Appreciative Inquiry: The Positive Core of Change Sponsored by University of St. Thomas OD Program and MN OD Network Presented by David L. Cooperrider Case Western Reserve University (http://appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu) An Open Moment… We Are ―In It.‖ Now. Thank God our precious time is now – M.L. King A Time to Re-think Human Relationships and Change, e.g. ―No Limits to Cooperation‖ Power of Wholeness Realities and Relationships: The ―Language of Life‖ A Positive Revolution in Change Appreciative Inquiry is a Shift… “No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew.” “There are only two ways to live your life. One is as though nothing is a miracle. The other is as though everything is a miracle.” – Albert Einstein Discovery ―What gives life?‖ (The best of what is) Appreciating Destiny Dream ―What might be?‖ ―How to empower, learn, Affirmative (What is the world and improvise?‖ Topic Choice calling for) Sustaining Envisioning Results Design ―What should be— the ideal?‖ Appreciative Co-constructing Inquiry “4-D” Five Principles of “AI” Constructionist Principle Principle of Simultaneity Open Book ―Poetic Principle‖ Anticipatory Principle Positive Principle (One More…Principle of Wholeness) The First International Conference on Appreciative Inquiry #1. Moments of Magnified Meaning Making The First International Conference on Appreciative Inquiry # 2. Exploring Moments of Leadership in Your Life: A story of a ―high point‖ experience…leading positive change? The First International Conference on Appreciative Inquiry #3. Your Vision of a Better World & Your Images and Vision of… Business as an Agent of World Benefit? How Ideally Organized? Practices? Bring Out Best in Human Beings? Starting AI Interview (dialogue in pairs) A-->B (15 min) B-->A (15 min) Spirit of discovery Take brief notes At the end.. summary & thanks Return @4:45 The First International Conference on Appreciative Inquiry Pioneering Research Across Many Fields An Emerging Vocabulary of ―Positive Change‖ Many Positive Images of Future & Disciplines Positive Change • Positive Health…Placebo, etc. • Pygmalion: We are Made and Imagined In Each Others Eyes • What Good are Positive Emotions? Inspiration, Hope, Joy • Imbalanced ―Inner Dialogue‖ • Our Inner Media & Outer Media • Affirmative Capacity Deficit Theory of Change … and Cultural Consequences of Deficit Discourse Identify problem “The signal accomplishment of the industrial age was the Conduct root cause notion of continuous analysis improvement. It remains the secular religion of most Brainstorm solutions managers… has reached the point of diminishing returns in and analyze incremental improvement programs.” Develop action plans – Gary Hamel Leading The Revolution Metaphor: Organizations are problems to be solved With person next to you… Things most interesting-- or important-- in any of these areas? (positive health; placebo; pygmalion; inner dialogue; outer media; positive emotions; affirmative capability) Any examples from your life? Other research? Deficit Theory of Change … and Cultural Consequences of Deficit Discourse Identify problem Vocabularies of… Professional Vocabularies of Conduct root cause Deficit analysis Bureaucratic Disenchantment Brainstorm solutions Original Sin and analyze Critical Theory Develop action plans Deconstruction Metaphor: Organizations Critical-Cynical Media are problems to be solved Cultural Consequences of Deficit Discourse Fragmentation Few New Images of Possibility…Self-Fulfilling Frames/Questions Exhaustion &Visionless Voice ―The Experts Must Know‖…Dependence and Hierarchy Spirals in Deficit Vocabularies Breakdown in Relations/Closed Door Meetings/Decrease in Public Space/Cycle of … Ap-pre’ci-ate, v., 1. Valuing … – The act of recognizing the best in people and the world around us; – Affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials; – To perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, and excellence) to living systems. 2. To increase in value, e.g. the economy has appreciated in value. – Synonyms: valuing, prizing, esteeming, and honoring. In-quire’ (kwir), v., 1. The act of exploration and discovery. 2. To ask questions; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilities. – Synonyms: discovery, search, study and systematic exploration. What would you call it? (all these things taken together) Achievements Community wisdom Strategic opportunities Core competencies Cooperative Moments Visions of possibility Technical assets Vital traditions, values Innovations Positive macrotrends Elevated thoughts Social capital Community assets Embedded knowledge Positive emotions Business ecosystem +s eg. suppliers, partners, Financial assets competitors, customer The “Positive Core” Complete Organizational Wealth—‖Well-being‖ An Incredible Energy AI as an ―Organizational Yoga‖ Whole Organizational Connection to the “Positive Core” Elevates: positive emotions of hope, inspiration, confidence, joy; raises intelligence; expands the language of life (internal dialogue); increases in appreciative interchange and mutually elevating relationships; higher creativity, better decision making, increased collective capacity. “Undo” Negative Impacts: letting go, makes irrelevant, finishes the residual of negative past. Protection in Future: Increases health-ability; resilience; accumulation of power; like an increase in immune system functioning. The Idea of Positive Change Any form of organization change, re-design, or planning that begins with comprehensive analysis of an organization’s ―positive core‖ and then links this knowledge to the heart of any strategic change agenda. Because human systems move toward what they persistently ask questions about, positive change involves the deliberate discovery of everything that gives a system ―life‖ when it is most effective in economic and human terms. Link the positive core directly to any strategic agenda, and changes never thought possible are more rapidly mobilized while simultaneously building enthusiasm, corporate confidence, and human energy. Discovery ―What gives life?‖ (The best of what is) Appreciating Destiny Dream ―What might be?‖ ―How to empower, learn, Affirmative (What is the world and improvise?‖ Topic Choice calling for) Sustaining Envisioning Results Design ―What should be— the ideal?‖ Appreciative Co-constructing Inquiry “4-D” An Exciting Story & Example of Ai In Action Recently Featured in Fast Company Roadway Express…Lets Look Closer. We Are Born To Appreciate: Three Facts About All Human Beings Exceptionality Essentiality Equality/Voice and Vision Positive Topic Choice Human systems move in the direction of what we deeply and persistently ask questions about Transformational topics are possible in any situation, and will generate more positive change— every time. The skill of framing and re-framing Topic Creation: Examples Community in “Full Voice” Transformational Cooperation Healthy Multi-racial Relationships Revolutionary Customer Response Magnetic Work Environment Outstanding Arrival Experiences Business as an Agent of World Benefit Courageous Acts of Goodness Empowering & Enlightened Leadership Creating Topics for An AI That Has High Transformational Potential Some groups create a 3 topics for inquiry for the community . Other groups create AI topic for your center itself. Good Topics are: Desired The words are energizing…you would like to learn, discover, and do interviews around the topic Have high potential to generate positive change…bold. Opposites are OK….sometimes are the best topics. Website For These Slides and for Sharing AI Tools http://appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu (―Appreciative Inquiry Commons‖, Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University) Please submit/share your new tools, stories, studies! Appreciative Inquiry: Mini Forum The Art of the Question The Ai Summit Method #1. Moments of Magnified Meaning Making # 2. Exploring Moments of Leadership in Your Life: A ―high point‖ story of change… #3. Your Vision of a Better World & Your Images and Vision of… Business as an Agent of World Benefit? How Ideally Organized? Practices? Bring Out Best in Human Beings? We Live in the Worlds Our Questions Create Be patient … and try to love the questions themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you will then gradually, without noticing it, live along some distant day into the answer. – Rainer Maria Rilke The Art of the Question What’s the biggest problem What possibilities exist that here? we have not yet considered? Why did I have to be born in such a troubled family? What’s the smallest change that could make the biggest Why do you blow it so impact? often? What solutions would have Why do we still have those us both win? problems? What makes HR questions inspiring, energizing, and mobilizing? Genius is Creating the Question “What would the universe look like if I were riding on the end of a light beam at the speed of light?” – Albert Einstein The Encyclopedia of Positive Questions A Craft That Can Change Everything Consider the Shifts… The First International Conference on Appreciative Inquiry What New Questions? From a Study Customer Dissatisfaction and Complaints Magnetic Connections Preface: In the physical world, all matter is held together by the pull between opposite electric charges. Successful e-companies are highly nimble, flexible communities. People connect in new and innovative ways. Suppliers and customers are pulled together and become seamless edge-to-edge organizations. Communities of interest form and are pulled together by shared values. Knowledge networks form as catalysts for innovation and creativity. Magnetic Connections (continued) Think of a time when you felt ―magnetically‖ connected to your client, your colleagues, and your community … connected in a way that the force was so strong that it could not be broken. What was that experience? What did it feel like? As you look into the future, describe how you see us connected to our customers and our colleagues — in ways that are so strong that we are seen as inseparable business partners. From an Analysis of Grievance Reduction to…. Engagement and Positive Energy Preface Organizations work best when they are vibrant, alive and fun. You know, when the "joint is jumping!" You can sense that the spirit of the organization is vital and healthy and that people feel pride in their work. Everyone builds on each other's successes, a positive can do attitude is infectious and the glow of success is shared. What's more, this positive energy is appreciated and celebrated so it deepens and lasts. Engagement and Positive Energy Questions: A. Tell me about a time when you experienced positive energy that was infectious. What was the situation? What created the positive energy? How did it feel to be a part of it? What did you learn? B. If positive energy were the flame of the organization, how would you spark it? How would you fuel it to keep it burning bright? The First International Conference on Appreciative Inquiry What Would You Study? From Analysis of Baggage Delays To … Exceptional Arrival Experience Preface: Our goal is to provide an exceptional travel experience both in the air and on the ground. The handling of a flight’s arrival and baggage reconciliation is of equal importance to any other aspect of a passenger’s journey. The arrival experience is the time to leave a wonderful lasting impression. It also provides the opportunity to recover from any service shortfall the customer may have encountered. Focusing on Exceptional Arrival Experience demonstrates commitment to both our customers and to one another. Exceptional Arrival Experience (continued) Describe your most memorable arrival experience, as a customer or, as airline personnel. What made it memorable for you? How did you feel? Tell me a story about your most powerful service recovery. Describe the situation. – What was it about you that made it happen? – Who else was involved and why were they significant? – What tools did you use or what did you do that others might be able to do when in a similar situation? Exceptional Arrival Experience (continued) If you had a magic wand, how would you use it to enhance our overall arrivals experience for our customers? What ideas do you have to ensure exceptional arrival experiences for all our customers? And to make the process easier for us, as well! The Surprise of Friendship! One could say a key task in life is to discover and define our life purpose, and then accomplish it to the best of our ability. Can you share a story of a moment, or the period of time, where clarity about life purpose emerged for you. For example, a moment where your calling happened, where there was an important awakening or teaching, where there was a special experience or event, or where you received some guiding vision? Now, beyond this story … what do you sense you are supposed to do before your life, this life, is over? Education Knowledge empowers people and people power Hunter Douglas. We each contribute to Hunter Douglas’ position of market leadership through personal knowledge of: our jobs and equipment; other functions in the Company; our customers; our competition; and the industry. To maintain our position as market leaders, we must continue to invest in each employee’s training and education through: – Challenging work assignments – Individual coaching – Job cross-training – Tuition assistance – On- and off-site classes and – Family scholarships for our children Education (continued) If knowledge empowers people, and people power Hunter Douglas, what kind of learning opportunities would turbo charge Hunter Douglas? Tell me about the best training you have ever experienced, and what made the best? – How did this influence your development as a professional? – How did it influence the training you passed on to others? Education (continued) Reflecting on your past and where you are today, what types of training have proven the most beneficial to you? Robert Fulghum wrote a book entitled “All I Really Need to Know I Learned in Kindergarten.” If this was kindergarten, what would you like to learn for the future? Discovering Optimal Margins With revenues, tonnage, and sales at record levels one of the most important opportunities we face is to engage everyone in increasing positive margins now and to do so will call on discovery of new strengths, build on old strengths, and carry us to higher levels financially. – As you look at Roadway from the perspective of our capabilities, and as you think about the business context and opportunities, how do you define "optimal margin― for us? Define it: what is the positive margin you want and believe we have the capability to create? Right now? In the moderate time frame? Longer term? Discovering Optimal Margins (continued) As you reflect on your leadership here at Roadway — times where you have mobilized or helped develop others — there have been high points and low points, successful moments, etc. Please describe one situation, or change initiative that you are proud about — an achievement in which you feel you had impact in realizing better margins. What happened? What were the challenges" What was it about you or your leadership style? Lessons learned? If anything imaginable was possible, if there were no constraints whatever, what would the nature of an ideal Roadway organization look like if we were to rapidly move into stage of delivering optimal margins? Describe, as if you had a magic wand, what we would be doing new, better, or different? Envision it happening? What do you see happening that is new, different, better ? We Live in the Worlds Our Questions Create Be patient … and try to love the questions themselves. Live the questions now. Perhaps you will then gradually, without noticing it, live along some distant day into the answer. – Rainer Maria Rilke Groups Crafting the Question Choose one of your Topics the Ai question (s): 3 PARTS I. Positive Preface—it is a topic intro. A. A question to evoke a story from persons history B. A question to evoke/help give voice to their best images of future – return... An experience from your life…a moment of “Wonder” Turn to person next to you…invite them to share a moment, a story, an experience of wonder! Applications Appreciative Inquiry AI Organization Summit Method Strategic Change/Planning Full Engagement of People: Schools Communities. Networks, Movements, Organizations Magnetic Connections, Retaining the Best Strength of Diversity Labor-management partnerships Transformation of measurements Operational Excellence ―Optimal Margins‖ Mergers, Synergy and Customer Partnering Knowledge exchange: the ―PCN‖ The AI Organization Summit Method Increasing positive capacity through large group methods 4 Common Approaches to Change Top Down Strategies Bottom Up Strategies Representative Cross-Section Strategies Pilot Strategies Back Room Typical Results Less Informed and Ultimatley Less Effective Change Efforts A Few Try to Convince Many That Change is Needed Partial Responsibility Mindset Change Occurs Sequentially Change is Perceived as a Disruption of ―Real Work‖ Typical Results (cont) Pace of Change is Too Slow Substantial Change in Part or Modest Change in an Entire Organization Breakdown at Implementation Dream & Design The AI “Organization Summit”: “Whole System” in the Room Task is Clear... Future Focus & Continuity Search Self-Management and Dialogue Narrative Rich & Inter-generational Silence (“traffic control”) From Common Ground to Inspired Action 3-Day event/100 to 1000 Participants Uncommon Action/Follow Through AI “4-D” Cycle Discovery •Opportunity & Call •Positive Core •History Destiny Topic : •People &Actions Vision of Business Dream •Learning & As Agent of •Purpose •Improvisation World Benefit •New Story Design •Provocative Propositions Ideal Organizations & World Nutrimental Foods • Why is this so easy? • The experience of wholeness…an amazing power….why? How? The Power of AI Stories • Stories stick like glue… • Make information easier to remember…”Whole brain” • Builds identities and fosters relationships • Medium for conveying values, visions • Moves the internal dialogue of the system • Human Hope… A 2 Hour Intro of AI 9:00-9:15 Opening excitement: time to re-think organization and change….objectives 9:15-9:50 Mini-Ai….pairs…4 quesitons 9:50-10:00 Quick debrief…adjectives 10:00-10:15 Beyond PS to AI (slide) 10:15-10:30 The ―4-D cycle examples, emphasize topics; show a tangible interview guide 10:30-10:45 Envisioning potentials at xyz 10:45-11:00 Enough interest to develop full proposal….? Destiny: Creating a Positive Change Network GTE :How to Invite 67,000 people to create a new culture? Storytelling and hope Ai at the front line The ―zealots are coming‖ Labor & management: an impasse The positive change network…ongoing!! The PCN: What is it? Special invitation & call to people to be change leaders… Ai program on positive change Many applications Self-organizing... Connected in knowledge sharing We Are Born to Appreciate! n Exceptionality n Essentiality n Equality/Voice Website For These Slides and for Sharing AI Tools http://appreciativeinquiry.cwru.edu (―Appreciative Inquiry Commons‖, Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University) Please submit/share your new tools, stories, studies!
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