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Essential Question/ Warm-up Give two – three examples of empires or countries that have become very powerful and then collapsed. Why do you think this happened? AKS 33: Analyze the importance of the Byzantine and Mongol empires between 450 CE and 1500 What was the Byzantine Empire? (PAGE 301) It was the Eastern part of the Roman Empire, with Byzantium, or Constantinople, as its capital From which half of the Roman Empire was the Byzantine Empire created? Eastern What was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? How did the city get its name? Constantinople (formerly Byzantium); it was named after the emperor Constantine, who made it the capital in A.D. 330 For how long after the collapse of the “Western Roman Empire” did the Byzantine Empire last? Nearly 1,000 years . Whowas Justinian? A high-ranking Byzantine nobleman who succeeded his uncle to the throne in 527 A.D What was the Justinian Code? List the four „works‟ that made up the code and what each was. A single, uniform code of Roman civil law collected and organized by order of Justinian. The Code: 5,000 Roman laws still considered useful from the old Western Roman Empire The Digest: Summary of opinions of Rome’s greatest legal thinkers – 50 volumes The Institutes: Textbook that told law students how to use the code The Novellae: New laws passed after 534 A.D. List the different areas of Byzantine life that the Justinian Code regulated.) Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women’s rights, and criminal justice For how long did the Justinian Code serve the Byzantine Empire? 900 years Who was Theodora? What was her political role within the Byzantine Empire? Justinian’s wife; She met with foreign envoys, wrote to foreign leaders, passed laws, and built churches. Closing Question and Assignment Do you think Justinian was a good ruler? Why or Why not? Use your notes to support your answer. Assignment: Workbook pg. 38 Essential Question Do you think Justinian was a good ruler? Why or Why not? Use your notes to support your answer. Should religion shape/ dictate how society is run? Does religion shape/ dictate society today? Why was church- building such an important part of Byzantine architecture? It was a visible sign of the close connection between church and state and it was also a good way to impress foreign powers. Why had Christianity begun developing differently in the Western and Eastern Roman Empires? Mainly due to the distance and lack of contact between the two regions What‟s the term used to describe the leading bishop of the Church in the Byzantine Empire? Patriarch What is the Hagia Sophia? Why is it considered such an important part of Byzantine religion? A church rebuilt by Emperor Justinian; it could impress or intimidate those he governed, it showed the connection between church and state Describe Constantinople‟s “Mese.” List three continents from which products were sold at the Mese. It meant “Middle Way” and was the main street running through Constantinople; products from Asia, Africa, and Europe were sold there. How were Slavic people introduced to Eastern Orthodox Christianity? Missionaries from the Orthodox Church brought it Explain the impact that active trade between Byzantines and Slavs had on the development of Russian culture. As the Byzantines traded with the Slavs, the Slavs began absorbing many Greek Byzantine ways. It was this blending of Slavic and Greek cultures that eventually produced the Russian culture. Which present-day Russian city did Viking Chief Rurik found in 862 A. D.? Novgorod Why was Kiev‟s geographic location important to trade between Russians and Byzantines? It was located on the Dnieper River, which ran south to the Black Sea, where access to Constantinople allowed them to trade for goods Rurik the Viking Why did the line between Viking and Slavic cultures eventually vanish? As Kiev grew into a principality, Viking nobles intermarried with their Slavic subjects and adopted many aspects of Slavic culture. Which Kievan princess visited Constantinople in 957 and converted to Orthodox Christianity, beginning the process by which Kiev would become Orthodox? (PAGE 307) Princess Olga In what year did Kiev officially adopt Eastern Orthodox Christianity? Who was the ruler of Kiev during the conversion? 989; Vladimir Princess Olga St. Vladimir The birth of the Czars Which Russian ruler was the first to use the title „czar‟ while ruling? Ivan III What does the term „czar‟ mean? What connection does it have with the Roman Empire? Russian version of “Caesar”; Caesar was the name given to the emperors of Rome. Ivan the Great or Ivan III Close Do you think religion can cause more harm than good or vice versa? Assignment: Pages 308-310 #‟s 1 & 2 on each page. 6 questions total, please answer them in complete sentences. Essential Question How can a difference in opinion cause/create/start a conflict? What are some major topics in society that people disagree on? Define the role of Orthodox Christianity and the Schism What are icons? Why was there a controversy over their use within the early Christian Church? Religious images used by Eastern Christians to aid their devotions; Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire banned the use of icons because he viewed it as idol worship. The Great Schism The great division of the Catholic Church Why did Pope Leo IX and the Byzantine Patriarch Michael I excommunicate each other in 1054? Differences between the Eastern and Western church continued to grow, but a dispute over religious doctrine caused the pope and patriarch to excommunicate each other. What was the official name given the Christian Church in the Byzantine Empire after if officially split from the Western Church? Orthodox Church, or Eastern (Greek) Orthodox Church Pope Leo IX Patriarch Michael I Can you tell the difference? Can you tell the difference? What kind of church is this? Close & Chart assignment Complete the chart in your packet by using your textbook. If you do not finish in class this will be homework. The chart can be found on page 305 After completing the chart answer the following questions. 1. Define one HUGE difference b/w the two Catholic churches 2. Where are the heads of each church located? 3. State your opinion on if you think the churches should have split. . The Eastern Orthodox faith, whether Greek, Russian, Romanian, or a number of other expressions, is one faith, one Church. Orthodoxy is often characterized as those Christians in communion with the Patriarch of Constantinople, rather than with the Pope of Rome. The Holy Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church and the Roman Catholic Church were one Church for the first millenium of Christianity, so there are many similarities. Common to both are most of the points of the Nicene Creed * belief in the Holy Trinity - Father, Son and Holy Spirit * the divinity of Jesus Christ * the Virgin Birth * the crucifixion and resurrection of Christ * the ascension of Christ into heaven * the future return of Christ and the creation of his everlasting kingdom * eternal life Similar also are * the structure of church governance (a hierarchy of of various ranks and responsibilities of bishops, a priesthood, and a diaconate) * the change of communion bread and wine into the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ * baptism in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit * liturgical worship forms * the major sacraments (baptism, marriage, ordination, confession, etc.) * male-only clergy * only celibates may become bishops Beliefs have become different in some areas over the years. The chief differences, and those which precipitated the split between Orthodox Christianity and Roman Catholicism, commonly called the Great Schism of 1054: Orthodoxy believes * the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father (Nicene Creed and John 15:26) * the patriarchs of the various churches have no ruling bishop over them all, always having been organized by councils/synods of bishops Roman Catholicism believes * the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son (an addition to the Creed) * the Pope of Rome is the presiding bishop over all Christianity Additional post-schism Catholic dogmas, required for Catholics to believe, but that have never been Orthodox dogmas: * purgatory * infallibility of the Pope * the immaculate conception of Mary There are addition differences in practice that aren't quite dogma: * Married men may become deacons and priests in the Orthodox Church * Orthodox fasting practices are more severe * Orthodoxy uses the Greek Septuagint for Old Testament, and the original Greek for New. Essential Question Answer this question in your notes packet. If a dictator/ general/ ruler invaded your homeland would you defend it? Or would you seek peace? What if the dictator threatened to murder all of your neighbors/ family/ friends if you decided to fight. Would you still fight? Why? Why not? 33g - Evaluate the impact of the Mongols on the Eurasian Continent Who was Genghis Khan? What made him want to conquer the Islamic regions west of Mongolia (Central Asia) between 1211 and 1225? Mongol clan leader who united Mongols under his leadership; He was angered by the murder of Mongol traders and an ambassador at the hands of the Muslims. At its largest, how far did the Mongol Empire stretch? (from what country to what country) From China to Poland What is the Pax Mongolica? How long did it last? Mongol Peace, or period of stability and law and order; mid-1200s to mid-1300s (about 100 years) How was trade between Europe and Asia impacted during Mongol domination? It had never been more active; ideas and innovations traveled along with trade goods; many Chinese innovations, like gunpowder, reached Europe during this Name AT LEAST one positive AND one negative effect of Mongol consolidation of trade routes throughout Eurasia. Positive – many goods were traded along the routes, along with ideas and innovations Negative – It is speculated that the bubonic plague was first Who was Kublai Khan? What dynasty did he create after conquering China? (PAGE 335) Grandson of Genghis Khan, called Great Khan, controlled the Chinese area of the Mongol Empire; he created the Yuan Dynasty Assignment Answer the following questions using your textbook and notes. Page 333. 1. What were some tactics Ghengis Khan used in battle? 2. Using the picture on page 333. Name 3 things that allowed the Mongol Army to be self-sufficient. Workbook: pg 42. Kublai Khan Why was the Yuan era an important period in Chinese history? Kublai united China for the first time in more than 300 years; control imposed by Mongols opened China to greater foreign contacts and trade; Kublai and his successors tolerated Chinese culture and made few changes to the system Why did the Mongols employ foreigners rather than Chinese in high government offices? Mongols believed foreigners were more trustworthy since they had no local loyalties Why did foreign trade increase under Kublai Khan? The Mongol Peace, which made caravan routes across Central Asia safe for trade and travel Marco Polo Who was Marco Polo and what was his relationship to Kublai Khan? Venetian trader who traveled by caravan on the Silk Roads; he was a government official for Kublai How did Europeans view Marco Polo‟s account of his time in China? As a marvelous collection of tall tales – i.e. they did not believe a word of it Routes of Marco Polo This is Marco Polo What factors led to the decline and fall of the Yuan Dynasty? Overexpansion, military defeats, heavy taxation, resentment from Chinese, squabbling within family, natural disasters, corruption, ineffective rulers Closing Using your knowledge of the Khans answer the following question. If a Khan invaded your homeland would you defend it? Or would you seek peace? How would you defend your home against their army? Why did Marco Polo come to Asia? Of the factors that led to the fall of the Yuan dynasty which one do you think impacted them the most? Assignment: Workbook pages 43.
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