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					The Middle East

Paulina Gawor
Jeremy Jones
Michael Deddo
Anthony Cundari
Christopher Moakler
AP Global Period 2
 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.
 POLITICAL
• First cities emerge, 4000 B.C.E. (Ur, Sumer) Between 3200 and 2350 B.C.E., they evolve into city-states (control of surrounding
   region). Governments sponsor building projects and irrigation
• Attacks by others led to wall building and military development
• Kingships evolve with cooperation of noble families
• The Code of Hammurabi was created by a Babylonian King, in 1790 BCE. Code revolves around laws of retribution.
• Hammurabi centralizes bureaucracy & has taxation.
• Hittite assault and empire crumbles in 1595 B.C.E.
• Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), about 1300-612, are conquerors, but cannot maintain a stable government
• New Babylonian empire, 600-550 B.C.E.: Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 B.C.E.) Hanging gardens of palace showed wealth and luxury.
• Nobles received political leadership.
• The Persian Empire was the successor of the Median Empire and lasted from 550 BC to 330 BC. Cyrus the Great founds this empire
   under Achaemenid Dynasty.
• The Persian Empire was the largest empire in ancient history.
• Upper & Lower Egypt united by the pharaoh around 3150 BCE.
• Egypt gets conquered over time by foreigners.
 ECONOMIC
• Bronze (made from copper and tin); used in weapons and later agricultural tools
• Iron (about 1000 B.C.E.), cheaper and more widely available; used in weapons and tools Wheel (about 3500 B.C.E.) helps trade;
   carts can carry more goods further
• Shipbuilding: maritime trade increases in all directions; network develops
• Phoenicians: Little agriculture; live on trade and communications networks
• Overland trade to Mesopotamia; influence on culture
• Sea trade most important; get raw materials, trade for manufactured goods
• Economic foundations of classical Persia
• Agriculture was the economic foundation
• Trade from India to Egypt
• Standardized coins, good trade routes, markets, banks
• Specialization of production in different regions
• Africa: Economic specialization and trade
• Bronze important but copper and tin rare and expensive
• Iron metallurgy develops independently in Sudan
• Transportation: sailboats, carts, and donkey caravans
• Egypt and Nubia: exotic goods from Nubia (ebony, gold, gems, slaves) and pottery, wine, linen, decorative items from Egypt
 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.
RELIGION                                          • Attracted Persian aristocrats and ruling elites
• Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews                   • Islamic conquerors toppled the Sasanid
• Abraham leads group to Palestine 1850 B.C.E.      empire, seventh century C.E.
• Descendents borrow law of retribution and       • Most Zoroastrians in Persia converted to
  flood story from Mesopotamia                      Islam
• Some migrate to Egypt in eighteenth century     • Some Zoroastrians still exist in modern-day
  B.C.E. then back to Palestine with Moses          Iran
• Twelve tribes become Israelites                 • Zoroastrianism influenced Judaism,
• Mesopotamian-style monarchs with                  Christianity, and later, Islam
  Jerusalem as capital                            • Buddhism, Christianity, Manichaeism,
• The first monotheistic religion of Judaism        Judaism also in Persia
  develops                                        • Africa: The development of organized
• Moses: Ten Commandments, the moral and            religious traditions
  ethical standards for followers                 • Principal gods: sun gods Amon and Re
• Compilation of teachings into Torah (1000-      • Brief period of monotheism: Aten
  400 B.C.E.)                                     • Mummification
• Assyrians conquer                               • At first only pharaohs are mummified, later
• Conquer Israel in north and Judah in south        ruling classes and wealthy can afford it, and
  and destroy Jerusalem                             eventually commoners have it too
• Prophets in this period increase devotion of
  people, and build distinct Jewish community
  in Judea with strong group identity
• Persian Empire: Zoroastrianism
• Cosmic conflict between good and evil
• Heavenly paradise and hellish realm as reward
  and punishment
• Popularity of Zoroastrianism grows from sixth
  century B.C.E.
 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E.
 SOCIAL                                            INTELLECTUAL
• SW Asia: Cities: more opportunities to           • SW Asia: The development of written cultural
   accumulate wealth                                 traditions
• Kings (hereditary) and nobles (royal family      • Cuneiform, Mesopotamian writing style,
   and supporters)are highest class, priests and     becomes standard
   priestesses rule temple communities with        • Reed stylus (wedge-shaped) pressed in clay
   large incomes and staff. Free commoners           then baked
   (peasants), dependent clients (no property)     • Mostly commercial and tax documents
   pay taxes and labor on building projects.
                                                   • Education: vocational to be scribe or
• Africa                                             government official
• Egypt: peasants and slaves (agriculture),        • Literature: astronomy, mathematics, abstract
   pharaoh, professional military and                (religious and literary )
   administrators
• Nubia: complex and hierarchical society
                                                   • Africa: Early writing in the Nile valley
• Patriarchy existed in both, but women have
   more influence than in Mesopotamia. Women       • Hieroglyphics found on monuments and
   could act as regents, like the female pharaoh     papyrus by 3200 B.C.E.
   Hatshepsut.                                     • Hieratic script, everyday writing 2600-600
• Nubia: women serve as queens, priestesses,         B.C.E.
   and scribes                                     • Demotic and Coptic scripts adapt Greek
• Persia                                             writing
• Free classes were bulk of Persian society        • Scribes live very privileged lives
• In the city: artisans, craftsmen, merchants,     • Nubia adapts Egyptian writing
   civil servants
• In the countryside: peasants, some of whom
   were building underground canals
• Large class of slaves who were prisoners of
   war and debtors
     600 C.E. – 1450
Political:
• The early caliphs and the Umayyad dynasty
• Upon Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy")
• Became head of the state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander
• The Shia sect originally supported Ali and descendents as caliph
• Versus the Sunnis ("traditionalists"), the Shias accepted legitimacy of early caliphs
• Different beliefs: holy days for leaders, Ali infallible
• Ongoing conflict between the two sects
• The Umayyad dynasty (661-750 C.E.)
• Ruled the dar al-Islam for the interests of Arabian military aristocracy
• Levied jizya (head tax) on those who did not convert to Islam
• Umayyad declined, due to discontent of conquered and resistance of Shia
• The Abbasid dynasty:
• Abu al-Abbas, descendant of Muhammad's uncle allied with Shias and non-Arab Muslims
• Won battle against Umayyad in 750 after annihilating the clan
• The Abbasid dynasty (750-1258 C.E.)
• No longer conquering, but the empire still grew
• Abbasid administration
• Relied heavily on Persian techniques of statecraft
• Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad
• Appointed governors to rule provinces
• Ulama ("people with religious knowledge") and qadis (judges) ruled locally
• Abbasid decline
• Struggle for succession led to civil war
• Governors built their own power bases
• Popular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynasty
• A Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945
• Later, the Saljuq Turks controlled the imperial family
   600 C.E. – 1450
Economic:                                        Religious:
• New crops, agricultural experimentation,      Muhammad ibn Abdullah born to a Mecca merchant
  and urban growth                              family, 570 C.E.
                                                Muhammad's spiritual transformation at age forty
• Spread of new foods and industrial crops
                                                There was only one true god, Allah ("the god")
• Industrial crops became the basis for a       Allah would soon bring judgment on the world
  thriving textile industry
                                                The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to
• Increasing agricultural production            Muhammad
  contributed to the rapid growth of cities
                                                The Quran ("recitation")--holy book of Islam
• The formation of a hemispheric trading        Followers compiled Muhammad's revelations
  zone                                          Work of poetry and definitive authority on Islam
• Trade revived silk roads                      His teachings offended other believers, especially the
• Umayyad and Abbasid rulers maintained         ruling elite of Mecca
  roads for military and administration         Under persecution, Muhammad and followers fled to
• Overland trade traveled mostly by camel       Medina, 622 C.E.
  caravan                                       Muhammad called himself the "seal of the prophets"-
• Arab and Persian mariners borrowed the        -the final prophet of Allah
  compass from the Chinese                      Held Hebrew scripture and New Testament in high
• Borrowed the lateen sail from southeast       esteem
  Asian and Indian mariners                     Determined to spread Allah's wish to all humankind
• Borrowed astrolabe from the Hellenistic       He and his followers conquered Mecca, 630, and
  mariners                                      imposed a government dedicated to Allah
• Banks operated on large scale and             Destroyed pagan shrines and built mosques
  provided extensive services                   The Ka'ba was not destroyed; it became site of
• Letters of credit,functioned as bank checks   pilgrimage in 632
• The organization of trade                     The Five Pillars of Islam, or obligations taught by
• Entrepreneurs often pooled their resources    Muhammad
  in group investments                          Islamic law: the sharia, inspired by Quran
                                                Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every
                                                aspect of life
 600 C.E. – 1450
Social:
• The Quran enhanced security of women, but enforced male domination.
• Adopted veiling of women from Mesopotamia and Persia
• Women's rights provided by the Quran were reduced through later interpretations
• Ulama, qadis, and missionaries were main agents
• Education also promoted Islamic values
• Sufis, or Islamic mystics were the most effective missionaries
• Encouraged devotion to Allah by passionate singing or dancing
• Sufis led ascetic and holy lives, won respect of the people
• Encouraged followers to revere Allah in their own ways
• Tolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefs
• Pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values

Interactions:
• Islam and the cultural traditions of Persia, India, and Greece
• Persian influence on Islam was most notable in literary works
• Administrative techniques borrowed from Sasanids
• Ideas of kingship: wise, benevolent, absolute
• Indian influences: Adopted "Hindi numerals," which Europeans later called "Arabic numerals,“ as well as algebra and
   trigonometry
• Greek influences: Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle. Ibn Rushd turned to Aristotle in twelfth
   century
• Ibn Battuta (1304-1369) was a Moroccan Islamic scholar who served as qadi to the sultan of Delhi
• He consulted with Muslim rulers and offered advice on Islamic values
• Missionary campaigns: Sufi missionaries (Muslim) visited recently conquered or converted lands
• Cultural exchanges included science, ideas, art, and music
• New technology spread by travelers and facilitated their travel--for example, magnetic compass
• New crops introduced to sub-Saharan Africa by Muslims: citrus fruits, rice, cotton
• Sugarcane originated in southwest Asia and north Africa
• Introduced to Europeans during the crusades
• Sugarcane plantations spread all over the Mediterranean basin
• Plantations operated through slave labor, Muslim captives, and Africans
 1450-1750
Political:
• The Ottoman empire (1289-1923) was founded by Osman Bey in 1289, who led Muslim religious warriors (ghazi)
• Ottoman expansion into Byzantine empire: seized city of Bursa, then into the Balkans
• Organized ghazi into formidable military machine
• Central role of the Janissaries (slave troops)
• Effective use of gunpowder in battles and sieges
• Mehmed the Conqueror (reigned 1451-1481) captured Constantinople in 1453; it became Istanbul, the Ottoman capital
• Absolute monarchy; centralized state
• Suleyman the Magnificent
• Suleyman the Magnificent expanded into southwest Asia and central Europe. Suleyman also built a navy powerful
    enough to challenge European fleets
• The Safavids, Turkish conquerors of Persia and Mesopotamia
• Battle of Chaldiran (1514)
• Sunni Ottomans persecuted Shiites within Ottoman empire
• Qizilbash were crushed by Ottomans at Chadiran
• Shah Abbas the Great (1588-1629) revitalized the Safavid empire; modernized military; sought European alliances
    against Ottomans
• The Mughal empire
• Aurangzeb (1659-1707)
• Expanded the empire to almost the entire Indian subcontinent
• Revoked policies of toleration: Hindus taxed, temples destroyed
• His rule troubled by religious tensions and hostility
• All three Islamic empires were military creations
• Authority of dynasty derived from personal piety and military prowess of rulers
• Devotion to Islam encouraged rulers to extend their faith to new lands
• Dynastic decline caused by negligent rulers, factions, and government corruption
1450-1750
•   Ottoman forces behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, training. Janissary corps became politically corrupt,
    undisciplined
•   Provincial governors gained power, private armies
•   Extensive territorial losses in nineteenth century
•   Egypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed campaign in 1798
•   Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful, modern army
•   Ali's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an autonomous province
•   Attempt to reform military led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-1808)
•   Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan after revolt
•   When Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed; cleared the way for reforms
•   He built an European-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraph
•   Legal and educational reforms of the Tanzimat ("reorganization") era (1839-1876)
•   Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen state
•   Broad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's civic code
•   State reform of education (1846), free and compulsory primary education (1869)
•   Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the state authority
•   Opposition to Tanzimat reforms:
•   Religious conservatives critical of attack on Islamic law and tradition
•   Legal equality for minorities resented by some, even a few minority leaders
•   Young Ottomans wanted more reform: freedom, autonomy, decentralization
•   High-level bureaucrats wanted more power, checks on the sultan's power
•   The Young Turk era
•   Cycles of reform and repression
•   1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a constitutional government
•   New sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909) proved an autocrat: suspended constitution, dissolved parliament, and punished
    liberals
•   Reformed army and administration: became source of the new opposition
•   The Young Turks, after 1889, an active body of opposition
•   Called for universal suffrage, equality, freedom, secularization, women's rights
•   Forced Abd al-Hamid to restore constitution, dethroned him (1909)
•   Nationalistic: favored Turkish dominance within empire, led to Arab resistance
•   The empire survived only because of distrust among European powers
1450-1750

 Economic:
• Food crops the basis of all three empires major crops: wheat and rice
• Imports of coffee and tobacco very popular
• Population growth in the three empires less dramatic than in China or Europe
• Significant population growth in India from more intense agriculture
• Less dramatic growth in Safavid and Ottoman realms
• Long-distance trade important to all three empires
• Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century
• Less trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin
• Exported raw materials, imported European manufactured goods
• Heavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interest
• Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century
• Less trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin
• Exported raw materials, imported European manufactured goods
• Heavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interest
• Foreigners began to administer the debts of the Ottoman state by 1882
• The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economy
• Extraterritoriality: Europeans exempt from Ottoman law within the empire
• Could operate tax-free, levy their own duties in Ottoman ports
• Deprived empire of desperately needed income

Religious:

•   Religious diversity created challenges to the rule of the empires
•   Akbar tolerated Sikhism, a new faith combining elements of Hinduism and Islam
•   Advocated syncretic "divine faith," emphasizing loyalty to emperor
•   Religious minorities generally tolerated in Islamic states
1450-1750


•   Interactions:
•   Ottoman and Safavid empires shared
    segments of the east-west trade routes
•   Safavids offered silk, carpets, and
    ceramics to European trading
    companies
•   The Mughal empire less attentive to
    foreign or maritime trading
•   Mughals permitted stations for
    English, French, and Dutch trading
    companies
•   In Ottoman empire, conquered peoples
    protected, granted religious and civil
    autonomy in their own communities
•   In India, the Muslim rulers closely
    cooperated with Hindu majority
•   Art:
•   All emperors sponsored arts and public
    works: mosques, palaces, schools,
    hospitals, etc.
•   The Suleymaniye blended Islamic and
    Byzantine architectural elements
•   Fatehpur Sikri, Mughal capital, created
    by Akbar
•   Combined Islamic style with Indian
    elements
•   The Taj Mahal, exquisite example of
    Mughal architecture
1914-Present

 Political:
 • Ottoman Empire dissolves after WWI in 1923
 • Turkey becomes independent country in 1923 led by Atta Turk who created a republic
 • Eastern Question Solved after Ottoman Empire dissolves.
 • Middle Eastern states made UN mandates
 •    England sends Jews to Palestine after WWII to create a Jewish state. (Israel)
 •    Arab states surrounding Israel attempt to retake the territory that was taken from them.
 • Dictators come to power, such as Sadam Hussein (Iraq) and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Iran)

 Economic:
 • At beginning of time period economy is bad because Europe doesn’t need to trade through the Middle East.
 • Suez Canal facilitates quicker trade between Mediterranean and Indian Ocean.
 • Modern Economy is primarily based on oil, as they have over half the world’s oil reserves.

 Religious:
 • Islam is divided into sects such as Sunni’s and Shia’s
 • In Iraq, there was genocide against the Shia’s by Sadam Hussein and his government.

 Social:
 • Sunni’s are the dominant sect of Islam, 9 out of every 10 Muslim’s are Sunni
 • Israelis are hated by most of Middle East

 Interactions:
 • Ottomans are defeated in WWI which eventually leads to their demise.
 • 1967 – 6 day war, Israel captures Gaza Strip and West Bank
 • 1973- Egypt and Syria invade during Yom Kippur, are beaten in 20 days.
 • 1980-1988- Iran Iraq War, sparks Shia insurgency on border.
 •    1992- peace treaty is signed between Israelis and Arabs.

				
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