    1.     Stamp Act Congress: insisted that Americans could only be taxed by bodies that
           represented them directly.
    *No taxation w/out representation*
    2. Charles Townsend (Champagne Charlie) Replaced George Grenville
           a. New import taxes on paper and other products
           b. Money that was collected went to royal officials. Instead of Colonial Assemblies setting
           wage.
    *During this time people were unhappy and arguing about natural rights. People became very
           hostile toward British Authority.
    3.     Boston Massacre (1770)
           a. British troops fired upon 11 people 5 were killed.
           b. Incident proved useful in anti-British propaganda
           c. Problem of “standing armies”
    4.     Tea Act




9                                                                      HOLT, RINEHART       AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government                              AMERICAN
                                                                 HOLT


     Section 2:                                             GOVERNMENT
     Independence
     Ideals that influenced the writing of the Declaration of
     Independence:
      unalienable rights of human beings, (T. Jefferson)
         > Rights that cannot be taken away
      protection of citizens’ natural rights, (John Locke)
         > People create gov. to protect nat. rights (abuses power)
      government ruled by consent of the people, (Locke, Paine)
      safeguard of the public good
         > Indictment of King George III, {Cruelties,Crimes, and illegal political
            acts against humanity. (Propaganda)


10                                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government                                        AMERICAN
                                                                            HOLT


                                                                      GOVERNMENT
     Excerpt of Grievances by the Colonists
     Examples
     o He has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the
     lives of our People.
     o He has erected a Multitude of New Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harass
     our people, and eat out their substance.
     o He has made Judges dependent on his will alone, for the Tenure of their offices and the
     Amount and Payment of their Salaries.
      o He has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the Consent of our
     Legislatures.
     o For cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World.
     o For quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us.
     o For imposing Taxes on us without our consent.

     o For depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury.



11                                                                  HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government              AMERICAN
                                                HOLT


     Section 2:                              GOVERNMENT
     Independence
     Similarities among the governments of the newly
     independent states:
      limited governments
      annual elections
      bicameral legislatures
      representative legislatures
      limited gubernatorial power
      protection of individual rights
      gender and race restrictions on voting rights
12                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government            AMERICAN
                                               HOLT


     Section 3:                            GOVERNMENT
     The First National Government
     Objectives:
      What were the powers of the national government
       under the Articles of Confederation?
      How did limits on its power weaken the national
       government under the Articles?
      How did the states continue to struggle with unity
       after independence?
      How did Shays’s Rebellion highlight the need for a
       stronger national government?

13                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government           AMERICAN
                                              HOLT


     Section 3:                           GOVERNMENT
     The First National Government
     Powers of the national government under the
     Articles of Confederation:
      to declare war (army and navy)
      to conduct foreign policy (Ambassadors)
      to borrow money (voluntary)
      to settle disputes between states
      Fix uniform standards of weights and measures
      to manage relations between American Indians

14                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government                    AMERICAN
                                                       HOLT


     Section 3:                                    GOVERNMENT
     The First National Government
     Weaknesses of the national government under the
     Articles:
      no officials to carry out Congress’s laws (delegates)
       > Unicameral, no independent exec. (tyranny)
      no authority to enforce Congress’s laws
       > afraid of too powerful nation gov. (committees)
      no power of the purse
      no national currency
      no power to regulate foreign or domestic trade
      no national court system
      amendments easily blocked by one state

15                                               HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government                   AMERICAN
                                                     HOLT


     Section 3:                                  GOVERNMENT
     The First National Government
     Obstacles to the states’ unity after independence:
      cultural differences (religious)
        a. Baptist > R.I / Presbyterian > N.J. & Del
        b. Settlers > various parts of the world (Unified Gov.)
      economic differences (Under Unified Gov.)
       a. Slavery (Nat. Rights)
         - effect way of life (South & Slaves)
      geographic isolation


16                                              HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government             AMERICAN
                                                HOLT


     Section 3:                             GOVERNMENT
     The First National Government
     How Shays’s Rebellion proved the need for a
     stronger national government:
      by showing government’s inability to maintain peace
       and order
      by illustrating government’s inability to protect and
       promote the public good




17                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government          AMERICAN
                                             HOLT


     Section 4:                          GOVERNMENT
     The Constitutional Convention
     Objectives:
      Who were the delegates to the Constitutional
       Convention?
      What major competing plans of government did the
       convention delegates debate?
      What were some of the compromises reached by the
       delegates?



18                                      HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government                    AMERICAN
                                                      HOLT


     Section 4:                                    GOVERNMENT
     The Constitutional Convention
     Delegates to the Constitutional Convention:
      Included many of the country’s educated, leaders, and
       political thinkers, such as:
           8 people who signed the Declaration of Independence
           7 people who participated in the First Continental Congress
           7 people who had been state governors
           George Washington
           Benjamin Franklin
           Alexander Hamilton
           James Madison
19                                               HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government                            AMERICAN
                                                               HOLT


     Section 4:                                            GOVERNMENT
     The Constitutional Convention
     Rival plans of government debated by the
     convention delegates:
      Virginia Plan— (Madison) 3 separate branches (leg,exec,jud)
        - Bicameral > House/gen pop, Sen/state leg
        - Powers left over goes to state
        - veto state laws that conflicted nat. law
        - Exec veto Congress/ Judiciary be overridden by both houses
      New Jersey Plan (Patterson) Unicameral
        - Fed. Exec (more than one) no veto powers (chosen by congress)
     Questioned how the states should be represented in Congress
     (Population, financial contributions, or state equality)
     Other points: Choosing a president & limits on the new powers of central gov.

20                                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government            AMERICAN
                                               HOLT


     Section 4:                            GOVERNMENT
     The Constitutional Convention
     Great Compromise:
      bicameral legislature
      representation in the House of Representatives based
       on population and elected directly by the people
      two state representatives in the Senate, who were
       elected by state legislatures
      majority votes by House of Representatives and the
       Senate needed to pass laws
      South important to Ratifying (Slavery > 3/5 Comp)


21                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government             AMERICAN
                                                HOLT


     Section 5:                             GOVERNMENT
     Ratifying the Constitution
     Objectives:
      What were the main arguments in the debate over
       ratification of the Constitution?
      What role did a bill of rights play in the debate?
      Which key states were among the last to ratify the
       Constitution?




22                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government                             AMERICAN
                                                                HOLT


     Section 5:                                            GOVERNMENT
     Ratifying the Constitution
     Debate over ratification of the Constitution:
      Antifederalists (Patrick Henry)
          would create too powerful a national government (Force)
           - thought the states were strong enough to realize objectives of each
          concerned that a strong executive too closely resembled a monarch
          included no bill of rights
      Federalists
          limited the national government’s power with a system of checks and
           balances by the three branches
          guaranteed any unlisted powers of the national government to the states
           or the people



23                                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government              AMERICAN
                                                HOLT


     Section 5:                             GOVERNMENT
     Ratifying the Constitution
     Role of the bill of rights in the debate:
      concern that individual rights would go unprotected
       without a bill of rights
      fears that an overly powerful and unjust national
       government would be created without a bill of rights
      argued that no bill of rights was necessary because the
       Constitution limited the powers of the national
       government to those listed


24                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
     Origins of U.S. Government           AMERICAN
                                              HOLT


     Section 5:                           GOVERNMENT
     Ratifying the Constitution
     Last key states to ratify the Constitution:
      Virginia
      New York
      North Carolina




25                                       HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                             AMERICAN
                                                HOLT


                                            GOVERNMENT
     Chapter Wrap-Up
     1. Explain the importance of a written constitution.
     2. Which key documents limited the power of English
        monarchs and how did they do it?
     3. How did Benjamin Franklin try to bring unity to the
        country during the conflict between Britain and
        France?
     4. In the Declaration of Independence, what rights did
        Thomas Jefferson consider “unalienable”?


26                                         HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
                                            AMERICAN
                                               HOLT


                                           GOVERNMENT
     Chapter Wrap-Up
     5. How did the Constitution address the weaknesses of
        the Articles?
     6. What role did compromise play in the Constitutional
        Convention?
     7. Why did delegates compromise on a bicameral
        Congress?
     8. During the ratification battle in New York, how did
        the Federalists explain the principals of American
        constitutional government and try to win supporters?
27                                        HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:17
posted:12/31/2010
language:English
pages:27