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St Neots CC Physics AS Antonine AQA Physics A Scheme of Work AS Level 1 St Neots CC Physics AS Notes This is a working document and activities are not “set in stone”. Please feel free to alter things to your requirements. It may be necessary to carry material over from one lesson to a later lesson. The scheme of work is structured in a table with the following headings: Lesson – Each lesson is given a code corresponding to the section title, which is shown on the outer top corner of each page in the Student Book. It is also given a number, e.g. HFS 5. Objective – Each lesson has objectives set which correspond to the achievements for each section. Other objectives are also set which reflect on the purpose of the lesson. Main Activity – These are the activities to support the learning objectives. While these are generally the activities from the book and the support folder, I have added in supplementary activities where I felt they would benefit the students. Learning Outcomes – These are differentiated to: o ALL MUST: Outcomes that are of Low Demand that must be achieved by all students including the weakest. They tend to focus on lower level skills like recall. Students who achieve only these outcomes are likely to achieve only the lowest grades, for example a Grade E. o MOST SHOULD: Outcomes that are of Middle Demand that should be achieved by most students in order to be sure of achieving a Grade C. o SOME COULD: Outcomes that are of High Demand. These require higher order thinking skills and the highest achieving students could attempt to boost their confidence. Students who regularly tackle these tasks are most likely to achieve a Grade A or Grade A*. Resources – These are lists of book references, activity sheets, computer materials that will complement the learning. Assessment & Homework – Student progress will be monitored using the exercises suggested. These can be done in class or at home. The routine expectation is that all students will spend at least the same time doing homework as taken by the classwork. Health & Safety – All activities are intended to comply with departmental policies on Health and Safety. Students are expected to comply with normal laboratory rules. Where there are specific concerns, these are written in bold type. This SoW is based on Johnson Physics for You. References are made to this book. They will also be provided with a Physics Guide. Homework assignments are suggested. Many of these are from the book, but past questions on particular topics can also be used. Coursework The PHYA3 coursework consists of two elements: Practical Skills Assessments. Practical work that lends itself particularly easily to this is indicated in the scheme of work. Investigative Skills Assignment. In this scheme of work there is allocated time for a mock ISA in the electricity section. The ISA is set by the Board, and I would suggest that the real thing should be done soon after the first unit examination. 2 St Neots CC Physics AS Induction Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety IND 1 To understand the Welcome students to the ALL MUST: Be aware of the Physics guide Read through the None nature of the A level course. nature of the course and Induction sheet Physics Guide. course. Ask what their hopes and understand that it is much more Get a calculator! To review the course aspirations are. demanding than GCSE guide. Issue the Physics guide and get To consider symbols students to read it. and units. Discuss any questions that arise. Start on the induction sheet. IND 2 To revise standard Review standard form. ALL MUST: Recall how to use Induction sheet Complete the formulae None form and to use a Discuss common mistakes in standard form and enter it on transposition calculator. calculator use. their calculator To learn how to Do and discuss questions on transpose formulae the worksheet. IND 3 To learn how to Work through the presentation ALL MUST: Present data in Induction sheet. Student responses. None present data in tabular of data in a table. (Not done tables and plot them as a graph. Take in marks for the and graphical forms. much at GCSE). MOST SHOULD: Extrapolate, induction sheet. Then review the presentation interpolate, find the gradient. of data in graphs. Recognise that straight lines Discuss interpolation, follow the form y = mx + c. extrapolation, finding the SOME COULD: Consider non gradient, finding the area, linear functions, e.g. sine waves proportionality, parabolas, hyperbolas, anomalous results. Try some examples. IND 4 To learn Physics Do bouncing spring ALL MUST: Attempt the Induction experiment Student response to the None practical skills experiment. Focus on: experiment and harvest data. Slotted masses, springs, experiment. Accurate measurement; Present in a neat table. clamp stands, Reducing errors; MOST SHOULD: Plot the data stopwatches. Writing down results; on a graph. Identifying patterns; SOME COULD: Consider the Answering questions. uncertainties. 3 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety IND 5 To learn about Discuss what is meant by a ALL MUST: Recall the basics Salters Horner’s Student response None spreadsheet modelling model. of Excel spreadsheets. Spreadsheet exercise. Conclude that a model is a MOST SHOULD: Produce a Computers in S10 or way of explaining a physics spreadsheet and a graph. laptops. relationship. SOME COULD: Try out a Discuss spreadsheets as a different formula to model. powerful tool in modelling physics formulae. Start the spreadsheet modelling exercise. IND 6 To complete the Continue with the spreadsheet ALL MUST: Recall the basics Salters Horner’s Student response. None spreadsheet modelling. of Excel spreadsheets. Spreadsheet exercise. Revise for test. modelling. MOST SHOULD: Produce a Computers in S10 or spreadsheet and a graph. laptops. SOME COULD: Try out a different formula to model. IND 7 To assess student Test on Induction. Test on Physics Induction Student response. None understanding of Run through the test with material covered so students to pick up areas of far. difficulty. To identify areas of difficulty To identify students who may benefit from extra support. 4 St Neots CC Physics AS Unit 1 Particles, Quantum Phenomena, and Electricity Part 1 Particles and Radiation Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety PAR 1 To learn about the Discuss the structure of the ALL MUST: Recall the Johnson pp 330 – 331. Student response None constituents of the nuclear atom. structure of atoms and ions. Student notes. atom. Compare the properties of the Recall that charge of atoms is To understand terms proton, electron, and neutron. normally neutral. like neutron, proton, Discuss positive and negative MOST SHOULD: Explain that electron, ion. ions. the element is determined by the To present nuclides in Present nuclides in terms of proton number. A proton and mass number. Use SOME COULD: Realise that form Z X A more neutrons are needed in the form Z X where A is the large atoms to ensure that they nucleon number and Z is the are stable. proton number. Do NOT go into the atomic mass unit PAR 2 To review radioactive Review alpha, beta, and ALL MUST: Recall that an Johnson pp 334 – 335 Student response Radioactivity decay. gamma radiations from GCSE. alpha particle is a helium Radioactivity kit sources to be To learn the properties Discuss what is meant by nucleus, a beta particle is a high Detection and Uses of handled with of ionising radiations ionising radiation. speed electron and gamma rays radiation from Phyzzing care. Go through rules for handling are very short length Physics (Folder 2) ionising sources. electromagnetic waves. Demonstrate the penetration of MOST SHOULD: Explain that each kind of radiation.. alpha particles are very ionising Show how the radiations are while beta is less so. deflected by magnetic fields. SOME COULD: Link ionising How could you get a pure power with biological damage gamma source? Students draw up a table on the properties of ionising radiations. 5 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety PAR 3 To learn about the Discuss why the nucleus does ALL MUST: recall that the Johnson pp 338 – 339. Questions on alpha, None stability of nuclei. not fly apart. It’s held together range of the strong nuclear force Student notes beta, and gamma To understand the by the strong nuclear force. is very small, about 3 fm. Alpha, Beta, and Gamma radiations. strong nuclear force. Describe the characteristics of MOST SHOULD: Explain the Radiation from Phyzzing To recognise the the strong nuclear force. mechanisms for alpha, beta, and Physics (Folder 2) equations for alpha Discuss what happens in alpha gamma production. and beta minus decay decay. Write the equation in SOME COULD: Consider the A 4 the form Z X Z 2Y 2 He energies involved. A 4 Discuss what happens in beta decay. Write the equation in the form 0 A Z X Z AY 1 e 0 e 1 0 Discuss gamma radiation. Bring in the idea of nuclear energies in eV PAR 4 To learn about matter Develop the idea that energies ALL MUST: Recall that every Johnson pp 358 – 359 Student response. None and antimatter. at the particle level are particle has an antiparticle, e.g. Student notes Produce a table to show To recall that every measured in electron volts. electron-positron. Phyzzing Physics slides the properties of particle has an At this level mass and energy MOST SHOULD: Explain that particles and antiparticle. are interchangeable. mass and energy are considered antiparticles. To explain the concept Each particle has its own to be the same, so we can talk of of annihilation mirror-image, and antiparticle. rest energies. Discuss annihilation between SOME COULD: Link the mass electron and positron to and the energy with E = mc2. produce gamma rays. Also pair production. Consider how it’s possible to make anti-atoms. 6 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety PAR 5 To understand the Discuss the wave model of ALL MUST: Recognise and use Johnson pp 164 – 167. Student response. Do not stare photon model of light. the photon energy equation. Electroscope, zinc, Questions on E = hf. at UV source electromagnetic Discuss the evidence of light MOST SHOULD: be able to polythene rod, cloth, UV or laser radiation. as a particle. explain light as a particle and source, Laser source. To recognise the Watch video from S103 (disc wave. equation 2 Uncertain Principles) SOME COULD: Explore the hc Demonstrate the Photoelectric significance of light as a E hf effect. particle. Introduce the equation To introduce students Worked examples on the to Quantum theory. equation PAR 6 To understand that What is the smallest thing that ALL MUST: recall that particles Johnson pp 170 – 171 Questions on simple None particles have wave you can resolve? Rayliegh’s have wave-like properties. S103 video Hidden quantum theory properties. Criterion. MOST SHOULD: explain how Visions. To learn how Watch S103 video. the wavelength is related to the Phyzzing Physics Folder physicists have probed Discuss de Broglie’s notion particle momentum. 1 Dual nature of Matter. the heart of matter. that waves can be particles, SOME COULD: research into To recognise the it’s entirely reasonable for how these ideas have led to the h particles to have wave development of the electron equation properties. microscope. mv Discuss de Broglie’s equation and do worked examples. To resolve small objects like atoms, you can use X-rays, or electrons. Electrons can resolve to the level of atoms. 7 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety PAR 7 To understand the Discuss how quarks were ALL MUST: Recall that the Johnson pp 362 – 363. Question and answer. None ultra-structure of the discovered by deep inelastic nucleons are made up of quarks. Computers in S10 nucleus. scattering State what they are. To learn about Discuss how protons are made MOST SHOULD: Identify nucleons being made up of uud and neutrons are strange particles and explain up of quarks. ddu. what is meant by strangeness. Discuss the family of quarks SOME COULD: Look at further Tabulate the properties of particles beyond the proton and quarks. the neutron. Consider antiquarks and their part in the antiproton and the antineutron. Go through the mechanism for beta minus decay. The beta plus decay. Do the particle adventure. PAR 8 To learn how particles Go through the family of ALL MUST: Recall the Johnson pp 361 – 363. Johnson p 369 None are classified. leptons. Stress they are difference between lepton and To recognise classes fundamental. Subject to weak hadrons. Recall that hadrons are of leptons and hadrons force. classified as mesons and Define a hadron as a particle baryons. made up of quarks or MOST SHOULD: Apply the antiquarks. Subject to strong conservation rules to assess force. whether interactions can Define mesons and baryons. proceed. Discuss quantum numbers and SOME COULD: Consider need for conservation of strange particles. charge, baryon number, and lepton number for an interaction to take place. Proton is the only stable baryon; neutron on its own decays after 10 minutes. 8 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety PAR 9 To consider the role of Consider the forces that we ALL MUST: Recall the four Johnson p 364. Student response None exchange particles. know. fundamental forces and that Johnson p 369 Q7 To recall that there are Classify these as fundamental these are mediated by exchange just four fundamental forces. particles. forces. Discuss the fundamental MOST SHOULD: Explain how forces in terms of exchange exchange particle work particles. SOME COULD: Explain forces Discuss how exchange like friction in terms of particles are involved in fundamental forces. Assess the simple interactions. evidence that led to these Go through the various conclusions. scenarios of beta – and beta+ decay. Demonstrate these in the form of Feynman Diagrams PAR 10 To consolidate Answer past questions in Johnson p 373 Answer to questions. None learning about Particle Johnson p 373, 25, 26, 27, 29. Individual review. Physics. Run through these and mark with students. Discuss any areas of difficulties PAR 11 To review the Review the photoelectric ALL MUST: Recall that photons Johnson pp 166 – 168. Johnson p 173 3 – 5 None photoelectric effect. effect. have energy dependent on the To recognise the Discuss how bright light can frequency. One photon releases formula be explained in numbers of one photoelectron. hf E k photons per second. MOST SHOULD: explain how Energy of the light is governed the kinetic energy in the by the frequency. equation is the maximum Discuss what happens when a possible and that a certain photon releases a amount of energy is required to photoelectron. Students release the photoelectron. should realise that there is a SOME COULD: Find out how range of photon energies. the maximum kinetic energy is Introduce the equation and do measured. worked examples 9 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety PAR 12 To understand the Review the notion that joules ALL MUST: Recall why Johnson p 165 Johnson p 173 2 – 3. To not touch concept of the electron are far too big a measurement energies are measured in eV. EHT source. volt. at the atomic level. Do calculations to convert one to EHT supply, Perrin tube, Wear To learn about Review energy = charge × the other. safety screen goggles in acceleration of voltage. MOST SHOULD: work out case Perrin charged particles Bring in the electron volt. speed using the kinetic energy. tube through potential Demonstrate acceleration of SOME COULD: assess whether implodes. differences. electrons using the electron ions would follow the same beam tube. model as electrons. Do some worked examples to find out the energies of electrons in joules and eV. Link these with kinetic energy, hence the speed. Do the same for other charged particles, e.g. alpha. PAR 13 To understand about Demonstrate the idea of ALL MUST: Recall that there Johnson pp 180 – 181. Johnson p 186 q 3, 4, 6, No not stare energy levels in fluorescence under UV light. are discrete energy levels and 8. at UV light. atoms. Show that it does not happen that transitions between the Fluorescent materials, UV Do not look To understand the with laser light. levels releases a photon. light, laser. Read pp 184 – 185. into the concept of ground Explain that it’s to do with MOST SHOULD: Calculate the laser. state and ionisation electrons being raised to energy, the frequency, and the To learn about higher energy levels. wavelength of the photons transitions between Introduce the idea of the emitted. energy levels. quantum ladder. SOME COULD: Explain how To link these with Discuss the highest state as absorption spectra occur. ionisation and ionisation and the lowest state excitation of atoms as the ground state. Discuss transitions between energy levels. Introduce and use the equation hf E1 E 2 Link the photon emission to line spectrum. 10 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety PAR 14 To review the wave Review the idea that light has ALL MUST: Recall that light Johnson pp 170 – 171. Read around the topic None and particle duality. particle properties. has particle properties, and that for quantum physics. To calculate the de Assess the evidence for both. particles have wave properties. Broglie wavelengths h MOST SHOULD: Work out the of various particles. Review the equation de Broglie wavelength for a mv range of particles. Compare wavelengths of SOME COULD: Link the different particles and consider electron standing wave ideas to what resolutions they can go the shapes of orbitals in down to. chemical elements Discuss how it is possible to view very tiny objects. Discuss the idea of electron waves (extension only) PAR 15 To review the whole Johnson pp 188 questions3 – Johnson pp 188 – 189. Revise for test on None topic Quantum 5, 9 and 12. whole topic. Physics Run through these with model answers and get students to mark them. PAR 16 To assess student Test on Particle Physics Test paper None understanding of Particle Physics and Quantum Physics PAR 17 To review progress in Run through test. Model answers. None the first topic Students assess themselves on their progress. Students ask questions about areas they are still not clear on. Spend time addressing these weaknesses. 11 St Neots CC Physics AS Part 2 Current Electricity Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety ELE 1 To review the terms Define the basic electrical ALL MUST: Recall current as a Johnson pp 190 – 193 Johnson p 204 2 – 6 Voltage not associated with basic quantities such as current, flow of charge, p.d. as joules per Practical report. to exceed 6 electricity. charge, voltage, and coulomb, and resistance as ratio PowerPoint Phyzzing V. To learn technical resistance. of the p.d. to the current. Physics ELECTRICITY Assessed practical skills in measuring Formal definitions of p.d. as MOST SHOULD: Explain what electrical quantities W the terms mean and how they are Multimeters, voltmeters, V and current as used. fixed value resistors, Q SOME COULD: Devise models power supplies. Q to explain these difficult Potentiometers. I concepts. t V Resistance R I Measure resistance of a resistor, ensuring that the circuit is set up correctly. ELE 2 To review Ohm’s Law Review the voltage current ALL MUST: recall Ohm’s law. Johnson p 198. Read pp 202 – 203. None To understand voltage characteristic of a resistor. Recall the shapes of the graphs. PowerPoint Basic current characteristics. Discuss Ohm’s Law as being MOST SHOULD: Explain the Electricity for Physics Assessed Practical To distinguish valid provided the temperature voltage current characteristics of between ohmic and remains the same. a lamp in terms of collisions Multimeters, voltmeters, non-ohmic Discuss what happens if the between electrons and ions. fixed value resistors, Ray conductors. temperature does not remain SOME COULD: Explain the lamps. the same. action of diodes in terms of Find the voltage current electrons and holes. And use the Diodes, battery backs. characteristic of a lamp. conduction band theory. Do the voltage current characteristic of a diode. 12 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety ELE 3 To understand the Discuss the factors that ALL MUST: recall the Johnson p 197 Practical report. Wire will get concept of resistivity. determine the resistance of a definition of resistivity. Do Assessed Practical. hot. To use the formula wire. calculations using the formula. l Sum these up in the formula MOST SHOULD: Explain how R l the equation applies. A R SOME COULD: Consider the A uncertainties in carrying out a Do worked examples. resistivity experiment. Apply Do experiment to determine equations like the resistivity of constantan wire. Compare with databook R R0 (1 ) value. Discuss applications like super-conductors. Mention qualitatively positive temperature coefficient and negative temperature coefficient. Draw graphs. ELE 4 To practise the Introduce what the practical Specimen paper. Assignment None Practical and skills and investigative Boxes with hidden Investigative Skills in components are. components – diode in Physics Give out the assignment sheet. series with a resistor. Do the assignment under Power supplies, examination conditions voltmeters, multimeters ELE 5 To practise the Do the written paper. (Under Specimen PHYA3 paper Student response to None Practical and examination conditions, examination Investigative Skills in please). component. Physics ELE 6 To review student Go through the paper with Model answers Individual review None performance in the students. ISA paper. Give out model answers. 13 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety ELE 7 To understand energy and Discuss what is meant by ALL MUST: Recognise and Johnson p 200. Johnson p 205 q 9 – 13 None power in electrical circuits. energy. use the equations. Describe To recognise and use Review what electrical power as the rate of using P IV , E VIt , circuits are about, energy. 2 transferring energy about the MOST SHOULD: Derive the V P I R , and P 2 place. equations and apply them to a R Principle that charge is variety of different situations. conserved (i.e. electrons SOME COULD: Plan an don’t leak out of wires). experiment to measure power. Discuss the powers of machines. Go through the power equation. Derive the other versions of the equation. Discuss energy as charge × voltage. ELE 8 To understand series and Review student ALL MUST: recall the Johnson pp 206 – 209. Johnson p216 4 – 8 None parallel circuits. understanding of circuits behaviour of currents and To recognise and use the from GCSE. voltages in series and parallel Multimeters, resistors, equation for series circuits Discuss how in a series circuits. Use the equations. voltmeters, power Rtot R1 R2 R3 ... circuit the current is the same MOST SHOULD: derive the supplies. and the voltages add up. equations from first principles. To recognise and use the Link this to conservation of SOME COULD: Make up equation for parallel energy. combinations of series and circuits: Discuss that in a parallel parallel resistors to find the 1 1 1 1 circuit the currents add up single resistor equivalent. ... while the voltage is the same Rtot R1 R2 R3 across each branch. Link this to conservation of To derive these equations. charge. Derive the equations. Do worked examples. Practical on series and parallel circuits. 14 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety ELE 9 To understand that the Discuss the potential divider ALL MUST: describe the Johnson pp 210 – 211. Johnson p 217 16 – 18. None potential divider is a very circuit in terms of a series potential divider as a voltage useful circuit. circuit. balance. Use the equation. Variable resistors To compare the potential Introduce the equation. MOST SHOULD: Be able to (potentiometers), small divider with a variable Do a worked example. apply the potential divider motors, multimeters. resistor. Show how the resistors can equation using resistive To use the potential divider be fixed value, variable transducers. State when a equation resistors, or even a single potentiometer should be used component. in preference to a variable R2 R R Vout Vin Compare the action of a resistor. 1 2 variable resistor. SOME COULD: derive the Discuss the use of a potential equation from first principles. divider circuit as a voltage balance in electronic circuits. ELE 10 To learn about resistive Discuss the thermistor and ALL MUST: recall that the Johnson p 109 Response to practical None transducers. the LDR. resistance of resistive (Skills assessment) Practical to measure the transducers changes with Thermistor practical. behaviour of the LDR under conditions. LDR practical different light conditions. MOST SHOULD: be able to PowerPoint And the thermistor at describe the behaviour of the different temperatures resistive transducers. SOME COULD: explain how these components work. 15 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety ELE 11 To understand the concept Show the concept of internal ALL MUST: recall that real Johnson p 212 – 213. Johnson p 217 10 – 15. None of internal resistance. resistance by putting a low supplies have an internal To recognise the equation resistor in parallel with a ray resistance. Computers in S10. E lamp. Link this to car MOST SHOULD: be able to and I ( R r ) headlights going dim as you solve problems using the Q operate the starter. internal resistance equation or Introduce the concept of modelling it as a perfect internal resistance. battery in series with an Define EMF as total energy internal resistor. per unit charge. SOME COULD: Research into Then apply the Law of Thevinin’s Theorem that states conservation of energy to the that all supplies, however outside circuit. complicated can be resolved as Model it in terms of a perfect a perfect battery in series with battery in series with an an internal resistor. Also look internal resistor. at load matching. Use spreadsheet modelling to show the behaviour of a battery of a given internal resistance. ELE 12 To reinforce learning about Students are to carry out an ALL MUST: have followed Lab packs, large variable Unit 3 practical skills Resistance internal resistance. experiment to find out the procedures and worked safely. resistors, voltmeters, assessment wires get internal resistance of a power MOST SHOULD: Have ammeters. hot. Switch supply. worked safely without off the guidance or reminders. Have power gained a figure for the internal supply resistance of the power supply. between SOME COULD: extend the readings. investigation to see if the Be careful internal resistance is different especially at at different voltage settings low and account for these. resistance settings. 16 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety ELE 13 To recall that an alternating Review what students know ALL MUST: Recall terms Johnson pp 242 – 243 Student response. Ensure that current changes direction all about mains electricity. associated with alternating Bicycle dynamo there is a the time. Discuss what is meant by an current. Recall that the peak Centre zero voltmeter reverse biased To understand the terms alternating current. voltage is √2 × rms voltage. and ammeter diode across sinusoidal waveform, peak Demonstrate that the dc MOST SHOULD: Be able to DC Motor. the terminals to peak, peak, and root motor goes forward and derive the relationships from AC Motor of the dc mean square. backwards (not very useful). the average power. power supply To use the relationships Demonstrate the ac motor. SOME COULD: Explain why when Show the alternating the universal motor works demonstrating I0 I rms and positive and negative quite well on low voltage DC, the universal 2 voltages from the dynamo. but not so well on low voltage motor on dc. V0 Show a sinusoidal waveform AC (Inductance) Vrms and introduce terms like 2 peak and peak to peak. Discuss rms as the dc equivalent. Then derive it from the average power. Use the equations. ELE 14 To learn that the CRO can Review learning from ALL MUST: Recall that the Johnson pp 244 – 245 Johnson p 249 Q 3 – 5, None be used as a dc or ac previous lesson. CRO can be used as a CRO, AC supply. 7, and 8. voltmeter. Demonstrate the rms voltage voltmeter and ammeter. Computers in S10. To learn how to use its as the dc equivalent voltage. Recall that the time base Tutorial website. controls Demonstrate the CRO using measures the time period, and various voltages and the y-gain measures the frequencies. Stress the voltage. importance of the time MOST SHOULD: Measure period, and the voltage per the period and calculate the cm. frequency of a wave. Interpret Show how it can be used as CRO screens. an ammeter as well as a SOME COULD: Interpret voltmeter. screens of complex Follow through the tutorial waveforms. on the Tomlinscote School website. 17 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety ELE 15 To review learning of Attempt the questions on Johnson pp 274 - 276. Revise for test None electricity pages 274 – 276 2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11 ELE 16 To assess student Test on Current Electricity Test paper Student answers None understanding of Current Electricity and Alternating Currents ELE 17 To review progress in the Run through test. Model Answers Individual review and None second topic Students assess themselves target setting. on their progress. Students ask questions about areas they are still not clear on. Spend time addressing these weaknesses. 18 St Neots CC Physics AS Unit 2 Mechanics, Materials, and Waves Part 1 Mechanics Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety MEC 1 To understand the Review student ALL MUST: Recall that a Johnson pp 10 – 14. Johnson p 15 q 5 – 8. None difference between a scalar understanding of vectors and vector is a quantity with a and a vector. scalars with examples and value and direction. Recall To resolve vectors by units. what quantities are scalars and accurate drawing. Demonstrate how a vector what quantities are vectors. To resolve vectors by can be resolved into MOST SHOULD: resolve trigonometry. horizontal and vertical vectors using both accurate components. drawing techniques and Show how vectors can be trigonometrical functions. resolved using accurate SOME COULD: Write their drawing. own examples. Then do the same using trigonometry. Discuss the advantages of using trigonometrical functions. Consider vehicles on inclined planes MEC 2 To understand the concept Discuss what equilibrium is. ALL MUST: Recall that Johnson pp 22 – 23 Johnson p 104 q 6, 11, Keep weights of equilibrium. Emphasise that the sum of balanced forces result in zero Clamp stands, slotted 12. from To understand the polygon forces is zero. overall force. masses, pulleys, string. dropping on of forces rule for coplanar Describe the importance of MOST SHOULD: Explain feet. forces. statics in structures. how three coplanar forces in Equilibrium also applies equilibrium can be resolved. when objects are moving at SOME COULD: investigate constant speed. more complex situations. Do some worked examples of coplanar forces. Students investigate practically the equilibrium of three coplanar forces 19 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety MEC 3 To understand about the Discuss moments as turning ALL MUST: recall that a Johnson pp 28 – 30. Johnson p 31 2, 3, 5, 6, None turning effect of a force effects of forces. moment is the turning effect 7. Moment = force × of a force. It is measured in Balancing beams, pivots, perpendicular distance. Newton metres. slotted masses. Do examples for different MOST SHOULD: be able to situations. apply the principle of Discuss the idea of a couple. moments to balanced Principle of moments in situations. simple balanced situations.. SOME COULD: Consider Worked examples of why Nm for torque is not the moments. same as Nm (J) for work. Discuss how to find the centre of mass. Consider centre of mass of various regular objects (but do not calculate it from moments) MEC 4 To understand motion in a Discuss the vector nature of ALL MUST: recall the terms Johnson pp 32 – 35 Johnson pp 42 – 43 q None straight line. velocity and acceleration. used in linear motion. Use the Trolleys, runways, ticker 2 – 8. To use the equations Establish the importance of equations. tape, ticker tape timers s v signs. MOST SHOULD: Explain (none of this namby- v and a Discuss distance and what motion graphs are pamby stuff with t t displacement. showing for constant speed computers) . To represent motion Discuss displacement time and constant acceleration. graphically. graphs for constant velocity. SOME COULD: Draw motion Then for velocity that graphs for objects not changes. accelerating in a linear way, Then link these to velocity e.g. a rocket using up fuel. time graphs. Discuss the features of motion graphs. Plot motion graphs using ticker tape. 20 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety MEC 5 To use the equations of Introduce the four equations. ALL MUST: Recognise and Student notes Motion equation None. motion. Describe the terms. use the equations. Johnson pp 36 – 37. questions To link them to speed-time Do worked examples on MOST SHOULD: be able to graphs. how to use them. link the equations to the speed Motion PowerPoint from Link the equations of motion time graph. Phyzzing physics 1 to distance time graphs (but SOME COULD: make up don’t labour it too much). own questions using more Students can make up their complex examples. own examples. MEC 6 To consider objects falling Review the acceleration due ALL MUST: recall that g = Johnson pp 38 – 39 Student practical report None in gravity fields. to gravity. 9.81 m/s2. Outline an Electronic stop clock, To understand the concept Link g to equations of experiment to measure it. electromagnet, 2-way of terminal speed. motion. MOST SHOULD: Substitute switch, trap door. Do experiment to determine g into equations and use it. the acceleration due to SOME COULD: Link g as gravity. acceleration to g as force per Plot the graph of distance unit mass. against time2. g is the gradient. Discuss the motion of a free- fall parachutist MEC 7 To consider the Demonstrate that an object ALL MUST: Recall that Johnson pp 40 – 41. Johnson p 43 9 – 12 None independence of vertical thrown forwards hits the horizontal motion and vertical and horizontal motion of ground at the same time has motion are independent. projectiles one that has dropped MOST SHOULD: Resolve the vertically from the same velocity vectors for a height. projectile fired at an angle. Emphasis that horizontal SOME COULD: Assess the motion remains constant. effect of air resistance. Analyse the change in vertical velocity for different examples. Combine the velocities to make a resultant. 21 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety MEC 8 To understand and apply Discuss what is meant by ALL MUST: Recall the three Johnson pp 44 – 49. Student responses from None Newton’s Laws of Motion. inertia. laws of motion. the experiment. Discuss Newton I MOST SHOULD: get results PowerPoints on Newton Discuss Newton II in terms from their experiment that I, II, and III (phyzzing of F = ma (don’t go into show that if the force is physics 2) momentum as that is done in doubled, the acceleration is Unit 4). doubled. Discuss weight as a force SOME COULD: Explain why resulting from mass and it’s a bad experiment. acceleration.. Carry out experiment to verify Newton II. Consider the limitation of the experiment (the acceleration is proportional only when the force is low. I got caught out by that once.) Discuss Newton II in terms of forces acting in pairs. MEC 9 To understand work, Discuss what energy is and ALL MUST: Describe energy Johnson pp 60 – 61 Johnson p 67 2 – 5. None energy, and power. how it’s related to work. and work, and use the Animation on work. To use W Fs cos , Discuss that work is a scalar equations. PowerPoint from despite its being the product MOST SHOULD: Explain Phyzzing physics 2 W P , P Fv of two scalars. why work is a scalar. Derive t Show the animation. P = Fv. Discuss power as the rate of SOME COULD: make up doing work. their own questions. Derive P = Fv. Do some worked examples. 22 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety MEC 10 To understand that energy Discuss the rule of ALL MUST: recall that Johnson pp 62 – 64 Student response to None is conserved. conservation of energy. energy is conserved. Trebuchet video clip. experiment To use the equations Apply that to a bouncing MOST SHOULD recognise Bouncing balls E p mg h and ball. that the fraction of energy lost experiment. Carry out an experiment to in a bouncing ball is constant. 1 2 find out the fraction of SOME COULD: link the Ep mv energy lost in a bounce. Is constant fraction to a 2 the energy loss a constant logarithmic decay. fraction? Answer Johnson p 67 q 7. MEC 11 To review material covered Answer Johnson pp 106 – Johnson pp 106 – 108. Answers to questions. None in this section 108 23, 25, 28, 42 and 41 Model answers Revise for test. MEC 12 To assess student Test on Mechanics Test Paper Student answers None understanding MEC 13 To review and set targets Mark test with students and Model answers Individual review. None run through any areas that caused difficulty. Students assess themselves and set themselves targets. 23 St Neots CC Physics AS Part 2 Materials Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety MAT 1 To understand the concept Discuss the concept of ALL MUST: Obtain Johnson p 288. Student responses to None of density. density – mass per unit measurements for regular practical To use the equation volume. objects. Blacks of different m Do some worked examples. MOST SHOULD: Get density materials (regular and Stress the SI units of kg/m3 values for irregular objects. irregular), Top pan V not g/cm3. Discuss the need SOME COULD: Assess the balance. Displacement To measure the density of to convert. worked example on p 288 as cans. Measuring regular and irregular objects Discuss densities in solids, to whether the value is cylinders. liquids and gases. Link to accurate. particle models. Consider the density of an atom. Consider density of nucleons. Measure the densities of regular shapes and irregular shapes MAT 2 To use Hooke’s La w Review Hooke’s Law, i.e. ALL MUST: recall Hooke’s Johnson pp 282 – 283 Student response to the None To use F kL double the force, double the Law and use the equation. practical To derive and use stretch. MOST SHOULD: use the Slotted masses, long Introduce the idea of the gradient to find the spring springs, pointers, metre 1 Eel FL and spring constant. constant and the area to find rulers. 2 Draw force-extension graph, the energy. 1 and show the idea of the SOME COULD: Derive the Eel k (L) 2 spring constant being the energy from first principles. 2 gradient. Then introduce the idea of energy as the area under the graph. Students measure force and extension in a spring, and work out the energy of the spring. 24 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety MAT 3 To learn terms tensile Look at force extension ALL MUST: Recall the terms Johnson pp 284 – 285. Responses to the Wire can stress, tensile strain, elastic graphs for wires under load. associated with stress and practical snap. Goggles region, plastic deformation, Bring out the key features. strain. Harvest data and plot Thin copper and must be worn breaking stress. Students measure force and them as a force extension nichrome wires. and feet kept To look at behaviour of extension for copper wire, graph. Clamps, slotted masses, clear of loads. wires under load. nichrome, and rubber. MOST SHOULD: Calculate pointers, metre rulers. Use the relationships Discuss stress and strain. the spring constant and elastic F L Do worked examples. strain energy for each wire. and Watch out for beartrap of SOME COULD: explain the A L area being in m2. behaviour of rubber and the Plot the force extension idea of hysteresis. graphs. Compare the behaviour of the two metal wires. Discuss whether it’s a fair test. Explain the behaviour of rubber. MAT 4 To learn about the Young Discuss how a valid ALL MUST: recognise the Johnson pp 285 – 286. Responses to the Wire can Modulus. comparison can be made Young modulus equation and practical snap. Goggles To recognise and between different wires. use it. Thin copper and must be worn FL Introduce the Young MOST SHOULD: explain nichrome wires. and feet kept use E Modulus as the ratio how the Young Modulus Clamps, slotted masses, clear of loads. eL between stress and strain. ensures a fair test. pointers, metre rulers, To measure E graphically. Then do the equation and SOME COULD: assess the micrometers. worked examples. limitations of the experiment, Demonstrate the micrometer and explain the discrepancy Students measure the Young using arguments to do with Modulus for copper and crystal defects. Link the area nichrome. with strain energy per unit Compare the results with the volume (not needed for the data book value. Try to exam) account for any discrepancies. 25 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety MAT 5 To review learning in this Students to read pp 290 – Johnson pp 290 – 293 Complete these None section. 293 to familiarise themselves with meanings of words associated with materials. Answer Question 2 – 9 on p 295. MAT 6 To assess student Test on material properties. Test Response to the test None understanding of material properties MAT 7 To enable students to reflect Students mark the test with Model answers Individual review None on their learning and set model answers. targets. Students assess their performance and set themselves targets. 26 St Neots CC Physics AS Part 3 Waves Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety WAV 1 To learn definitions of Discuss waves as the ALL MUST: be familiar with Johnson pp 112 – 117 Johnson p 123 2 – 4. None terms associated with products of vibrations. Link the features of a wave. waves. this to oscillations of MOST SHOULD: explain Ripple tank and To use the wave formula particles. how a wave is formed from a controller. c f Discuss the features of the vibrating source and how it Videoclips. wave, amplitude, propagates as a progressive wavelength, frequency, wave. speed, phase, path SOME COULD: Show how difference. plane wave-fronts are the Demonstrate these with the result of lots of wavelets ripple tank. Use the formula and do worked examples WAV 2 To understand the Discuss transverse waves as ALL MUST: State the Johnson pp 118 – 119. Question and answer None difference between the classic wave. Give difference between a 3 cm kit. transverse and longitudinal examples. transverse and longitudinal Slinky spring waves. Then discuss longitudinal wave. Give examples. To show polarisation. waves. They are mechanical MOST SHOULD: Describe waves and need a material to how polarisation occurs. travel in. SOME COULD: Explain why Illustrate the difference water waves are not a good between them with a slinky example of a transverse wave. spring. Discuss that sound waves can be reflected and refracted, etc., just like any other wave. However only transverse waves can be polarised. Demonstrate these with the 3 cm kit. 27 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety WAV 3 To learn about the refractive Discuss how light is slowed ALL MUST: Recall that light Johnson pp 126 – 129. Results from practical None index. down when it passes from travels faster in air than it does To learn Snell’s Law. air into a material. Show in a material. Know that the Glass blocks, Perspex To recognise and use what happens to plane wave- refractive index is the ratio of blocks, protractors, ray n1 sin 1 n2 sin 2 fronts. the speeds. boxes, slits, power Develop this into the idea of MOST SHOULD: recognise supplies. light rays bending in and use the Snell’s Law towards the normal. equation to solve problems. Ripple tank and Define refractive index as SOME COULD: Discuss controller ratio of speed of light in air whether you can go faster than to speed of light in the light in a material. material. Develop that into Snell’s Law. Do a worked example. Students then do an experiment to work out refractive index of glass and Perspex. WAV 4 To consider critical angle Discuss what happens when ALL MUST: Recall that Johnson p 130. Johnson p 138 – 139 q None and total internal reflection light leaves a material to go critical angle is where total 2 – 6. To derive and use into air. internal reflection starts. Semi-circular Perspex 1 Discuss the critical angle as MOST SHOULD: Derive the blocks, protractors, ray n being when angle of equation from Snell’s Law. boxes, slits, power sin c refraction = 90o. Explain that when sin 1 supplies. Derive the equation. (impossible) then TIR occurs. Students then measure SOME COULD: investigate critical angle of Perspex. critical angle when you have Then discuss total internal two materials that are reflection and its uses. optically dense. 28 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety WAV 5 To understand how TIR is Review critical angle. ALL MUST: describe the uses Johnson p 131. Johnson p 139 q 7 Wear goggles used in optical fibres. Consider the critical angle at of optical fibres. Derive and use a boundary of two similar MOST SHOULD: use Snell’s Light tubes. Water Research into optical n2 materials. Law to calculate the critical container with hole in it fibres sin c Do a worked example. angle at the boundary of and light in it. n1 Do different demonstrations stepped index fibres. of light tubes, e.g. flow of SOME COULD: Describe the Glass rods, bunsens. water from an illuminated action of graded index fibres container. Make an optical fibre using the gob-drop method WAV 6 To understand how waves Discuss how progressive ALL MUST: Describe the Johnson pp 142 – 143. Student response. None superpose. waves superpose, describing node and antinode patterns of To describe the formation constructive and destructive a standing wave. Clamp, vibration Johnson p 154 3 – 4 of standing waves on interference. MOST SHOULD: Describe generator, string, bench strings. Discuss standing waves as the phase relationship within pulley, slotted mass, To use terms node, antinode the result of two progressive and between loops. Describe stroboscope. waves of the same frequency the whole number relationship travelling in opposite of the harmonics and 3 cm kit. directions. frequencies. Describe the pattern at SOME COULD: Look into CRO, microphone, fundamental frequency, then standing waves for sound. signal generator, the second harmonic, third speaker, board. harmonic. Link these to the wavelengths. Demonstrate the patterns using a vibration generator. Describe how standing waves are important in musical instruments. Set up standing waves in the 3 cm kit. Mention that standing waves can be made for sound. 29 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety WAV 7 To understand how waves Discuss the superposition of ALL MUST: Describe Johnson pp 148 – 149. Johnson p 155 8 – 9 Do not stare interfere constructively and waves. interference. State that path into the laser destructively depending on Bring in the idea of difference of odd number of Ripple tank, twin path difference. coherence of light waves. half-wavelengths leads to dippers, slits. To understand the concept Show interference pattern in destructive interference, and of coherence. the ripple tank, with two even number leads to Laser To recognise and use the slits. constructive interference. Slits D Show the laser as a source of MOST SHOULD: understand equation w coherent light. the derivation of the equation. 3 cm kit s Derive the equation. SOME COULD: Find out how Then do double slit coherence of light can be experiment and link it to the produced without a laser. equation. Do a worked example. Demonstrate the two-slit experiment with the 3 cm kit. WAV 8 To understand the Discuss previous learning ALL MUST: Recall that Johnson pp 150 – 151. Johnson p 155 11 – 12. Do not stare interference pattern of a about diffraction. diffraction occurs due to Ripple tank into the laser diffraction grating. Review using the ripple tank waves spreading out. Diffraction gratings, To derive and use the with a single slit. Recognise and use the Laser. equation n d sin Discuss the fact that formula. diffraction does not happen MOST SHOULD: Explain the when the slit width is less diffraction pattern of a than the wavelength. transmission grating. Show the pattern of spots SOME COULD: Compare the from a transmission grating transmission grating and the in laser light. reflection grating. Link this to the equation. Discuss orders as integers and that there is a limited number of orders. Use a CD as a reflection grating. 30 St Neots CC Physics AS Assessment & Health & Lesson Objectives Main Activity Learning Outcomes Resources & ICT Homework Safety WAV 9 To review material covered Review any areas of Johnson pp 160 – 162 Student response to the None in the section difficulty that students have questions Johnson p 160 – 162 Questions 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 14, 16, 17. WAV 10 To assess student Test on Waves Waves Test Student answers. None understanding WAV 11 To run through test and set Run through the test. Model answers Individual review None targets. Students mark each other’s scripts using the model answers. Students review their progress and agree targets. 31

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