Great_Migration

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					                The Great Migration
The Great Migration is a term used
                                         Jacob Lawrence
   to describe the mass migration of
   African Americans from the
   southern United States to the
   industrial centers of the Northeast
   and Midwest between the 1910s
   and 1960s.
This event is shown by one of the
   most famous African American
   painters of the 20th century, Jacob
   Lawrence. Lawrence’s Migration
   Series tells the story of the Great
   Migration.
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"Around the time of WWI, many African-Americans from the South left home and
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traveled to cities in the North in search of a better life."
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Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"There was a shortage of workers in Northern factories because many had left their jobs
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to fight in9 First World War."
Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"The factory owners had to find new workers to replace those who were marching off to
war."    9
Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"Northern industries offered Southern blacks jobs as workers and lent them money, to
be repaid7later, for their railroad tickets. The Northbound trains were packed with
recruits." 8
Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"Nature had ravaged the South. Floods ruined farms. The boll weevil destroyed cotton
crops." 7
Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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         had doubled the cost of food, making life even harder for the poor."
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Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"Railroad8stations were so crowed with migrants that guards were called in to keep
order."
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Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"The flood of migrants Northward left crops back home dry and spoil."
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Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) – part I
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"For African-Americans the South was barren in many ways. There was no justice for
         courts, and their lives were often in danger.
them in 10
Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"For African-Americans the South was barren in many ways. There was no justice for
         courts, and their lives were often in danger.
them in 10
Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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“Although slavery had long been abolished, white landowners treated the black tenant
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    farmers harshly and unfairly."
Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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"Although slavery had long been abolished, white landowners treated the black tenant
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        harshly and unfairly."
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Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part I
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"And so the migration grew."
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   Migration
The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part
II
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"Segregation divided the South."
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Jacob Lawrence
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Migration newspapers told of better housing and jobs in the
"The black
North."
Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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"Families would arrive very early at railroad stations to make sure they could get on the
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Northbound trains."
Jacob Lawrence
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Migration
"Early arrival was not easy, because African-Americans found on the streets could be
arrested for no reason."
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Jacob Lawrence
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 The First
Migration Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part II


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    "And the migrants kept coming."
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    Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part II
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"In the South there was little opportunity for education, and children labored in the
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fields."
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Jacob Lawrence
Migration

   The First Wave of the Great
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     Migration (1916-1919) - part II
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   "These were more reasons for people
      to move North, leaving some
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      communities deserted.“
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   Jacob Lawrence
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 Migration
The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part II

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"There was much excitement and discussion about the great
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migration."
Jacob Lawrence
Migration

   The First Wave of the Great
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   Migration (1916-1919) - part II
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   "Agents from Northern factories
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   flocked into Southern counties and
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   towns, looking for laborers."
   Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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"Agents from Northern factories flocked into Southern counties and towns, looking for
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laborers."
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Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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"Families often gathered to discuss whether to go North or to stay South."
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Jacob Lawrence
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 Migration


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"The promise of better housing in the North could not be ignored."
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Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part III
 Migration


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"The railroad stations were crowded with migrants."
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Jacob Lawrence
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The First Wave of the Great Migration (1916-1919) - part III

Migration


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         from
"Letters 13 relatives in the North and articles in the black press protrayed a better life
outside the South."
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Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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Migration


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                                 Jacob Lawrence
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Migration
            "and on the railroads."
               Jacob Lawrence
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     "And the migrants kept coming."
     Jacob Lawrence
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         "And the migrants kept coming."
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                Jacob Lawrence
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"Southern landowners, stripped of cheap labor, tried to stop the migration by jailing the
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labor agents and the migrants."
Jacob Lawrence
Migration


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   "Sometimes the agents
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      disguised themselves
      to avoid arrest, but the
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      migrants were often
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      taken from railroad
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      stations and jailed until
      the trains departed.“
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"Black and white Southern leaders met to discuss ways to improve conditions to stop
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the flow of workers North."
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Jacob Lawrence
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         "Although life in the North was better, it was not ideal."
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"Many migrants moved to Pittsburgh, which was a great industrial center at the time.“
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Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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   "Although they were promised better
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       housing in the North, some
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       families were forced to live in
       overcrowded and unhealthy
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       quarters.“
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"Although they were promised better housing in the North, some families were forced to
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live in overcrowded and unhealthy quarters."
Jacob Lawrence
  Migration

"The migrants soon learned that segregation was not confined to the
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South."
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"Many Northern workers were angry because they had to compete with the migrants for
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housing and jobs. There were riots."
Jacob Lawrence
Migration


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"Many Northern workers were angry because they had to compete with the migrants for
housing14 jobs. There were riots."
        and
Jacob Lawrence
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5

Migration
"Many Northern workers were angry because they had to compete with the migrants for
housing and jobs. There were riots."
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"Longtime African-American
   residents living in the North
   did not welcome the
   newcomers from the South
   and often treated them with
   disdain.“




Jacob Lawrence
Migration


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"The migrants had to rely on each other.
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The storefront church was a welcoming
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place and the center of their lives, in joy
and in sorrow.“
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Jacob Lawrence
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Migration
"Black professionals, such as doctors and lawyers, soon followed their patients and
clients North."
Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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"Female workers
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were among the last
to leave.“ 3
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Jacob Lawrence
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"Life in the North brought many challenges, but the migrants' lives had changed for the
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better. The children were able to go to school, and their parents gained the freedom to
vote.“ 11
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Jacob Lawrence
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"Life in the North brought
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many challenges, but the
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migrants' lives had changed
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for the better. The children
were able to go to school,
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and their parents gained the
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freedom to vote.“
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Jacob Lawrence
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Migration


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      13    "And the migrants kept coming.“
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      15           Jacob Lawrence

				
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