Pelaporan dan Akuntansi Keuangan Revaluation

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Pelaporan dan Akuntansi Keuangan Revaluation Powered By Docstoc
					  Pelaporan dan
Akuntansi Keuangan
• Probable future economic benefits obtained
  and controlled by a particular entity as a
  result of past transactions or events
Cash, Receivables, and
Financial Instruments
       Financial Instruments
• Financial instrument:
  – Any contract that gives rise to both a financial
    asset of one entity and a financial liability or
    equity instrument of another entity
  – Financial asset and financial liability
     • Financial asset  example: cash, receivables
     • Financial liability  example: long-term debt
• Cash: cash on hand and demand deposits
  with banks or other financial institutions
• Cash equivalents: short-term highly liquid
  investments that are readily convertible to
  known amounts of cash and which are
  subjects to an insignificant risk of changes
  in value
• Trade receivables: amounts due from
  customers for goods sold or services
  performed in the normal course of business
• Notes receivable  written promissory
          Bad Debt Expense
• Proper matching if bad debt expense is
  recorded in the same fiscal period as the
  revenues to which they are related
• Estimation techniques:
  – Percentage-of-sales method
  – Aging method
 Pledging, Assigning, and Factoring
• Pledging: an agreement whereby accounts
  receivable are used as collateral for loans
   Disclosure
• Assignment: more formalized transfer of the asset
  to the lending institution
   Disclosure
• Factoring: outright sale of receivables to a
  financing institution known as factor
   – Transfers of receivables with recourse
            Anjak Piutang
• Jenis pembiayaan dalam bentuk pembelian
  dan/atau pengalihan piutang atau tagihan
  jangka pendek suatu perusahaan yang
  berasal dari transaksi usaha
 Anjak Piutang Tanpa Recourse
• Penjualan piutang atas dasar notifikasi
  – Factor menanggung penuh risiko penagihan
    dan hak menerima pembayaran dari klien
    apabila terjadi kerugian atas piutang alihan
    yang tidak tertagih
• Diperlakukan sebagai penjualan piutang
Anjak Piutang Dengan Recourse
• Klien mempunyai kewajiban membayar
  seluruh atau sebagian dana yang diperoleh
  dari piutang alihan, atau membeli kembali
  piutang alihan, dalam hal nasabah tidak
  membayar piutang alihan tersebut kepada
  factor pada saat jatuh tempo
• Diakui sebagai kewajiban anjak piutang
  sebesar nilai piutang yang dialihkan
• Inventory: items that are held for sale in the
  ordinary course of business; in the process
  of production for such sale; or in the form
  of materials or supplies to be consumed in
  the production process or in the rendering of
      Two Types of Entities
• Merchandising entity  merchandise
• Manufacturer:
  – Raw materials
  – Work in process
  – Finished goods
• Basis for valuation: the lower of cost and
  net realizable value
• Cost flow assumptions:
  – FIFO
  – Weighted-average
          Ownership of Goods
• 4 matters that may cause confusion about
  proper ownership
  –   Goods in transit
  –   Consignment sales
  –   Product financing arrangements
  –   Sales made with the buyer having generous or
      unusual right of return
          Goods in Transit
• Goods are included in the inventory of the
  firm financially responsible for
  transportation costs
  – FOB destination: part of seller’s inventory
    while in transit
  – FOB shipping: part of buyer’s inventory while
    in transit
         Consignment Sales
• Goods out on consignment are properly
  included in the inventory of the consignor
  and excluded from the inventory of
Product Financing Arrangements

• A transaction in which an entity sells and
  agrees to repurchase inventory with
  repurchase price equal to the original sales
  price plus the carrying and financing costs
  – The substance is a borrowing
   Right to Return Purchases
• The sale is to be recorded if the future
  amount of the returns can be reasonably
   Accounting for Inventories
• Two systems:
  – Periodic inventory system
     • The inventory quantity is determined periodically by
       a physical count
  – Perpetual inventory system
     • Keeps a running total of the quantity of inventory on
       hand by recording all sales and purchases as they
     Valuation of Inventories
• The primary basis of accounting for
  inventories is cost
• Cost is defined as the sum of all costs of
  purchase, costs of conversion, and other
  costs incurred in bringing the inventories to
  their present location and condition
 Methods of Inventory Costing
• Specific Identification
• First-In, First-Out (FIFO)
• Weighted-Average
 Methods of Inventory Costing
• Net realizable value:
  – The estimated selling price in the ordinary
    course of business less the estimated costs of
    completion and the estimated costs necessary to
    make the sale
  – If cost exceeds NRV  a loss is recognized
              Rumus Biaya
•   Identifikasi khusus
•   FIFI
•   Rata-rata tertimbang
•   LIFO
    – ED PSAK No. 14 (Revisi 2008): LIFO
Property, Plant, and
• Aset berwujud yang:
  – Dimiliki untuk digunakan dalam produksi atau
    penyediaan barang atau jasa, untuk direntalkan
    kepada pihak lain, atau untuk tujuan
    administratif; dan
  – Diharapkan untuk digunakan selama lebih dari
    satu periode
        Initial Measurement
• All costs required to bring an asset into
  working condition should be recorded as
  part of the cost of the asset
  – Exclude administrative costs
  – Interest cost during construction of certain
  – Decommissioning costs is included
  Cost Subsequent to Purchase or
• To qualify for capitalization, costs must be
  associated with incremental benefits
  – Extend useful life
  – Increase capacity
  – Improve quality of outputs or permits a
    reduction in other cost inputs
• Systematic and rational allocation of the
  depreciable amount of the asset over the
  asset’s expected useful life
• Requires a component approach for
  – Each material component of a composite asset
    with different useful lives or different patterns
    of depreciation is accounted for separately
      Depreciation Methods
• Straight-line
• Accelerated methods
  – Diminishing balance
  – Sum-of-the years’ digits
• Units of production
    Measurement Subsequent to
        Initial Recognition
• Cost model  carried at its cost less any
  accumulated depreciation and any
  accumulated impairment losses
• Revaluation model  fair value
• Fair value: the amount for which the asset could
  be exchanged between knowledgeable, willing
  parties in an arm’s-length transaction
   – Could use depreciated replacement cost approach
• Revaluation adjustments are to be recognized in
  other comprehensive income
   – If a revalued asset is subsequently found to be
     impaired, the impairment provision is first offset
     against the revaluation surplus, and only when that has
     been exhausted is it expensed
• The depreciation should be based on the
  new valuation over the number of
  remaining years of the asset’s useful life at
  the time of the latest valuation
• At each financial reporting date the
  reporting entity should determine whether
  there are conditions that would indicate that
  impairments may have occurred
• Impairment is the excess of carrying value
  over recoverable amount
  – Recoverable amount: net selling price and value
    in use (greater of these two amounts)
  Accounting for Impairments
• Historical cost
  – Recognized as charges against current period
• Revaluation
  – Treated as the partial reversal of a previous
    upward revaluation
     • Any excess impairment should be charged to
• Reversing an impairment loss
   – The increased carrying amount of an asset other than
     goodwill shall not exceed the carrying amount that
     would have been determined (net of amortisation or
     depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised
     for the asset in prior years.
   – A reversal of an impairment loss for an asset other than
     goodwill shall be recognised immediately in profit or
     loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount
 Retirements and Other Disposal

• Both the asset and accumulated depreciation
  should be eliminated
• Assets that have been identified for disposal
   classified as “held for sale”
  – Measured at the lower of the carrying value or
    fair value less cost to sale
     • No longer subject to systematic depreciation
   Nonmonetary Transaction
• The cost of an item of PPE acquired in
  exchange for a similar asset is to be
  measured at fair value
Capitalization of Borrowing Costs
• Borrowing costs eligible for capitalization,
  directly attributable to the acquisition,
  construction or production of a qualifying
  asset, are those borrowing costs that would
  have been avoided if the expenditure on this
  asset has not been made
  – Actual borrowing costs less any investment
    income on the temporary investment of those
Capitalization of Borrowing Costs
• Qualifying assets are those that normally take an
  extended period of time to prepare for their
  intended uses
• 3 conditions must be made before the
  capitalization period should begin:
   – Expenditures for the asset are being incurred
   – Borrowing costs are being incurred
   – Activities that are necessary to prepare the asset for its
     intended use are in progress
  Perolehan Secara Gabungan
• Perolehan tanah dan prasarana-sarana
  secara gabungan, dialokasikan kepada aset
  tetap tanah secara proporsional berdasarkan
  perbandingan nilai wajar aset tetap tanah
  dan aset non tanah
  – Apabila harga tanah amat handal  harga tanah
    ditentukan lebih dahulu, lalu sisanya menjadi
    harga perolehan prasarana dan sarana
        Tanah Sumbangan
• Dicatat berdasarkan nilai wajar lokasi
  setempat dan diakui sebagai Modal Berasal
  dari Sumbangan
           Properti Investasi
• Properti Investasi adalah properti (tanah atau
  bangunan atau bagian dari suatu bangunan atau
  kedua-duanya) yang dikuasai (oleh pemilik atau
  lessee/penyewa melalui sewa pembiayaan) untuk
  menghasilkan rental atau untuk kenaikan nilai
  atau kedua-duanya, dan tidak untuk:
  – Digunakan dalam produksi atau penyediaan barang atau
    jasa untuk tujuan administratif; atau
  – Dijual dalam kegiatan usaha sehari-hari
          Pengukuran Setelah
            Perolehan Awal
• Model nilai wajar
  – Seluruh properti investasi dinilai berdasarkan
    nilai wajar
  – Laba atau rugi yang timbul dari perubahan nilai
    wajar atas properti investasi harus diakui dalam
    laporan laba rugi pada periode terjadinya
• Model biaya
  – Sesuai PSAK No. 16
Intangible Assets
• Aset nonmoneter yang dapat diidentifikasi
  dan tidak mempunyai wujud fisik serta
  dimiliki untuk digunakan dalam
  menghasilkan atau menyerahkan barang
  atau jasa, disewakan kepada pihak lainnya,
  atau untuk tujuan administratif
         Recognition Criteria
• Whether the intangibles asset can be identified
  separately from other aspects of the business
• Whether the use of the intangible asset is
  controlled by the enterprise as a result of its past
  actions and events
• Whether future economic benefits can be expected
  to flow to the enterprise
• Whether the cost of the asset can be measured
    Measurement of the Cost of
• Acquired separately  analogous to that for
• Acquired as part of business combination 
  fair value as at the date of acquisition
 Internally Generated Intangibles

• Goodwill  not recognized as an
• Other than goodwill  research activity or
  development activity:
  – Research  expensed immediately
  – Development  capitalized if meets the
    recognition criteria
  Internally Generated Computer
          Software Costs
• Software-developing company  the cost
  incurred in the development of software programs
  are research and development costs
• Software internally developed for in-house use 
  may need to be expensed
• Purchased software:
   – Software purchase for sale  inventory
   – Held for licensing or rental to others  intangible asset
   – Purchased for own use and which is integral to the
     hardware part of the cost of the hardware
   Subsequent Incurred Costs
• Should be recognized as an expense when
  they incurred unless:
  – It is probable that those costs will enable the
    asset to generate specifically attributable future
    economic benefits on excess of its assessed
    standard of performance immediately prior to
    the incremental expenditure; and
  – Those costs can be measured reliably and
    attributed to the asset reliably
    Measurement Subsequent to
        Initial Recognition
• Cost model  carried at its cost less any
  accumulated amortisation and any
  accumulated impairment losses
• Revaluation model  only for freely
  tradable intangible assets
                 Useful Life
• The accounting for an intangible asset is
  based on its useful life.
  – An intangible asset with a finite useful life is
    amortised and an intangible asset with an
    indefinite useful life is not
               Useful Life
• The useful life of an intangible asset that
  arises from contractual or other legal rights
  shall not exceed the period of the
  contractual or other legal rights, but may be
  shorter depending on the period over which
  the entity expects to use the asset.
        Periode Amortisasi
• Umumnya tidak akan melebihi 20 tahun
• Amortisation methods include the straight-
  line method, the diminishing balance
  method and the unit of production method.
• If it is not possible to identify the pattern in
  which the economic benefits are expected to
  be utilised by the entity, then the straight-
  line method should be used.
• An entity is required to test an intangible
  asset with an indefinite useful life for
• Reversing an impairment loss
   – The increased carrying amount of an asset other than
     goodwill shall not exceed the carrying amount that
     would have been determined (net of amortisation or
     depreciation) had no impairment loss been recognised
     for the asset in prior years.
   – A reversal of an impairment loss for an asset other than
     goodwill shall be recognised immediately in profit or
     loss, unless the asset is carried at revalued amount
• An impairment loss recognised for goodwill
  shall not be reversed in a subsequent period.
     Web Site Development and
         Operating Costs
• Represent an internally generated intangible
• Have been likened to “development phase”
• Sewa adalah suatu perjanjian dimana lessor
  memberikan hak kepada lessee untuk
  menggunakan suatu aset selama periode
  waktu yang disepakati
            Klasifikasi Sewa
• Suatu sewa diklasifikasikan sebagai sewa
  pembiayaan jika sewa tersebut mengalihkan secara
  substansial seluruh risiko dan manfaat yang terkait
  dengan kepemilikan aset
• Suatu sewa diklasifikasikan sebagai sewa operasi
  jika sewa tidak mengalihkan secara substansial
  seluruh risiko dan manfaat yang terkait dengan
  kepemilikan aset
         Sewa Pembiayaan
• Lessee mengakui sewa pembiayaan sebagai
  aset dan kewajiban sebesar nilai wajar aset
  sewaan atau sebesar nilai kini dari
  pembayaran sewa minimum, jika nilai kini
  lebihrendah dari nilai wajar
• Kebijakan penyusutan untuk aset sewaan harus
  konsisten dengan aset yang dimiliki sendiri
• Jika terdapat kepastian yang memadai bahwa
  lessee akan mendapatkan hak kepemilikan pada
  akhir masa sewa  penyusutan selama umur masa
  manfaat aset tersebut
• Jika tidak terdapat kepastian yang memadai bahwa
  lessee akan mendapatkan hak kepemilikan pada
  akhir masa sewa  disusutkan selama periode
  yang lebih pendek antara masa sewa dan umur
  manfaat aset sewaan

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