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					Immigration and
Urbanization
                  Coming to America
                                 Daniel Burnham
Urbanization                     The Flatiron Building

• America’s move to town
• Mushrooming cities lured workers by
  the millions from the countryside and
  overseas
• Explosive urban growth
• New cities
   – Birmingham, Los Angeles, Denver, Seattle,       http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/PTGPOD/423533~First-Skyscraper-Flatiron-Building-New-York-Posters.jpg




     Omaha
• Vertical Explosion
   – Steel I-beam framed buildings
   – Louis Sullivan and Daniel Burnham’s
     skyscrapers

                                                     http://cinemaguild.com/mm5/graphics/00000002/tall_miva.jpg




                                                        Louis Sullivan
Urban Growth: 1870 -
       1900




               http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
              City Politics
                                                                                             • Cities used the ward
                                                                                               system. Neighborhoods
                                                                                               organized into political
                                                                                               machines.
                                                                                             • Need for services: transit,
                                                                                               paving, water, sewers,
                                                                                               garbage, lighting, police
                                                                                             • These services often
                                                                                               handled through political
                                                                                               bosses in return for favors
                                                                                               and graft
http://dase.laits.utexas.edu/media/american_politics_collection/viewitem/000117147_400.jpg
 ROLE OF THE POLITICAL BOSS
• The “Boss” (typically
  the mayor) controlled
  jobs, business licenses,
  and influenced the
  court system
• Precinct captains and
  ward bosses were often
  1st or 2nd generation
  immigrants so they
  helped immigrants with
  naturalization, jobs,
  and housing in
  exchange for votes
                             Boss Tweed ran NYC

                              http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
                     Tammany Hall
• Dominated NYC politics from 1850-1930
• William M. Tweed, known as Boss Tweed,
  became head of Tammany Hall, NYC’s
  powerful Democratic political machines
• Between 1869-1871, Tweed led the Tweed
  Ring, a group of corrupt politicians, in
  defrauding the city
• Tweed was indicted on 120 counts of fraud                                     Boss Tweed
  and extortion
• The New York City Courthouse, used for
  Tweed’s graft, remained unfinished in 1872,
  when he was arrested, even though the
  projected $250,000 cost had been exceeded
  by $12 million.

                                         http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
            URBAN PROBLEMS
• Problems in American
  cities in the late 19th and
  early 20th century
  included:
• Housing: overcrowded
  tenements were
  unsanitary
• Sanitation: garbage was
  often not collected,
  polluted air




                                Famous photographer Jacob Riis
                                captured the struggle of living in
                                      crowded tenements
                                          http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
 URBAN PROBLEMS CONTINUED

                                       •   Transportation: Cities struggled to
                                           provide adequate transit systems
                                       •   Water: Without safe drinking water
                                           cholera and typhoid fever was common
                                       •   Crime: As populations increased thieves
                                           flourished
                                       •   Fire: Limited water supply and wooden
                                           structures combined with the use of
                                           candles led to many major urban fires –
                                           Chicago 1871 and San Francisco 1906
                                           were two major fires

Harper’s Weekly image of Chicagoans
  fleeing the fire over the Randolph
         Street bridge in 1871



                                                    http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
Characteristics of Urbanization
During the Gilded Age
  1.   Megalopolis.
  2.   Mass Transit.
  3.   Magnet for economic and social opportunities.
  4.   Pronounced class distinctions.
           - Inner & outer core
  5.   New frontier of opportunity for women.
  6.   Squalid living conditions for many.
  7.   Political machines.
  8.   Ethnic neighborhoods.



                                      http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
Statue of Liberty, 1876
(Frederic Auguste Bartholdi)




                     http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
“Dumbell “ Tenement,
       NYC




               http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
“Dumbell “
Tenement




             http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
Tenement Slum Living




               http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
Urban Population Growth
• In the peak decade of immigration, 1900-
  1910:
   –   40% of urban newcomers were from Europe
   –   30% were rural migrants to cities
   –   22% were newborns
   –   8% were annexed local communities
 New Immigration
• Before 1880 immigrants tended
  to come from northern and
  western Europe.
   – Great Britain, Ireland, and
     Germany
• After 1880 the proportion of
  Latin, Slavic, and Jewish
  peoples from sharply,
  becoming a majority of
  immigration by 1890.
   – Italians, Poles, Hungarians,
     Czechs, Slovaks, Serbs, Croats,
     Slovenes, Russians, Greeks, and
     Romanians
New Immigration
• The search for cheap labor,
  combined with repressive policies
  in eastern Europe prompted this
  trend.
• Politics generally not familiar
  with democracy and political
  rights (Absolute Monarchies)
• Religion generally not
  protestant. (Catholicism, Judaism,
  and Eastern Orthodoxy)
• Language  not only often not
  English speaking, but bringing a
  new group of languages to the
  nation (Greek, Russian, Yiddish,
  Mandarin, etc.)
                                       http://www.upp.gov.cn/upp_web/upp_en/c_en/image/20.jpg
LIFE IN THE NEW LAND
         • In the late 19th century
           most immigrants arrived
           via boats
         • The trip from Europe
           took about a month,
           while it took about 3
           weeks from Asia
         • The trip was arduous
           and many died along the
           way
         • Destination was Ellis
           Island for Europeans,
           and Angel Island for
           Asians

                  http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
     ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK
• Ellis Island was the arrival
    point for European
    immigrants in Steerage
•   They had to pass inspection
    at the immigration stations
•   Processing took hours, and
    the sick were sent home
•   Immigrants also had to
    show that they were not
    criminals, had some money
    ($25), and were able to
    work
•   From 1892-1954, at least 12
    million immigrants passed
    through Ellis Island’s
    facilities


                                  http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
Immigration Wave
• 1907 --Peak
   – In a single day, 11,747 immigrants pass through Ellis
     Island.
   – 1 million that year
• 1924
• The tide of immigrants through Ellis Island
  begins to slow down.




                                                     http://www.weber.k12.ut.us/lists/files/Immigration.ppt
ELLIS ISLAND, NEW YORK HARBOR




                   http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
Notable Ellis Island Entrants



                                                                 http://graphics.fansonly.com/photos/schools/nd/sports/m-footbl/auto_action/a-rockne042104.jpg                  http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=24619&rendTypeId=4

                                                                                                                                                                 Felix Frankfurter--Austria
                                                              Knute Rockne--Norway




  http://www.ellisisland.org/genealogy/irving_berlin_hi.jpg




                                                                                      http://www.musicals101.com/News/jolsonoval.jpg                                 http://www.ellisisland.org/genealogy/bob_hope_vietnam.jpg




Irving Berlin--Russia                                                   Al Jolson--Lithuania                                                                         Bob Hope--England
A Dissenting View
• An Italian immigrant in 1903: "I
  came to America because I had
  heard the streets were paved with
  gold, and I found three things.
  One: The streets were not paved
  with gold. Two: The streets were
  not paved at all. Three: I was
  expected to pave them." "A Nation
  of Strangers" by Vicki Goldbert
  and Arthur Ollman.



                                      http://www.pacificspirit.org/news/uploaded_images/Streets-paved-with-gold-734414.jpg
ANGEL ISLAND, SAN FRANCISCO
             • Asians, primarily
               Chinese, arriving
               on the West Coast
               gained admission at
               Angel Island in the
               San Francisco Bay
             • Processing was
               much harsher than
               Ellis Island as
               immigrants
               withstood tough
               questioning and
               long detentions in
               filthy conditions
                       http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
ANGEL ISLAND WAS CONSIDERED MORE
     HARSH THAN ELLIS ISLAND




                         http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
       Other Groups of Immigrants

• Millions of immigrants entered
  the U.S. in the late 19th and
  early 20th centuries
• Some came to escape difficult
  conditions, others known as
  “birds of passage” intended to
  stay only temporarily to earn
  money, and then return to their
  homeland




                                    http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
                CHINESE
• Between 1851 and 1882, about
  300,000 Chinese arrived on the
  West Coast
• Some were attracted by the
  Gold Rush, others went to
  work for the railroads, farmed
  or worked as domestic
  servants
• The Chinese Exclusion Act by
  Congress curtailed
  immigration after 1882




                                 Many Chinese men
                               worked for the railroads
                                    http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
JAPANESE
 • In 1884, the Japanese
   government allowed
   Hawaiian planters to
   recruit Japanese
   workers
 • The U.S. annexation of
   Hawaii in 1898
   increased Japanese
   immigration to the west
   coast
 • By 1920, more than
   200,000 Japanese lived
   on the west coast
            http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
 THE WEST INDIES AND MEXICO
• Between 1880 and 1920,
  about 260,000 immigrants
  arrived in the eastern and
  southeastern United
  States form the West
  Indies
• They came from Jamaica,
  Cuba, Puerto Rico, and
  other islands
• Mexicans, too, immigrated
  to the U.S. to find work
  and flee political turmoil –
  700,000 Mexicans arrived
  in the early 20th century

                                 http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
The New Immigrant Experience
• Many were greeted by family and friends who had paved
  their way for immigration
• Others were met by rep.’s of immigrations societies
• Others were met by hiring agents offering jobs in mills
  mines and sweatshops
• Ever heard the phrase “fresh off the boat”
• They were subject to exploitation and did not know the
  language and customs in many cases
• In exchange for providing a job, many of these agents to a
  portion of immigrant paychecks
• Among Italians and Greeks these agents were known as
  patrones.
• Other agents provided tickets to their cities such as Buffalo,
  Chicago and St. Louis.
Where did they go?
• Immigrants often developed pipelines into
  certain industries.
• Poles, Hungarians, Czechs and Italians often
  went to coal mines
• Slovaks and Poles often went to steel factories
• Greeks and Jews often went the textile mills
  and the garment industry
Urban Immigration
• The majority of immigrants ended in in the
  teeming cities
• They lived in ethnic enclaves.
• These were transitional communities and they
  were the previous style boundary lines for
  cities (today income is the main divider)
• As immigrants moved into these
  neighborhoods, WASPs moved out
• With them often responsive gov’t left and
  housing quickly becaming over-crowded and
  substandard
Mulberry Street – “Little
         Italy”




                  http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
 Hester
Street –
Jewish
Section



           http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
Chinatown, NYC




            http://www.psja.k12.tx.us/~psjahsSS/powerpoints_us/Late19cUrbanization.ppt
                FRICTION DEVELOPS

•   While some immigrants tried to assimilate
    into American culture, others kept to
    themselves and created ethnic
    communities
•   Committed to their own culture, but also
    trying hard to become Americans, many
    came to think of themselves as Italian-
    Americans, Polish-Americans, Chinese-
    Americans, etc
•   Some native born Americans disliked the
    immigrants unfamiliar customs and
    languages – friction soon developed




                                                Chinatowns are found in many
                                                        major cities
                                                       http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
  IMMIGRANT RESTRICTIONS

                               • As immigration increased, so did
                                 anti-immigrant feelings among
                                 natives
                               • Nativism (favoritism toward native-
                                 born Americans) led to anti-
                                 immigrant organizations and
                                 governmental restrictions against
                                 immigration
                               • In 1882, Congress passed the Chinese
                                 Exclusion Act which limited Chinese
                                 immigration until 1943




Anti-Asian feelings included
    restaurant boycotts
                                         http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
• Rapid urbanization occurred in
  the late 19th century in the
  Northeast & Midwest
• Most immigrants settled in cities
  because of the available jobs &
  affordable housing
• By 1910, immigrants made up
  more than half the population of
  18 major American cities




                                      http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
                 MIGRATION FROM
                 COUNTRY TO CITY

                                      • Rapid improvements in farm
                                        technology (tractors, reapers, steel
                                        plows) made farming more efficient
                                        in the late 19th century
                                      • It also meant less labor was needed to
                                        do the job
                                      • Many rural people left for cities to
                                        find work- including almost ¼
                                        million African Americans



Discrimination and segregation were
     often the reality for African
   Americans who migrated North

                                                 http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
PHOTOGRAPHER JACOB RIIS CAPTURED
IMAGES OF THE CITY




                        http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
         REFORMERS MOBILIZE
•   Jacob Riis was a reformer who through
    his pictures hoped for change– he
    influenced many
•   The Social Gospel Movement preached
    salvation through service to the poor
•   Some reformers established Settlement                                           Jane
    Homes
•   These homes provided a place to stay,
                                                                                  Addams
    classes, health care and other social                                         and Hull
    services                                                                       House
•   Jane Addams was the most famous
    member of the Settlement Movement
    (founded Hull House in Chicago)




                                            http://webzoom.freewebs.com/centralhistory/A%20C%207%20US%20CHAPTER%207.ppt
     CIVIL SERVICE REPLACES
            PATRONAGE

                               •   Nationally, some politicians pushed for
                                   reform in the hiring system
                               •   The system had been based on
                                   Patronage; giving jobs and favors to
                                   those who helped a candidate get
                                   elected
                               •   Reformers pushed for an adoption of a
                                   merit system of hiring the most
                                   qualified for jobs
                               •   The Pendleton Civil Service Act of
                                   1883 authorized a bipartisan
                                   commission to make appointments for
                                   federal jobs based on performance



Applicants for federal jobs
are required to take a Civil
      Service Exam
http://www.worldofteaching.com/powerpoints/history/Immigrants%20in%20America.ppt
http://www.worldofteaching.com/powerpoints/history/Immigrants%20in%20America.ppt
Immigration to the United States, 1870-1900
                                   http://www.thomasloveshistory.com/Chp%2015%20%20Immigration.ppt
http://www.thomasloveshistory.com/Chp%2015%20%20Immigration.ppt

				
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