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					   Appreciative Inquiry:
   The Positive Core of Change




Sponsored by University of St. Thomas OD Program and MN OD
                             Network


               Presented by David L. Cooperrider

               Case Western Reserve University

             (http://appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu)
      An Open Moment…
               We Are ―In It.‖ Now.

   Thank God our precious time is
    now – M.L. King

   A Time to Re-think Human
    Relationships and Change, e.g.

   ―No Limits to Cooperation‖
    Power of Wholeness

   Realities and Relationships: The
    ―Language of Life‖

   A Positive Revolution in Change
 Appreciative Inquiry is a Shift…



“No problem can be solved from the same level of
 consciousness that created it. We must learn to
 see the world anew.”

“There are only two ways to live your life. One is as
 though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though
 everything is a miracle.”

                                   – Albert Einstein
                             Discovery
                            ―What gives life?‖
                          (The best of what is)
                             Appreciating



      Destiny                                          Dream
                                                   ―What might be?‖
―How to empower, learn,      Affirmative
                                                   (What is the world
   and improvise?‖          Topic Choice               calling for)
      Sustaining                                  Envisioning Results



                               Design
                          ―What should be—
                              the ideal?‖
Appreciative               Co-constructing
Inquiry “4-D”
    Five Principles of “AI”

   Constructionist Principle

   Principle of Simultaneity

   Open Book ―Poetic Principle‖

   Anticipatory Principle

   Positive Principle

   (One More…Principle of Wholeness)
   The First International Conference on

   Appreciative Inquiry




#1. Moments of Magnified
     Meaning Making
   The First International Conference on

   Appreciative Inquiry




# 2. Exploring Moments of
 Leadership in Your Life:

    A story of a ―high point‖
  experience…leading positive
           change?
       The First International Conference on

       Appreciative Inquiry




#3. Your Vision of a Better World
& Your Images and Vision of…

      Business as an Agent of World
     Benefit? How Ideally Organized?
       Practices? Bring Out Best in
             Human Beings?
                 Starting AI Interview
                          (dialogue in pairs)


   A-->B (15 min)

   B-->A (15 min)
   Spirit of discovery

   Take brief notes

   At the end.. summary & thanks

   Return @4:45
       The First International Conference on

       Appreciative Inquiry

Pioneering Research
Across Many Fields



       An Emerging Vocabulary of
           ―Positive Change‖
       Many                          Positive Images
                                     of Future &
       Disciplines                   Positive Change
• Positive Health…Placebo, etc.
• Pygmalion: We are Made and Imagined
  In Each Others Eyes
• What Good are Positive Emotions?
  Inspiration, Hope, Joy
• Imbalanced ―Inner Dialogue‖
• Our Inner Media & Outer Media
• Affirmative Capacity
    Deficit Theory of Change … and Cultural
    Consequences of Deficit Discourse

   Identify problem       “The signal accomplishment
                            of the industrial age was the
   Conduct root cause      notion of continuous
    analysis                improvement. It remains the
                            secular religion of most
   Brainstorm solutions    managers… has reached the
                            point of diminishing returns in
    and analyze
                            incremental improvement
                            programs.”
   Develop action plans
                                            – Gary Hamel
                                 Leading The Revolution
     Metaphor: Organizations
    are problems to be solved
    With person next to you…

   Things most interesting-- or important-- in any of
    these areas?



    (positive health; placebo; pygmalion; inner
    dialogue; outer media; positive emotions;
    affirmative capability)



   Any examples from your life? Other research?
Deficit Theory of Change … and Cultural
Consequences of Deficit Discourse


        Identify problem       Vocabularies of…

                                   Professional Vocabularies of
        Conduct root cause         Deficit
         analysis
                                   Bureaucratic Disenchantment
        Brainstorm solutions      Original Sin
         and analyze
                                   Critical Theory
        Develop action plans
                                   Deconstruction

                                
          Metaphor: Organizations        Critical-Cynical Media
         are problems to be solved
    Cultural Consequences
    of Deficit Discourse
   Fragmentation

   Few New Images of Possibility…Self-Fulfilling
    Frames/Questions

   Exhaustion &Visionless Voice

   ―The Experts Must Know‖…Dependence and Hierarchy

   Spirals in Deficit Vocabularies

   Breakdown in Relations/Closed Door Meetings/Decrease in
    Public Space/Cycle of …
   Ap-pre’ci-ate, v.,
1. Valuing …
    –   The act of recognizing the best in people and the world
        around us;
    –   Affirming past and present strengths, successes, and
        potentials;
    –   To perceive those things that give life (health, vitality,
        and excellence) to living systems.

2. To increase in value, e.g. the economy has
    appreciated in value.
    –   Synonyms: valuing, prizing, esteeming,
        and honoring.
   In-quire’ (kwir), v.,
1. The act of exploration and discovery.

2. To ask questions; to be open to seeing new
   potentials and possibilities.
   – Synonyms: discovery, search, study
     and systematic exploration.
           What would you call it?
             (all these things taken together)

   Achievements                 Community wisdom

   Strategic opportunities      Core competencies

   Cooperative Moments          Visions of possibility

   Technical assets             Vital traditions, values

   Innovations                  Positive macrotrends

   Elevated thoughts            Social capital

   Community assets             Embedded knowledge

   Positive emotions            Business ecosystem +s eg.
                                  suppliers, partners,
   Financial assets              competitors, customer
    The “Positive Core”

   Complete Organizational Wealth—‖Well-being‖

   An Incredible Energy

   AI as an ―Organizational Yoga‖
      Whole Organizational Connection
           to the “Positive Core”

   Elevates: positive emotions of hope, inspiration,
    confidence, joy; raises intelligence; expands the
    language of life (internal dialogue); increases in
    appreciative interchange and mutually elevating
    relationships; higher creativity, better decision
    making, increased collective capacity.

   “Undo” Negative Impacts: letting go, makes
    irrelevant, finishes the residual of negative past.

   Protection in Future: Increases health-ability;
    resilience; accumulation of power; like an increase
    in immune system functioning.
       The Idea of Positive Change

 Any form of organization change, re-design, or planning
  that begins with comprehensive analysis of an
  organization’s ―positive core‖ and then links this
  knowledge to the heart of any strategic change agenda.
 Because human systems move toward what they
  persistently ask questions about, positive change
  involves the deliberate discovery of everything that gives
  a system ―life‖ when it is most effective in economic and
  human terms.
 Link the positive core directly to any strategic agenda,
  and changes never thought possible are more rapidly
  mobilized while simultaneously building enthusiasm,
  corporate confidence, and human energy.
                             Discovery
                            ―What gives life?‖
                          (The best of what is)
                             Appreciating



      Destiny                                          Dream
                                                   ―What might be?‖
―How to empower, learn,      Affirmative
                                                   (What is the world
   and improvise?‖          Topic Choice               calling for)
      Sustaining                                  Envisioning Results



                               Design
                          ―What should be—
                              the ideal?‖
Appreciative               Co-constructing
Inquiry “4-D”
    An Exciting Story & Example
    of Ai In Action
   Recently Featured in Fast Company

   Roadway Express…Lets Look Closer.
    We Are Born To Appreciate:
    Three Facts About All Human Beings

   Exceptionality

   Essentiality

   Equality/Voice and Vision
    Positive Topic Choice

   Human systems move in the direction of what we
    deeply and persistently ask questions about



   Transformational topics are possible in any
    situation, and will generate more positive change—
    every time.



   The skill of framing and re-framing
            Topic Creation: Examples
    Community in “Full Voice”
Transformational Cooperation
Healthy Multi-racial Relationships
Revolutionary Customer Response
Magnetic Work Environment
Outstanding Arrival Experiences
Business as an Agent of World Benefit
Courageous Acts of Goodness
Empowering & Enlightened Leadership
    Creating Topics for An AI That Has
    High Transformational Potential

   Some groups create a 3 topics for inquiry for the community .
    Other groups create AI topic for your center itself.

Good Topics are:

   Desired

   The words are energizing…you would like to learn, discover,
    and do interviews around the topic

   Have high potential to generate positive change…bold.

   Opposites are OK….sometimes are the best topics.
     Website For These Slides
     and for Sharing AI Tools


   http://appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu

    (―Appreciative Inquiry Commons‖, Weatherhead
     School of Management, Case Western Reserve
     University)

Please submit/share your new tools, stories, studies!
    Appreciative Inquiry: Mini
    Forum
   The Art of the Question

   The Ai Summit Method
#1. Moments of Magnified
Meaning Making
    # 2. Exploring Moments of
    Leadership in Your Life:
   A ―high point‖ story of change…
    #3. Your Vision of a Better World & Your
    Images and Vision of…

   Business as an Agent of World Benefit? How
    Ideally Organized? Practices? Bring Out Best in
    Human Beings?
We Live in the Worlds
Our Questions Create
Be patient … and try to love the questions
themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you
will then gradually, without noticing it, live along
some distant day into the answer.

                              – Rainer Maria Rilke
    The Art of the Question

   What’s the biggest problem        What possibilities exist that
    here?                              we have not yet
                                       considered?
   Why did I have to be born in
    such a troubled family?           What’s the smallest change
                                       that could make the biggest
   Why do you blow it so              impact?
    often?
                                      What solutions would have
   Why do we still have those         us both win?
    problems?
                                      What makes HR questions
                                       inspiring, energizing, and
                                       mobilizing?
 Genius is Creating
 the Question
“What would the universe look like if I were riding on
 the end of a light beam at the speed of light?”

                                  – Albert Einstein
The Encyclopedia of
Positive Questions


   A Craft That Can Change Everything
   Consider the Shifts…
     The First International Conference on

     Appreciative Inquiry




What New Questions?

       From a Study Customer
    Dissatisfaction and Complaints
Magnetic Connections

Preface:

In the physical world, all matter is held together by
the pull between opposite electric charges.
Successful e-companies are highly nimble, flexible
communities. People connect in new and innovative
ways. Suppliers and customers are pulled together
and become seamless edge-to-edge organizations.
Communities of interest form and are pulled together
by shared values. Knowledge networks form as
catalysts for innovation and creativity.
    Magnetic Connections
    (continued)

   Think of a time when you felt ―magnetically‖
    connected to your client, your colleagues, and your
    community … connected in a way that the force
    was so strong that it could not be broken. What was
    that experience? What did it feel like?

   As you look into the future, describe how you see
    us connected to our customers and our colleagues
    — in ways that are so strong that we are seen as
    inseparable business partners.
From an Analysis of Grievance
Reduction to….
Engagement and Positive
Energy
    Preface
    Organizations work best when they are vibrant, alive and fun. You
     know, when the "joint is jumping!" You can sense that the spirit of the
     organization is vital and healthy and that people feel pride in their
     work. Everyone builds on each other's successes, a positive can do
     attitude is infectious and the glow of success is shared. What's
     more, this positive energy is appreciated and celebrated so it
     deepens and lasts.
    Engagement and Positive
    Energy
   Questions:
A. Tell me about a time when you experienced
   positive energy that was infectious. What was the
   situation? What created the positive energy? How
   did it feel to be a part of it? What did you learn?
B. If positive energy were the flame of the
   organization, how would you spark it? How would
   you fuel it to keep it burning bright?
     The First International Conference on

     Appreciative Inquiry




What Would You Study?

   From Analysis of Baggage Delays

                                             To …
    Exceptional Arrival
    Experience
Preface:

   Our goal is to provide an exceptional travel
    experience both in the air and on the ground.
    The handling of a flight’s arrival and baggage
    reconciliation is of equal importance to any other
    aspect of a passenger’s journey. The arrival
    experience is the time to leave a wonderful lasting
    impression. It also provides the opportunity to
    recover from any service shortfall the customer
    may have encountered. Focusing on Exceptional
    Arrival Experience demonstrates commitment to
    both our customers and to one another.
    Exceptional Arrival
    Experience (continued)
   Describe your most memorable arrival experience,
    as a customer or, as airline personnel. What made
    it memorable for you? How did you feel?

   Tell me a story about your most powerful service
    recovery. Describe the situation.
    – What was it about you that made it happen?
    – Who else was involved and why were they significant?
    – What tools did you use or what did you do that others
      might be able to do when in a similar situation?
    Exceptional Arrival
    Experience (continued)
   If you had a magic wand, how would you use it to
    enhance our overall arrivals experience for our
    customers? What ideas do you have to ensure
    exceptional arrival experiences for all our
    customers? And to make the process easier for us,
    as well!
    The Surprise of Friendship!

   One could say a key task in life is
    to discover and define our life
    purpose, and then accomplish it
    to the best of our ability.
   Can you share a story of a moment,
    or the period of time, where clarity
    about life purpose emerged for
    you. For example, a moment where
    your calling happened, where there
    was an important awakening or
    teaching, where there was a special
    experience or event, or where you
    received some guiding vision?
   Now, beyond this story … what do
    you sense you are supposed to do
    before your life, this life, is over?
    Education

   Knowledge empowers people and people power Hunter
    Douglas. We each contribute to Hunter Douglas’ position of
    market leadership through personal knowledge of: our jobs
    and equipment; other functions in the Company; our
    customers; our competition; and the industry.

   To maintain our position as market leaders, we must continue
    to invest in each employee’s training and education through:
    –   Challenging work assignments
    –   Individual coaching
    –   Job cross-training
    –   Tuition assistance
    –   On- and off-site classes and
    –   Family scholarships for our children
    Education (continued)

   If knowledge empowers people, and people power
    Hunter Douglas, what kind of learning opportunities
    would turbo charge Hunter Douglas?

   Tell me about the best training you have ever
    experienced, and what made the best?
    – How did this influence your development as a
      professional?
    – How did it influence the training you passed on to others?
    Education (continued)

   Reflecting on your past and where you are today,
    what types of training have proven the most
    beneficial to you?

   Robert Fulghum wrote a book entitled “All I Really
    Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten.” If this
    was kindergarten, what would you like to learn for
    the future?
    Discovering Optimal Margins

   With revenues, tonnage, and sales at record levels
    one of the most important opportunities we face is
    to engage everyone in increasing positive margins
    now and to do so will call on discovery of new
    strengths, build on old strengths, and carry us to
    higher levels financially.
    – As you look at Roadway from the perspective of our
      capabilities, and as you think about the business context
      and opportunities, how do you define "optimal margin― for
      us? Define it: what is the positive margin you want and
      believe we have the capability to create? Right now? In
      the moderate time frame? Longer term?
    Discovering Optimal Margins
    (continued)

   As you reflect on your leadership here at Roadway — times
    where you have mobilized or helped develop others — there
    have been high points and low points, successful moments,
    etc. Please describe one situation, or change initiative that you
    are proud about — an achievement in which you feel you had
    impact in realizing better margins. What happened? What were
    the challenges" What was it about you or your leadership style?
    Lessons learned?
   If anything imaginable was possible, if there were no
    constraints whatever, what would the nature of an ideal
    Roadway organization look like if we were to rapidly move into
    stage of delivering optimal margins? Describe, as if you had a
    magic wand, what we would be doing new, better, or different?
    Envision it happening? What do you see happening that is
    new, different, better ?
We Live in the Worlds Our
Questions Create
Be patient … and try to love the questions
themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you
will then gradually, without noticing it, live along
some distant day into the answer.

                              – Rainer Maria Rilke
    Groups
    Crafting the Question
       Choose one of your Topics the Ai question (s): 3 PARTS


    I. Positive Preface—it is a topic intro.
    A. A question to evoke a story from persons
       history
    B. A question to evoke/help give voice to their
       best images of future


    –      return...
    An experience from your
    life…a moment of “Wonder”
   Turn to person next to you…invite them to share a
    moment, a story, an experience of wonder!
Applications Appreciative
Inquiry
  AI Organization Summit Method
  Strategic Change/Planning
  Full Engagement of People: Schools Communities.
   Networks, Movements, Organizations
  Magnetic Connections, Retaining the Best
  Strength of Diversity
  Labor-management partnerships
  Transformation of measurements
  Operational Excellence ―Optimal Margins‖
  Mergers, Synergy and Customer Partnering
  Knowledge exchange: the ―PCN‖
           The AI
Organization Summit Method




    Increasing positive capacity through large
                  group methods
         4 Common Approaches
              to Change

   Top Down Strategies

   Bottom Up Strategies

   Representative Cross-Section Strategies

   Pilot Strategies

   Back Room
Typical Results

   Less Informed and Ultimatley Less Effective Change
    Efforts

   A Few Try to Convince Many That Change is Needed

   Partial Responsibility Mindset

   Change Occurs Sequentially

   Change is Perceived as a Disruption of ―Real Work‖
Typical Results (cont)

   Pace of Change is Too Slow

   Substantial Change in Part or Modest Change in an
    Entire Organization

   Breakdown at Implementation
       Dream & Design
The AI “Organization Summit”:

 “Whole System” in the Room
 Task is Clear...
 Future Focus & Continuity Search
   Self-Management and Dialogue
   Narrative Rich & Inter-generational
   Silence (“traffic control”)
   From Common Ground to Inspired Action
   3-Day event/100 to 1000 Participants
 Uncommon Action/Follow Through
  AI “4-D” Cycle
                         Discovery
                    •Opportunity & Call
                      •Positive Core
                         •History

    Destiny              Topic :
•People &Actions   Vision of Business                Dream
   •Learning &        As Agent of                    •Purpose
  •Improvisation     World Benefit                  •New Story



                             Design
                   •Provocative Propositions
                      Ideal Organizations & World
         Nutrimental Foods
• Why is this so easy?
• The experience of wholeness…an amazing
  power….why? How?
      The Power of AI Stories
• Stories stick like glue…
• Make information easier to
  remember…”Whole brain”
• Builds identities and fosters relationships
• Medium for conveying values, visions
• Moves the internal dialogue of the system
• Human Hope…
    A 2 Hour Intro of AI

   9:00-9:15 Opening excitement: time to re-think organization
    and change….objectives

   9:15-9:50 Mini-Ai….pairs…4 quesitons

   9:50-10:00 Quick debrief…adjectives

   10:00-10:15 Beyond PS to AI (slide)

   10:15-10:30 The ―4-D cycle examples, emphasize topics;
    show a tangible interview guide

   10:30-10:45 Envisioning potentials at xyz

   10:45-11:00 Enough interest to develop full proposal….?
    Destiny: Creating a Positive
    Change Network
   GTE :How to Invite 67,000 people to create a new
    culture?

   Storytelling and hope

   Ai at the front line

   The ―zealots are coming‖

   Labor & management: an impasse

   The positive change network…ongoing!!
The PCN: What is it?

   Special invitation & call to
    people to be change leaders…

   Ai program on positive change

   Many applications

   Self-organizing...

   Connected in knowledge
    sharing
We Are Born to Appreciate!

                n Exceptionality
                n Essentiality
                n Equality/Voice
     Website For These Slides
     and for Sharing AI Tools


   http://appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu

    (―Appreciative Inquiry Commons‖, Weatherhead
     School of Management, Case Western Reserve
     University)

Please submit/share your new tools, stories, studies!