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Networking Essentials (PDF download)

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					Networking Benefits
 Networking Enables:                            Information
                                                  Sharing




    Centralized
   Administration
    and Support
                       Hardware and Software Sharing


                                                              1
Roles of Computers in a Network
                              Mail Server
    Database Server                               Fax Server




           Database



   File and Print Server                     Directory Services
                                                   Server



                           Client Computer




                                                                  2
Types of Networks
 Peer-to-Peer




 Client-Server




                    3
Scope of Networks
 Local Area
 Network




 Wide Area Network




                     4
Bus Topology




               Segment
 Terminator              Terminator




                                      5
Star Topology




                Hub




                      6
Ring Topology




                7
Mesh Topology




                8
Hybrid Topologies
 Star-Bus    Bus




 Star-Ring




                    9
Ethernet
 Transmits signal       Detects signal           Collision detected




     Carrier Sense Multiple Access              Collision Detection

        Characteristics                   Description
       Access Method           CSMA/CD
                               Standard Ethernet – 10 Mbps
       Transfer Speed          Fast Ethernet – 100 Mbps
                               Gigabit Ethernet – 1 Gbps (1000 Mbps)


                                                                       10
Token Ring

                    MSAU
 Physical                                                        Logical
 Ring                                                              Ring




            Characteristics             Description
       Access Method          Token passing

       Transfer Speed         4 to 16 Mbps for all cable types




                                                                           11
Fiber Distributed Data
Interface

                     Secondary Ring


      Primary Ring




   Characteristics                    Description
   Access Method          Token passing

   Transfer Speed         Fiber-optic at 155 Mbps to 622 Mbps




                                                                12
Network Cables
                  Types of Cables


   Twisted-Pair
                                     Unshielded (UTP)
       10BaseT                       Shielded (STP)


   Coaxial                           ThinNet
                  10Base2, 10Base5   ThickNet



   Fiber-Optics



                                                        13
Wireless Communication
DevicesWireless Communication Devices
     Infrared Transmission




     Narrowband Radio Transmission




                                        14
Repeaters and Hubs
                 Repeater
               Transmits data to
           all connected computers


                  Repeater


                    Hub
        Transmits data to all connected
         computers in a star topology



                     Hub




                                          15
Bridges




          Bridge




                   16
Switches



           Switch




                    17
Routers

          Router




          Router




                   18
Gateways

           Ethernet




                      Gateway




                                Token Ring




                                             19
Infrared Data Association (IrDA)
     Wireless Communication by Using IrDA

                             Windows
         Laptop               Client




                  Mouse



                                            20
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model



                  Application Layer

                  Presentation Layer

                    Session Layer

                   Transport Layer

                    Network Layer

                   Data Link Layer

                   Physical Layer


                                                     21
Types of Data Transmissions
  Unicast               Broadcast




            Multicast




                                    22
IP Address Classes

            Network ID                Host ID
  Class A

                  Network ID                 Host ID
  Class B

                         Network ID                Host ID
  Class C

               w               x         y             z


                                                             23
IP Addresses
                         192.168.2.100            192.168.3.100

  IP
  Address     192.168.1.100

192.168.1.0                   192.168.2.0                    192.168.3.0


                                            Network ID


      192.168.1.100      192.168.2.101
                                             Host ID




                                                                           24
Subnets
    Subnet 1                      Subnet 2
               1             2




           Hub     Router   Hub




                                             25
Addressing Guidelines
   The First Number in the Network ID Cannot Be 127



   The Host ID Cannot Be All 255s



   The Host ID Cannot Be All Zeros



   The Host ID Must Be Unique to the Local Network ID



                                                        26
CIDR Notation
 IP                 10 .      217 . 123      .   7
 Address
                 00001010 11011001 01111011 00000111

 Subnet             255 . 255 . 240          . 0
 Mask
                 11111111 11111111 11110000 00000000

 Number of Subnet
 Mask Bits (ones)    8 + 8 + 4 + 0 = 20

 IP Address in
 CIDR Notation      10.217.123.7/20


                                                       27
The Internet
                          Server

                                                Internet
    Text, Audio, Video,
    and Graphics Data



                             Connection Using
                              TCP/IP Protocol




                             Client




                                                           28
Internet Services
   Electronic Mail (e-mail)
   World Wide Web (WWW)
   Chat
   Internet News
                                   Internet
   File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
   Telnet




                                              29
Intranets

     Intranet




                Internet




                Extranet


                           30
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

 URL
 (http://example.microsoft.com/tutorial/
 default.html)
 – Protocol used (http://)
 – DNS address (example.microsoft.com)
 – Path on the server (/tutorial/default.html)


        http://example.microsoft.com/tutorial/default.html


                                                             31
Domain Naming
     Domain Name (example.microsoft.com)
       – Top-level domain (com)
       – Second-level domain (microsoft.com)
       – Subdomain (example.microsoft.com)

                              com


                       microsoft.com


      example.microsoft.com


                                               32
Domain Organization

                                       Forest
                     Domain
                  nwtraders.msft                         Domain

                                                         Tree
                                                Domain            Domain
                      Tree


       Domain                      Domain
namerica.nwtraders.msft   samerica.nwtraders.msft



                                                                           33
Features of a Domain
        Single Logon        Single User Account




   Centralized Management       Scalability




                                                  34
Benefits of a Domain
  Organized                                   Easy Location of
                  Paris
  Objects                                       Information
          Sales           Repair




     User1 Computer1 User2    Printer1


   Streamlined Access                    Delegated Authority




                                                                 35
Internet Protocols

    HTTP           Server

    HTTPS
                                           Internet
    FTP
    SMTP
             Data


    NNTP                        Connection Using an
                                 Internet Protocol
    HTML
    DHTML              Client




                                                       36
TCP/IP Layers


                                         Application
           HTTP           FTP
            Application Layer
                                              Layer

           TCP            UDP
             Transport Layer         Transport Layer


      IP      ICMP IGMP
              Internet Layer   ARP    Internet Layer

                                            Network
        ATM           Ethernet
       Network Interface Layer
                                     Interface Layer



                                                       37
Network Address Translators (NATs)




       192.168.0.10           Web Server    w2.x2.y2.z2


  Web Browser
                            w1.x1.y1.z1
                                           Internet

                      NAT



                                                          38
Proxy Servers
                                Authorized
  LAN
                                Web Site




  LAN                    Internet


          Proxy Server


                                Restricted
  LAN
                                Web Site




                                             39
Firewalls
                             Authorized
 LAN
                                User




 LAN                   Internet


            Firewall


 LAN                        Unauthorized
                               User



                                           40