The Middle East Paulina Gawor Jeremy Jones Michael Deddo Anthony Cundari Christopher Moakler AP Global Period 2 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. POLITICAL • First cities emerge, 4000 B.C.E. (Ur, Sumer) Between 3200 and 2350 B.C.E., they evolve into city-states (control of surrounding region). Governments sponsor building projects and irrigation • Attacks by others led to wall building and military development • Kingships evolve with cooperation of noble families • The Code of Hammurabi was created by a Babylonian King, in 1790 BCE. Code revolves around laws of retribution. • Hammurabi centralizes bureaucracy & has taxation. • Hittite assault and empire crumbles in 1595 B.C.E. • Assyrians (northern Mesopotamia), about 1300-612, are conquerors, but cannot maintain a stable government • New Babylonian empire, 600-550 B.C.E.: Nebuchadnezzar (605-562 B.C.E.) Hanging gardens of palace showed wealth and luxury. • Nobles received political leadership. • The Persian Empire was the successor of the Median Empire and lasted from 550 BC to 330 BC. Cyrus the Great founds this empire under Achaemenid Dynasty. • The Persian Empire was the largest empire in ancient history. • Upper & Lower Egypt united by the pharaoh around 3150 BCE. • Egypt gets conquered over time by foreigners. ECONOMIC • Bronze (made from copper and tin); used in weapons and later agricultural tools • Iron (about 1000 B.C.E.), cheaper and more widely available; used in weapons and tools Wheel (about 3500 B.C.E.) helps trade; carts can carry more goods further • Shipbuilding: maritime trade increases in all directions; network develops • Phoenicians: Little agriculture; live on trade and communications networks • Overland trade to Mesopotamia; influence on culture • Sea trade most important; get raw materials, trade for manufactured goods • Economic foundations of classical Persia • Agriculture was the economic foundation • Trade from India to Egypt • Standardized coins, good trade routes, markets, banks • Specialization of production in different regions • Africa: Economic specialization and trade • Bronze important but copper and tin rare and expensive • Iron metallurgy develops independently in Sudan • Transportation: sailboats, carts, and donkey caravans • Egypt and Nubia: exotic goods from Nubia (ebony, gold, gems, slaves) and pottery, wine, linen, decorative items from Egypt 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. RELIGION • Attracted Persian aristocrats and ruling elites • Hebrews, Israelites, and Jews • Islamic conquerors toppled the Sasanid • Abraham leads group to Palestine 1850 B.C.E. empire, seventh century C.E. • Descendents borrow law of retribution and • Most Zoroastrians in Persia converted to flood story from Mesopotamia Islam • Some migrate to Egypt in eighteenth century • Some Zoroastrians still exist in modern-day B.C.E. then back to Palestine with Moses Iran • Twelve tribes become Israelites • Zoroastrianism influenced Judaism, • Mesopotamian-style monarchs with Christianity, and later, Islam Jerusalem as capital • Buddhism, Christianity, Manichaeism, • The first monotheistic religion of Judaism Judaism also in Persia develops • Africa: The development of organized • Moses: Ten Commandments, the moral and religious traditions ethical standards for followers • Principal gods: sun gods Amon and Re • Compilation of teachings into Torah (1000- • Brief period of monotheism: Aten 400 B.C.E.) • Mummification • Assyrians conquer • At first only pharaohs are mummified, later • Conquer Israel in north and Judah in south ruling classes and wealthy can afford it, and and destroy Jerusalem eventually commoners have it too • Prophets in this period increase devotion of people, and build distinct Jewish community in Judea with strong group identity • Persian Empire: Zoroastrianism • Cosmic conflict between good and evil • Heavenly paradise and hellish realm as reward and punishment • Popularity of Zoroastrianism grows from sixth century B.C.E. 8000 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. SOCIAL INTELLECTUAL • SW Asia: Cities: more opportunities to • SW Asia: The development of written cultural accumulate wealth traditions • Kings (hereditary) and nobles (royal family • Cuneiform, Mesopotamian writing style, and supporters)are highest class, priests and becomes standard priestesses rule temple communities with • Reed stylus (wedge-shaped) pressed in clay large incomes and staff. Free commoners then baked (peasants), dependent clients (no property) • Mostly commercial and tax documents pay taxes and labor on building projects. • Education: vocational to be scribe or • Africa government official • Egypt: peasants and slaves (agriculture), • Literature: astronomy, mathematics, abstract pharaoh, professional military and (religious and literary ) administrators • Nubia: complex and hierarchical society • Africa: Early writing in the Nile valley • Patriarchy existed in both, but women have more influence than in Mesopotamia. Women • Hieroglyphics found on monuments and could act as regents, like the female pharaoh papyrus by 3200 B.C.E. Hatshepsut. • Hieratic script, everyday writing 2600-600 • Nubia: women serve as queens, priestesses, B.C.E. and scribes • Demotic and Coptic scripts adapt Greek • Persia writing • Free classes were bulk of Persian society • Scribes live very privileged lives • In the city: artisans, craftsmen, merchants, • Nubia adapts Egyptian writing civil servants • In the countryside: peasants, some of whom were building underground canals • Large class of slaves who were prisoners of war and debtors 600 C.E. – 1450 Political: • The early caliphs and the Umayyad dynasty • Upon Muhammad's death, Abu Bakr served as caliph ("deputy") • Became head of the state, chief judge, religious leader, military commander • The Shia sect originally supported Ali and descendents as caliph • Versus the Sunnis ("traditionalists"), the Shias accepted legitimacy of early caliphs • Different beliefs: holy days for leaders, Ali infallible • Ongoing conflict between the two sects • The Umayyad dynasty (661-750 C.E.) • Ruled the dar al-Islam for the interests of Arabian military aristocracy • Levied jizya (head tax) on those who did not convert to Islam • Umayyad declined, due to discontent of conquered and resistance of Shia • The Abbasid dynasty: • Abu al-Abbas, descendant of Muhammad's uncle allied with Shias and non-Arab Muslims • Won battle against Umayyad in 750 after annihilating the clan • The Abbasid dynasty (750-1258 C.E.) • No longer conquering, but the empire still grew • Abbasid administration • Relied heavily on Persian techniques of statecraft • Central authority ruled from the court at Baghdad • Appointed governors to rule provinces • Ulama ("people with religious knowledge") and qadis (judges) ruled locally • Abbasid decline • Struggle for succession led to civil war • Governors built their own power bases • Popular uprisings and peasant rebellions weakened the dynasty • A Persian noble seized control of Baghdad in 945 • Later, the Saljuq Turks controlled the imperial family 600 C.E. – 1450 Economic: Religious: • New crops, agricultural experimentation, Muhammad ibn Abdullah born to a Mecca merchant and urban growth family, 570 C.E. Muhammad's spiritual transformation at age forty • Spread of new foods and industrial crops There was only one true god, Allah ("the god") • Industrial crops became the basis for a Allah would soon bring judgment on the world thriving textile industry The archangel Gabriel delivered these revelations to • Increasing agricultural production Muhammad contributed to the rapid growth of cities The Quran ("recitation")--holy book of Islam • The formation of a hemispheric trading Followers compiled Muhammad's revelations zone Work of poetry and definitive authority on Islam • Trade revived silk roads His teachings offended other believers, especially the • Umayyad and Abbasid rulers maintained ruling elite of Mecca roads for military and administration Under persecution, Muhammad and followers fled to • Overland trade traveled mostly by camel Medina, 622 C.E. caravan Muhammad called himself the "seal of the prophets"- • Arab and Persian mariners borrowed the -the final prophet of Allah compass from the Chinese Held Hebrew scripture and New Testament in high • Borrowed the lateen sail from southeast esteem Asian and Indian mariners Determined to spread Allah's wish to all humankind • Borrowed astrolabe from the Hellenistic He and his followers conquered Mecca, 630, and mariners imposed a government dedicated to Allah • Banks operated on large scale and Destroyed pagan shrines and built mosques provided extensive services The Ka'ba was not destroyed; it became site of • Letters of credit,functioned as bank checks pilgrimage in 632 • The organization of trade The Five Pillars of Islam, or obligations taught by • Entrepreneurs often pooled their resources Muhammad in group investments Islamic law: the sharia, inspired by Quran Detailed guidance on proper behavior in almost every aspect of life 600 C.E. – 1450 Social: • The Quran enhanced security of women, but enforced male domination. • Adopted veiling of women from Mesopotamia and Persia • Women's rights provided by the Quran were reduced through later interpretations • Ulama, qadis, and missionaries were main agents • Education also promoted Islamic values • Sufis, or Islamic mystics were the most effective missionaries • Encouraged devotion to Allah by passionate singing or dancing • Sufis led ascetic and holy lives, won respect of the people • Encouraged followers to revere Allah in their own ways • Tolerated those who associated Allah with other beliefs • Pilgrims helped to spread Islamic beliefs and values Interactions: • Islam and the cultural traditions of Persia, India, and Greece • Persian influence on Islam was most notable in literary works • Administrative techniques borrowed from Sasanids • Ideas of kingship: wise, benevolent, absolute • Indian influences: Adopted "Hindi numerals," which Europeans later called "Arabic numerals,“ as well as algebra and trigonometry • Greek influences: Muslims philosophers especially liked Plato and Aristotle. Ibn Rushd turned to Aristotle in twelfth century • Ibn Battuta (1304-1369) was a Moroccan Islamic scholar who served as qadi to the sultan of Delhi • He consulted with Muslim rulers and offered advice on Islamic values • Missionary campaigns: Sufi missionaries (Muslim) visited recently conquered or converted lands • Cultural exchanges included science, ideas, art, and music • New technology spread by travelers and facilitated their travel--for example, magnetic compass • New crops introduced to sub-Saharan Africa by Muslims: citrus fruits, rice, cotton • Sugarcane originated in southwest Asia and north Africa • Introduced to Europeans during the crusades • Sugarcane plantations spread all over the Mediterranean basin • Plantations operated through slave labor, Muslim captives, and Africans 1450-1750 Political: • The Ottoman empire (1289-1923) was founded by Osman Bey in 1289, who led Muslim religious warriors (ghazi) • Ottoman expansion into Byzantine empire: seized city of Bursa, then into the Balkans • Organized ghazi into formidable military machine • Central role of the Janissaries (slave troops) • Effective use of gunpowder in battles and sieges • Mehmed the Conqueror (reigned 1451-1481) captured Constantinople in 1453; it became Istanbul, the Ottoman capital • Absolute monarchy; centralized state • Suleyman the Magnificent • Suleyman the Magnificent expanded into southwest Asia and central Europe. Suleyman also built a navy powerful enough to challenge European fleets • The Safavids, Turkish conquerors of Persia and Mesopotamia • Battle of Chaldiran (1514) • Sunni Ottomans persecuted Shiites within Ottoman empire • Qizilbash were crushed by Ottomans at Chadiran • Shah Abbas the Great (1588-1629) revitalized the Safavid empire; modernized military; sought European alliances against Ottomans • The Mughal empire • Aurangzeb (1659-1707) • Expanded the empire to almost the entire Indian subcontinent • Revoked policies of toleration: Hindus taxed, temples destroyed • His rule troubled by religious tensions and hostility • All three Islamic empires were military creations • Authority of dynasty derived from personal piety and military prowess of rulers • Devotion to Islam encouraged rulers to extend their faith to new lands • Dynastic decline caused by negligent rulers, factions, and government corruption 1450-1750 • Ottoman forces behind European armies in strategy, tactics, weaponry, training. Janissary corps became politically corrupt, undisciplined • Provincial governors gained power, private armies • Extensive territorial losses in nineteenth century • Egypt gained autonomy after Napoleon's failed campaign in 1798 • Egyptian general Muhammad Ali built a powerful, modern army • Ali's army threatened Ottomans, made Egypt an autonomous province • Attempt to reform military led to violent Janissary revolt (1807-1808) • Reformer Mahmud II (1808-1839) became sultan after revolt • When Janissaries resisted, Mahmud had them killed; cleared the way for reforms • He built an European-style army, academies, schools, roads, and telegraph • Legal and educational reforms of the Tanzimat ("reorganization") era (1839-1876) • Ruling class sought sweeping restructuring to strengthen state • Broad legal reforms, modeled after Napoleon's civic code • State reform of education (1846), free and compulsory primary education (1869) • Undermined authority of the ulama, enhanced the state authority • Opposition to Tanzimat reforms: • Religious conservatives critical of attack on Islamic law and tradition • Legal equality for minorities resented by some, even a few minority leaders • Young Ottomans wanted more reform: freedom, autonomy, decentralization • High-level bureaucrats wanted more power, checks on the sultan's power • The Young Turk era • Cycles of reform and repression • 1876, coup staged by bureaucrats who demanded a constitutional government • New sultan Abd al-Hamid II (1876-1909) proved an autocrat: suspended constitution, dissolved parliament, and punished liberals • Reformed army and administration: became source of the new opposition • The Young Turks, after 1889, an active body of opposition • Called for universal suffrage, equality, freedom, secularization, women's rights • Forced Abd al-Hamid to restore constitution, dethroned him (1909) • Nationalistic: favored Turkish dominance within empire, led to Arab resistance • The empire survived only because of distrust among European powers 1450-1750 Economic: • Food crops the basis of all three empires major crops: wheat and rice • Imports of coffee and tobacco very popular • Population growth in the three empires less dramatic than in China or Europe • Significant population growth in India from more intense agriculture • Less dramatic growth in Safavid and Ottoman realms • Long-distance trade important to all three empires • Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century • Less trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin • Exported raw materials, imported European manufactured goods • Heavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interest • Economic difficulties began in seventeenth century • Less trade through empire as Europeans shifted to the Atlantic Ocean basin • Exported raw materials, imported European manufactured goods • Heavily depended on foreign loans, half of the revenues paid to loan interest • Foreigners began to administer the debts of the Ottoman state by 1882 • The "capitulations": European domination of Ottoman economy • Extraterritoriality: Europeans exempt from Ottoman law within the empire • Could operate tax-free, levy their own duties in Ottoman ports • Deprived empire of desperately needed income Religious: • Religious diversity created challenges to the rule of the empires • Akbar tolerated Sikhism, a new faith combining elements of Hinduism and Islam • Advocated syncretic "divine faith," emphasizing loyalty to emperor • Religious minorities generally tolerated in Islamic states 1450-1750 • Interactions: • Ottoman and Safavid empires shared segments of the east-west trade routes • Safavids offered silk, carpets, and ceramics to European trading companies • The Mughal empire less attentive to foreign or maritime trading • Mughals permitted stations for English, French, and Dutch trading companies • In Ottoman empire, conquered peoples protected, granted religious and civil autonomy in their own communities • In India, the Muslim rulers closely cooperated with Hindu majority • Art: • All emperors sponsored arts and public works: mosques, palaces, schools, hospitals, etc. • The Suleymaniye blended Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements • Fatehpur Sikri, Mughal capital, created by Akbar • Combined Islamic style with Indian elements • The Taj Mahal, exquisite example of Mughal architecture 1914-Present Political: • Ottoman Empire dissolves after WWI in 1923 • Turkey becomes independent country in 1923 led by Atta Turk who created a republic • Eastern Question Solved after Ottoman Empire dissolves. • Middle Eastern states made UN mandates • England sends Jews to Palestine after WWII to create a Jewish state. (Israel) • Arab states surrounding Israel attempt to retake the territory that was taken from them. • Dictators come to power, such as Sadam Hussein (Iraq) and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Iran) Economic: • At beginning of time period economy is bad because Europe doesn’t need to trade through the Middle East. • Suez Canal facilitates quicker trade between Mediterranean and Indian Ocean. • Modern Economy is primarily based on oil, as they have over half the world’s oil reserves. Religious: • Islam is divided into sects such as Sunni’s and Shia’s • In Iraq, there was genocide against the Shia’s by Sadam Hussein and his government. Social: • Sunni’s are the dominant sect of Islam, 9 out of every 10 Muslim’s are Sunni • Israelis are hated by most of Middle East Interactions: • Ottomans are defeated in WWI which eventually leads to their demise. • 1967 – 6 day war, Israel captures Gaza Strip and West Bank • 1973- Egypt and Syria invade during Yom Kippur, are beaten in 20 days. • 1980-1988- Iran Iraq War, sparks Shia insurgency on border. • 1992- peace treaty is signed between Israelis and Arabs.