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AKS 33 ppt Byzantium by niusheng11


									Essential Question/ Warm-up

   Give two – three examples of empires or
    countries that have become very powerful
    and then collapsed. Why do you think this
AKS 33: Analyze the importance of the
Byzantine and Mongol empires
between 450 CE and 1500
   What was the Byzantine Empire? (PAGE
   It was the Eastern part of the Roman
    Empire, with Byzantium, or
    Constantinople, as its capital
From which half of the Roman Empire was the
         Byzantine Empire created?
What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire?
       How did the city get its name?
Constantinople (formerly Byzantium); it was
named after the emperor Constantine, who
      made it the capital in A.D. 330

For how long after the collapse of the “Western
Roman Empire” did the Byzantine Empire last?
            Nearly 1,000 years
            . Whowas Justinian?
  A high-ranking Byzantine nobleman who
succeeded his uncle to the throne in 527 A.D
   What was the Justinian Code? List the four „works‟
    that made up the code and what each was.
   A single, uniform code of Roman civil law
    collected and organized by order of Justinian.
     The Code: 5,000 Roman laws still considered
    useful from the old Western Roman Empire
     The Digest: Summary of opinions of Rome’s
    greatest legal thinkers – 50 volumes
     The Institutes: Textbook that told law students
    how to use the code
     The Novellae: New laws passed after 534 A.D.
   List the different areas of Byzantine
    life that the Justinian Code
   Marriage, slavery, property,
    inheritance, women’s rights, and
    criminal justice
   For how long did the Justinian Code
    serve the Byzantine Empire?
   900 years
   Who was
    Theodora? What
    was her political role
    within the Byzantine
   Justinian’s wife;
   She met with
    foreign envoys,
   wrote to foreign
   passed laws,
   and built churches.
Closing Question and Assignment
 Do you think Justinian was a
  good ruler? Why or Why not? Use
  your notes to support your
 Assignment: Workbook pg. 38
   Essential Question
 Do you think Justinian was a good
  ruler? Why or Why not? Use your
  notes to support your answer.
 Should religion shape/ dictate how
 society is run? Does religion
 shape/ dictate society today?
   Why was church-
    building such an
    important part of
   It was a visible sign
    of the close
    between church
    and state and it
    was also a good
    way to impress
    foreign powers.
   Why had Christianity
    begun developing
    differently in the
    Western and Eastern
    Roman Empires?
   Mainly due to the
    distance and lack of
    contact between the
    two regions
   What‟s the term used to
    describe the leading
    bishop of the Church in
    the Byzantine Empire?
   Patriarch
   What is the Hagia
    Sophia? Why is it
    considered such an
    important part of
    Byzantine religion?
   A church rebuilt
    by Emperor
    Justinian; it could
    impress or
    intimidate those
    he governed, it
    showed the
    between church
    and state
   Describe Constantinople‟s
    “Mese.” List three continents from
    which products were sold at the
   It meant “Middle Way” and was
    the main street running
    through Constantinople;
   products from Asia, Africa, and
    Europe were sold there.
   How were
    Slavic people
    introduced to
    from the
    brought it
   Explain the impact that active trade
    between Byzantines and Slavs had
    on the development of Russian
   As the Byzantines traded with the
    Slavs, the Slavs began absorbing
    many Greek Byzantine ways.
   It was this blending of Slavic and
    Greek cultures that eventually
    produced the Russian culture.
   Which present-day Russian city did
    Viking Chief Rurik found in 862 A.
    D.? Novgorod
   Why was Kiev‟s geographic location
    important to trade between Russians
    and Byzantines?
   It was located on the Dnieper River,
    which ran south to the Black Sea,
    where access to Constantinople
    allowed them to trade for goods
Rurik the Viking
   Why did the line between Viking and Slavic cultures
    eventually vanish?
   As Kiev grew into a principality, Viking nobles
    intermarried with their Slavic subjects and
    adopted many aspects of Slavic culture.
   Which Kievan princess visited Constantinople in 957
    and converted to Orthodox Christianity, beginning
    the process by which Kiev would become Orthodox?
    (PAGE 307)
   Princess Olga
   In what year did Kiev officially adopt Eastern
    Orthodox Christianity? Who was the ruler of Kiev
    during the conversion?
   989; Vladimir
Princess Olga
St. Vladimir
    The birth of the Czars
   Which Russian ruler was the first to
    use the title „czar‟ while ruling?
   Ivan III
   What does the term „czar‟ mean?
    What connection does it have with
    the Roman Empire?
   Russian version of “Caesar”;
    Caesar was the name given to the
    emperors of Rome.
Ivan the Great or Ivan III
 Do you think religion can cause more
  harm than good or vice versa?
 Assignment: Pages 308-310 #‟s 1 & 2
  on each page. 6 questions total,
  please answer them in complete
   Essential Question
 How can a difference in opinion
  cause/create/start a conflict?
 What are some major topics in society
  that people disagree on?
Define the role of Orthodox
Christianity and the Schism
   What are icons? Why was there a
    controversy over their use within the early
    Christian Church?
   Religious images used by Eastern
    Christians to aid their devotions;
   Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire
    banned the use of icons because he
    viewed it as idol worship.
The Great Schism
    The great division of the Catholic Church
   Why did Pope Leo IX and the Byzantine Patriarch
    Michael I excommunicate each other in 1054?
   Differences between the Eastern and Western
    church continued to grow, but a dispute over
    religious doctrine caused the pope and
    patriarch to excommunicate each other.
   What was the official name given the Christian
    Church in the Byzantine Empire after if officially
    split from the Western Church?
   Orthodox Church, or Eastern (Greek)
    Orthodox Church
Pope Leo IX
Patriarch Michael I
Can you tell the difference?
Can you tell the difference?
What kind of church is this?
    Close & Chart assignment
   Complete the chart in your packet by using your
    textbook. If you do not finish in class this will be
   The chart can be found on page 305
   After completing the chart answer the following
   1. Define one HUGE difference b/w the two
    Catholic churches
   2. Where are the heads of each church located?
   3. State your opinion on if you think the churches
    should have split.

    The Eastern Orthodox faith, whether Greek, Russian,
    Romanian, or a number of other expressions, is one faith, one
    Church. Orthodoxy is often characterized as those Christians in
    communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, rather than
    with the Pope of Rome.
    The Holy Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church and the
    Roman Catholic Church were one Church for the first millenium
    of Christianity, so there are many similarities. Common to both
    are most of the points of the Nicene Creed * belief in the Holy
    Trinity - Father, Son and Holy Spirit
    * the divinity of Jesus Christ
    * the Virgin Birth
    * the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ
    * the ascension of Christ into heaven
    * the future return of Christ and the creation of his everlasting
    * eternal life
   Similar also are
    * the structure of church governance (a hierarchy
    of of various ranks and responsibilities of bishops,
    a priesthood, and a diaconate)
    * the change of communion bread and wine into
    the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ
    * baptism in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy
    * liturgical worship forms
    * the major sacraments (baptism, marriage,
    ordination, confession, etc.)
    * male-only clergy
    * only celibates may become bishops
Beliefs have become different in some areas over the
  years. The chief differences, and those which
  precipitated the split between Orthodox Christianity and
  Roman Catholicism, commonly called the Great Schism
  of 1054:
  Orthodoxy believes
  * the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (Nicene Creed
  and John 15:26)
  * the patriarchs of the various churches have no ruling
  bishop over them all, always having been organized by
  councils/synods of bishops
  Roman Catholicism believes
  * the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son
  (an addition to the Creed)
  * the Pope of Rome is the presiding bishop over all
Additional post-schism Catholic dogmas,
 required for Catholics to believe, but that have
 never been Orthodox dogmas:
 * purgatory
 * infallibility of the Pope
 * the immaculate conception of Mary

 There are addition differences in practice that
 aren't quite dogma:
 * Married men may become deacons and priests in
 the Orthodox Church
 * Orthodox fasting practices are more severe
 * Orthodoxy uses the Greek Septuagint for Old
 Testament, and the original Greek for New.
Essential Question

   Answer this question in your notes packet.
   If a dictator/ general/ ruler invaded your
    homeland would you defend it? Or would you
    seek peace?
   What if the dictator threatened to murder all
    of your neighbors/ family/ friends if you
    decided to fight. Would you still fight? Why?
    Why not?
33g - Evaluate the impact of the
Mongols on the Eurasian Continent
   Who was Genghis Khan? What
    made him want to conquer the
    Islamic regions west of Mongolia
    (Central Asia) between 1211 and
   Mongol clan leader who united
    Mongols under his leadership; He
    was angered by the murder of
    Mongol traders and an
    ambassador at the hands of the
   At its largest, how far did the Mongol Empire
    stretch? (from what country to what country)
   From China to Poland
   What is the Pax Mongolica? How long did it
   Mongol Peace, or period of stability and
    law and order; mid-1200s to mid-1300s
    (about 100 years)
   How was trade between Europe and Asia
    impacted during Mongol domination?
   It had never been more active; ideas and
    innovations traveled along with trade
    goods; many Chinese innovations, like
    gunpowder, reached Europe during this
   Name AT LEAST one positive
    AND one negative effect of
    Mongol consolidation of trade
    routes throughout Eurasia.
   Positive – many goods were
    traded along the routes, along
    with ideas and innovations
   Negative – It is speculated that
    the bubonic plague was first
   Who was Kublai Khan? What
    dynasty did he create after
    conquering China? (PAGE 335)
   Grandson of Genghis Khan,
    called Great Khan,
   controlled the Chinese area of
    the Mongol Empire;
   he created the Yuan Dynasty

   Answer the following questions using your
    textbook and notes. Page 333.
   1. What were some tactics Ghengis Khan
    used in battle?
   2. Using the picture on page 333. Name 3
    things that allowed the Mongol Army to be
   Workbook: pg 42.
Kublai Khan
   Why was the Yuan era an important
    period in Chinese history?
   Kublai united China for the first
    time in more than 300 years;
   control imposed by Mongols
    opened China to greater foreign
    contacts and trade;
   Kublai and his successors
    tolerated Chinese culture and
    made few changes to the system
   Why did the Mongols employ foreigners
    rather than Chinese in high government
   Mongols believed foreigners were
    more trustworthy since they had no
    local loyalties
   Why did foreign trade increase under
    Kublai Khan?
   The Mongol Peace, which made
    caravan routes across Central Asia
    safe for trade and travel
    Marco                    Polo
   Who was Marco Polo and what was his
    relationship to Kublai Khan?
   Venetian trader who traveled by caravan on
    the Silk Roads; he was a government official
    for Kublai
   How did Europeans view Marco Polo‟s account of
    his time in China?
   As a marvelous collection of tall tales – i.e.
    they did not believe a word of it
 Routes   of Marco Polo
This is Marco Polo
   What factors led to the decline and fall of
    the Yuan Dynasty?
   Overexpansion,
   military defeats,
   heavy taxation,
   resentment from Chinese,
    squabbling within family,
    natural disasters,
   corruption,
   ineffective rulers
   Using your knowledge of the Khans answer the
    following question.
   If a Khan invaded your homeland would you
    defend it? Or would you seek peace?
   How would you defend your home against their
   Why did Marco Polo come to Asia?
   Of the factors that led to the fall of the Yuan
    dynasty which one do you think impacted them the
   Assignment: Workbook pages 43.

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