Commercial Life Outside
Bakeries in Pompeii
Parts of the Grindstone
Catillus- hourglass shaped
Wooden arms- fitted into
a setting by pegs
Meta- fixed conical part
Grindstones were made from Vesuvian
lava rock as it was hard and porous so
that fragments did not break off during
How the Grindstone Worked
Grain poured into the top.
Catillus moved round on the
meta using the wooden arms
pulled by a donkey or a slave.
Flour was poured out and
collected in a tray (lamina)
at the bottom.
A Bakery Oven
1. Cereal ground into flour.
2. Flour sieved and residue used for low quality
bread for slaves.
3. Bread dough prepared by hand or in mixing
4. Dough divided into round loaves with a
double cross- 8 segments.
5. Loaves baked in the oven.
6. Water used to make a shiny crust halfway
7. Loaves were cooled.
Selling the Bread
• About 30 bakeries in Pompeii at time of
• Only 20 of them had shops to sell the
• The rest would have supplied the bread
wholesale with delivery men taking the
bread to shops, stalls and inns in the