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MEASUREMENTS AND INSTRUMENTATION LABORATORY –EE 2208 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS S.NO TITLE PAGE NO 1 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE USING WHEATSTONE BRIDGE 2 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE USING KELVIN’S DOUBLE BRIDGE. 3 MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCE USING SCHERING BRIDGE. 4 MEASUREMENT OF INDUCTANCE USING MAXWELLS BRIDGE. 5 CALIBRATION OF 1 ENERGYMETER. 6 MEASUREMENT OF 3 PHASE POWER AND POWER FACTOR 7 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER. 8 STUDY OF DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER - LVDT 9 STUDY OF PRESSURE TRANSDUCER 10 A/D CONVERTER 11 D/A CONVERTER 12 STUDY OF TRANSIENTS 13 CALIBRATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER 14 MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS (MAXWELL BRIDGE) EXPT NO 1 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE USING WHEATSTONE BRIDGE AIM : To measure the given medium resistance using Wheatstone Bridge. OBJECTIVE : 1. To study the working of bridge under balanced and unbalanced condition. 2. To study the sensitivity of bridge. EQUIPMENT : 1. Wheat stone Bridge kit – 1 No 2. Unknown resistance – 1 No 3. Multimeter – 1 No 4. Connecting Wires. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM : P Q G S Rx S EXERCISE : 1. Design a bridge for the given parameters. 2. Find the unknown resistance. 3. Find the sensitivity of Bridge. PROCEDURE: 1.The resistance to be measured is connected between XX points in the bridge kit. 2.The P/Q ratio (multiplier) is initially kept at position ‘1’ and the deflection of the galvanometer is observed by pressing both the battery and the galvanometer keys. 3.The S arm (X 1000) is adjusted and two positions are identified for which the deflection of the galvanometer is on either side of the null point and kept at the lowest value of S. Then the x100, x10, x1 knobs of S are adjusted to get null deflection. If necessary the sensitivity knob may be controlled to get appreciable deflection. [If not possible P/Q ratio is kept at suitable value ie, any one of ratios provided.] 4.The value of unknown resistance is read. (S value) 5.Steps 3 and 4 are repeated for some other P/Q ratio. The mean value is taken. 6.The experiment is repeated with other samples provided. The above experiment may be used for measuring resistance of the samples less than 1 to greater than 10000 with lesser sensitivity. TABULAR COLUMN: S.NO SAMPLE P/Q RATIO S VALUE UNKNOWN (MULTIPLIER) () RESISTANCE RX () CALCULATION: Unknown Resistance, Rx = P/Q * S () Where P, Q = Ratio Arms. S = Variable resistance, Rx = Unknown resistance. VIVA VOCE : 1. RESULT: The value of unknown resistance is, Rx = EXPT NO 2 MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE USING KELVIN’S DOUBLE BRIDGE. AIM To measure the given low resistance using Kelvin’s double bridge method. OBJECTIVE 1. To study the working of bridge under balanced and unbalance condition. 2. To study the sensitivity of bridge. EQUIPMENT 1. Kelvin Double bridge kit – 1 No 2. Unknown resistance – 1 No 3. Multimeter – 1 No 4. Connecting wires. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: P Q p q Rx S a m n c FORMULA USED: Rx = P/Q * S ohms Where P,Q First set of ratio arms. P,q Second set of ratio arms. S Standard resistance, Rx unknown resistance. EXERCISE 1. Design a bridge for the given parameters. 2. Find the unknown low resistance. Find the sensitivity of bridge PROCEDURE: 1.The resistance to be measured is connected such that the leads from +C and + P are connected to one end and those from –C and –P are connected to the other end in the kit. 2.The P/Q ratio (multiplier) is initially kept at position ‘1’ and the deflection of the galvanometer is observed by pressing the galvanometer key. 3.The ‘S’ arm (main dial) is adjusted and two positions are identified for which the deflection of the galvanometer is on either side of the null point. [If not some other P/Q ratio is to be tried]. 4.The lowest of the two position indicates the coarse value of the unknown resistance and the null point is obtained by adjusting the Vernier scale, with the galvanometer sensitivity knob at the maximum position. 5.The value of unknown resistance is read. [‘S’ Value] 6.Steps 3,4,5 are repeated for some other P/Q ratio for the unknown resistance. The mean value is taken. 7.The above procedure is repeated with another sample. TABULAR COLUMN: S.NO SAMPLE P/Q RATIO S VALUE (Multiplier) UNKNOWN COARSE FINE RESISTANCE () ( RX () 3. . VIVA VOCE : 1. RESULT: The value of unknown resistance is found experimentally. Values measured (Rx) are, 1. 2. EXPT NO 3 MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCE USING SCHERING BRIDGE. AIM : To measure the unknown capacitance using Schering bridge. OBJECTIVE : 1. To measure the unknown capacitance. 2. To study about dissipation factor. EQUIPMENT : 1. Schering Bridge kit – 1 No 2. Multimeter – 1 No 3. Unknown capacitance – 1 No 4. Connecting wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM : r1 R3 C1 D C4 C2 R4 EXERCISE 1. Design a bridge circuit for the given parameters. 2. Find the dissipation factor. 3. Fluid the unknown capacitance. R2 = Non-Inductive Variable Resistor PROCEDURE: 1.Connections are given as shown in the circuit diagram. 2.The value of R2 is selected arbitrarily (say1K) and R1 is varied. 3.If the selection of R2 is correct the balance point (NULL POINT) can be observed on the oscilloscope by varying R1.If not another value of R2 is chosen.[At balance the vertical line in the oscilloscope comes to a point for an particular value of R1 in the same direction.] 4.The capacitor C1 can be varied for fine balance adjustment. 5.When the balance condition is reached, the trainer kit is switched OFF and the value R1 is measured using a multimeter. 6.The value of unknown capacitance is calculated. 7.The experiment is repeated for various samples provided. TABULAR COLUMN: S.NO SAMPLE R2 R1 UNKNOWN () () CAPACITANCE Cx (Farads) CALCULATION: Unknown capacitance, Cx = R1/R2 * C3, Where C3 = Known Capacitance, Microfarads VIVA VOCE : 1. RESULT: The value of unknown capacitance is found experimentally by using the Schering bridge. Unknown Capacitance, Cx = EXPT NO 4 MEASUREMENT OF INDUCTANCE USING MAXWELLS BRIDGE. AIM To find the unknown inductance and Q factor of a given coil. OBJECTIVE 1. To find the unknown inductance of the given coil using bridge circuit. 2. To study that Maxwell inductance, capacitance bridge is suitable for the measurement of law Q coils. EQUIPMENT 1. Maxwell’s inductance Capacitance Bridge kit – 1 No 2. Multimeter – 1 No 3. Unknown Inductance – 1 No 4. Connecting wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM : L1 R3 R1 D C4 R2 R4 EXERCISE 1. Design a bridge circuit for the given parameters. 2. Find Q factor of the coil. 3. Find unknown Inductance. PROCEDURE: TABULAR COLUMN: S.NO SAMPLE R4 C4 UNKNOWN INDUCTANCE CALCULATION: R1=R2R3/R4 Unknown Inductance L1=R2xR3xC4 Henry Thus we have two variables R4 and C4 which appears in one of the two balance equation and hence the two equation are independent , and balance is obtained by varying R4and C4 alternately The expression for Q factor Q=L1/R1=C4R4 VIVA VOCE : 1. RESULT: The value of unknown capacitance is found experimentally by using the Schering bridge. Unknown Capacitance, Cx = EXPT NO 5 CALIBRATION OF 1 ENERGYMETER. AIM: To calibrate the given single phase energy meter at unity and other power factors OBJECTIVES 1. To study the working of energy meter 2. To accurately calibrate the meter at unity and other power factor 3. To study the % of errors for the given energy meters EQUIPMENT 1. Energy meter – 1 No 2. Wattmeter – 1 No 3. Stop watch – 1 No 4. M.I Ammeter – 1 No 5. M.I Voltmeter – 1 No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: P (0-10)A 10A M L C1 C2 FUSE R1 L1 R1 L1 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1k 10uH 1k 10uH C V P1 P2 10A FUSE N NAME PLATE DETAILS: RATED CURRENT RATED VOLTAGE FREQUENCY REVOLUTIONS/KWH APPRATUS REQUIRED: S.NO NAME OF THE APPRATUS RANGE TYPE QTY EXERCISE 1. Measure the experimental energy consumed 2. Calculate the theoretical energy 3. Calculate the percentage of error 4. Draw the calibration curve PROCEDURE: 1.Connections are given as shown in the circuit diagram. 2.Supply is switched ON and load is increased in steps, each time noting the readings of ammeter and wattmeter. Also the actual time taken for 1 revolution of the disc is measured using stop watch. 3.Step 2 is repeated till rated current of the energy meter is reached. 4. % Error is calculated and calibration curve is drawn. TABULAR COLUMN: S.NO LOAD WATTMETER INDICATED % CURRENT READING t POWER ERROR I (Sec) W1 (Amps) (watts) CALCULATION: Let x revolution / kwh be the rating. Now x revolution = 1 kwh = 1* 3600*1000* watt-sec. Constant k of energymeter = 3600 * 103/x watt-sec For each load indicated power Wi is given as Wi = k/t watts Where K= energymeter constant (watt-sec) T= time for 1 revolution(sec). Actual power is indicated by the wattmeter reading. % error = Wi-Wa/Wi* 100. It can be zero +ve or –ve. MODEL GRAPH: +Ve % Error 0 Wi -Ve VIVA VOCE : 1. RESULTS: From the calibration curve it is possible to predict the error in recording the energy. So the correction can be applied to the energy meter reading so that correct energy reading can be obtained and used. EXPT NO 6 . MEASUREMENT OF 3 PHASE POWER AND POWER FACTOR AIM To conduct a suitable experiment on a 3-phase load connected in star or delta to measure the three phase power and power factor using 2 wattmeter method. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the working of wattmeter 2. To accurately measure the 3 phase power 3. To accurately measure the power factor 4. To study the concept of star connected load and delta connected load EQUIPMENT 1. 3 phase Auto transformer – 1 No 2. M.I Ammeter – 1 No 3. M.I Voltmeter – 1 No 4. Wattmeter – 1 No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: 600 V,10A,UPF (0-10)A R 10 A M L A FUSE R1 L1 1 2 C R 10uH V 3 PHASE INDUCTIVE LOAD Y 10 A FUSE R1 L1 1 2 C 10uH V B 10 A R FUSE M L 600 V,10A,UPF EXERCISE 1. Measure the real power, reactive power and power factor of 3 phase resistive inductive load. 2. Measure the real power, reactive power and power factor of 3 phase resistive capacitive load. PROCEDURE: 1.Connection are made as per the circuit diagram, Keeping the inductive load in the initial position. 2.Supply switch is closed and reading of ammeter and wattmeter are noted .If one of the wattmeter reads negative, then its potential coils (C and V) are interchanged and readings are taken in negative. 3.The above procedure is repeated for different values of inductive coil. Care should be taken that current should not exceed 10A during the experiment. TABULAR COLUMN: S.NO I W1 W2 POWER P.F P (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) Watts COS FORMULA USED: 1. Total power P = W1+W2 (W) 2. = Tan-1 3[W1-W2/W1+W2] 3. P.F = Cos. VIVA VOCE : 1. RESULT: The Power and Power factor of the given coil is measured by using only two wattmeters. EXPT NO 7 INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER. AIM: To study the working of instrumentation amplifier. OBJECTIVE: 1. To study the characteristic of operational amplifier. 2. To study the use of operational amplifier as instrumentation amplifier. EQUIPMENT : 1. Operational Amplifier – 1 No 2. Resistors – 1 No 3. RPS – 1 No 4. Voltmeter – 1 No 5. Multimeter – 1 No 6. Connecting wires. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE: 1. Measure the output voltage for varying input voltage. 2. Calculate the output voltage theoretically. 3. Calculate the error. PROCEDURE: 1.Connect an external power supply with 12v DC must be connected to the load coming out of instrument. 2.Connect the different signal from circulating to v1 & v2 of the channel with you want use. 3.Switch on the power supply connected to ties & the circuit that you are likely to connect the instrument. 4.Record your observation. TABULAR COLUMN: V1 (v) V2 (v) Vout (v) RESULT: Thus the instrumentation amplifier is studied experimentally. EXPT NO 8 STUDY OF DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER - LVDT AIM To study the operation of LVDT OBJECTIVES 1. To study the basic principle of LVDT. 2. Study of signal conditioning circuit. 3. Study of LVDT as transducer. EXERCISE 1. Draw the characteristic curve for a given LVDT. 2. Find the residual voltage. 3. Fluid the non-electrical quantity displacement interms of voltage. EQUIPMENT 1. LVDT kit – 1 No 2. Multimeter – 1 No TABULAR COLUMN: S.NO DISPLACEMENT DISPLACEMENT MULTIMETER ON INDICATOR READING READING MICRO-METER (mm) (Volts) (mm) MODEL GRAPH: Absolute Reading in Volts LVDT Reading PROCEDURE: 1. Adjust the micrometer to read 200m of micrometer figure. This position is called as end of transducer position. 2. Adjust the span adjustment pot to read 10mm. 3. Now adjust the micrometer jig. This position is called negative end of transducer position. 4. No need to adjust any further for this as the displacement automatically reads -10. 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 repeatedly till we get the absolute value. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: AC Excitation Primary Winding Displacement CORE ES1 ES2 E0 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM: Primary Winding (P1) Secondary Winding (S1) S2 SOFT IRON Arm Displace CORE -ment A RESULT: Thus the displacement is found using LVDT and hence the output is verified using different graphs. EXPT NO 9 STUDY OF PRESSURE TRANSDUCER AIM To study the operation of bourdon tube OBJECTIVES 1. To study the basic principle of Bourdon tube. 2. Study of Bourdon tube as transducer. EXERCISE 1. Draw the characteristic curve for a given Bourdon tube i.e. pressure vs. o/p (V or I). 2. Measure the non-electrical quantity pressure interms of voltage or current. EQUIPMENT 1. Bourdon pressure transducer kit – 1 No 2. Foot pump – 1 No 3. Voltmeter – 1 No 4. Multimeter – 1 No EXPT NO 10 A/D CONVERTER AIM To design and test a 4 bit A/D converter 1. Successive approximation type 2. Ramp type OBJECTIVE 1. To study the conversion of analog I/P voltage to digital o/p voltage. 2. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier EQUIPMENT 2. IC 741 – 1 No 3. DC trainer kit – 1 No 4. RPS – 1 No 5. Resistor – 1 No 6. CRO – 1 No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE 1. Given 4 bit analog input is converted to digital output 2. Verify the practical output with theoretical output PROCEDURE: VIVAVOCE: RESULT: EXPT NO 11 D/A CONVERTER AIM To design and test a 4 bit D/A converter 1. Weighted resistor technique 2. R-2R ladder network OBJECTIVE 1. To study the conversion of binary voltage to analog o/p voltage 2. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier EQUIPMENT 7. IC 741 – 1 No 8. DC trainer kit – 1 No 9. RPS – 1 No 10. Resistor – 1 No 11. CRO – 1 No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE 1. Given 4 bit binary input is converted to analog output 2. Verify the practical o/p with theoretical o/p PROCEDURE: VIVAVOCE: RESULT: D/A CONVERTER AIM To convert the given digital input into its equivalent analog output. OBJECTIVE 3. To study the conversion of binary voltage to analog o/p voltage 4. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier EQUIPMENT IC 741 – 1 No Resistor 1K – 2 No 2.2k – 7 No 100 –1 No Multimeter –1No Dual Power Supply (0-30)V 1No Bredboard & Connecting Wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE: i. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram ii. Apply the binary input by closing appropriate switches iii. Measure the analog output using a multimeter iv. Tabulate the measured values v. Plot a graph between digital input Vs analog output and digital input Vs % output RESULT: Thus the given digital input is converted into its equivalent analog output. EXPT NO 12 STUDY OF TRANSIENTS AIM To study the transient response of the given system OBJECTIVE 1. To study the transient behaviour of the given system 2. To study the effects of transients EQUIPMENT 1. Resistance – 1 No 2. Capacitance – 1 No 3. RPS – 1 No 4. Voltmeter – 1 No 5. Multimeter – 1 No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE 1. Draw the response curve for the given system 2. Find the time when the error is minimum PROCEDURE: VIVAVOCE: RESULT: EXPT NO 13 CALIBRATION OF CURRENT TRANSFORMER AIM To study the working of current transformer OBJECTIVE 1. To study the current transformation concept 2. To study the efficiency of a given current transformer 3. To study the loss components in the circuit EQUIPMENT 1. Current Transformer – 1 No 2. Lamp Load – 1 No 3. Voltmeter – 1 No 4. Ammeter – 1 No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE 1. Draw the curve primary current Vs secondary current 2. Observe the o/p for lamp load 3. Calculate the efficiency PROCEDURE: VIVAVOCE: RESULT: EXPT NO 14 MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS (MAXWELL BRIDGE) AIM To determine the iron losses in magnetic material using bridge method OBJECTIVE 1. To study about hysterisis loss 2. To study about eddy current loss EQUIPMENT 1. Maxwell bridge set up – 1 No 2. Ring specimen – 1 No 3. Ammeter – 1 No 4. Galvanometer – 1 No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM EXERCISE 1. Measure the current 2. Calculate iron loss 3. Calculate AC permeability 4. Draw phasor diagram PROCEDURE: RESULT A/D CONVERTER AIM To convert the given analog input into its equivalent digital output. OBJECTIVE 3. To study the conversion of analog I/P voltage to digital o/p voltage. 4. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier EQUIPMENT Op Amp LM741 -3No Resistors 470 -3No 1K -4No LED -3No RPS (0-5V) -1No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE 3. Given 4 bit analog input is converted to digital output 4. Verify the practical output with theoretical output PROCEDURE: i. The connections are made as shown in diagram ii. The voltage is increased in steps.The analog input is also given iii. The truth table is verified RESULT: Thus the analog to digital convertor was implemented and the truth table verified . EXPT NO 12 STUDY OF TRANSIENTS RC TRANSIENTS: AIM To Observe and plot the transients waveform for a series RC circuit and compute the time constant. OBJECTIVE 3. To study the transient behaviour of the given system 4. To study the effects of transients EQUIPMENT 6. Resistance – 1 No 7. Capacitance – 1 No 8. Signal Generator 9. CRO & Probes 10. Bred board & Connecting Wires NOTE Choose the frequency (f) in signal generator such that f < (4z)^-1 where Z=RxC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE 3. Draw the response curve for the given system 4. Find the time when the error is minimum PROCEDURE: i. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram ii. Choose square wave made in signal generator and apply a suitable input iii. Observe and plot the output waveform iv. Calculate the time required by output to reach 0.368 times the input value(peak) v. This value given practical time constant RESULT: Thus the transient nature of RC circuit has been studied and the waveform plotted RL TRANSIENTS: AIM: To observe and plot the transient waveform for a series RL circuit and compute the time constant OBJECTIVE 5. To study the transient behavior of the given system 6. To study the effects of transients EQUIPMENT Resistance 1KOhm – 1 No Inductor 10mH – 1 No Signal Generator CRO & Probes Bred board & Connecting Wires NOTE Choose the frequency (f) in signal generator such that f < (4z)^-1 where Z=L/R PROCEDURE: i. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram ii. Choose square wave made in signal generator and apply a suitable input iii. Observe and plot the waveform iv. Calculate the time required by output to reach 0.632 times the input value(peak) v. This value given practical time constant RESULT: Thus the transient nature of RL circuit has been studied and the waveform plotted EXPT NO 14 MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS (MAXWELL BRIDGE) AIM To Measure the iron loss of a given ring specimen OBJECTIVE 3. To study about hysterisis loss 4. To study about eddy current loss EQUIPMENT: Ring Specimen Measurement of iron loss trainer CRO CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE: 1. Patch the circuit as per the circuit diagram 2. Connect the ring specimen to the corresponding connector provided on the front panel left corner 3. Switch ON the trainer observes the CRO output which should be some value 4. We have to null this output for that adjust the R value by using both fine and coarse adjustment. 5. Further adjust the L value until the Vout get a null condition. 6. Observe the ammeter value 7. Switch OFF the trainer 8. Measure the R value, L value using multimeter RESULT: The iron loss of the given ring specimen was calculated by using Maxwell’s Bridge. INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER AIM: To obtain the frequency response characteristics of the instrumentation amplifier. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Operational Amplifier IC741 -3No 2. Resistors 10K -7No 3. RPS 4. Function Generator 5. CRO PROCEDURE: 1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram 2. Input voltage is set at 1V peak to peak in sinusoidal mode 3. Input frequency is varied from 100Hz till the output waveform is not distorted 4. Corresponding peak to peak magnitude of the output waveform is noted down 5. Gain is calculated and tabulated 6. Graph is plotted between input frequency and gain in db scale 7. Calculate the corner frequency from the frequency response plot. RESULT: Thus the frequency response characteristics of an instrumentation amplifier has been obtained & plotted D/A CONVERTER AIM To convert the given digital input into its equivalent analog output. OBJECTIVE 5. To study the conversion of binary voltage to analog o/p voltage 6. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier EQUIPMENT IC 741 – 1 No Resistor 1K – 2 No 2.2k – 7 No 100 –1 No Multimeter –1No Dual Power Supply (0-30)V 1No Bredboard & Connecting Wires CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE: vi. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram vii. Apply the binary input by closing appropriate switches viii. Measure the analog output using a multimeter. ix. Tabulate the measured values. x. Plot a graph between digital input Vs analog output and digital input Vs % output. RESULT: Thus the given digital input is converted into its equivalent analog output. A/D CONVERTER AIM To convert the given analog input into its equivalent digital output. OBJECTIVE 5. To study the conversion of analog I/P voltage to digital o/p voltage. 6. To study the operation and characteristic of operational amplifier COMPONENETS REQUIRED Op Amp LM741 -3No Resistors 470 -3No 1K -4No LED -3No RPS (0-5V) -1No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE 5. Given 4 bit analog input is converted to digital output 6. Verify the practical output with theoretical output PROCEDURE: i. The connections are made as shown in diagram ii. The voltage is increased in steps. The analog input is also given iii. The truth table is verified RESULT: Thus the analog to digital convertor was implemented and the truth table verified STUDY OF TRANSIENTS RC TRANSIENTS: AIM To Observe and plot the transients waveform for a series RC circuit and compute the time constant. OBJECTIVE 7. To study the transient behaviour of the given system 8. To study the effects of transients COMPONENTS REQUIRED 11. Resistance – 1 No 12. Capacitance – 1 No 13. Signal Generator 14. CRO & Probes 15. Bred board & Connecting Wires NOTE Choose the frequency (f) in signal generator such that f < (4z)^-1 where Z=RxC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: EXERCISE 5. Draw the response curve for the given system 6. Find the time when the error is minimum PROCEDURE: i. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram ii. Choose square wave made in signal generator and apply a suitable input iii. Observe and plot the output waveform iv. Calculate the time required by output to reach 0.368 times the input value(peak) v. This value given practical time constant RESULT: Thus the transient nature of RC circuit has been studied and the waveform plotted RL TRANSIENTS: AIM: To observe and plot the transient waveform for a series RL circuit and compute the time constant OBJECTIVE 9. To study the transient behavior of the given system 10. To study the effects of transients COMPONENTS REQUIRED Resistance 1KOhm – 1 No Inductor 10mH – 1 No Signal Generator CRO & Probes Bred board & Connecting Wires NOTE Choose the frequency (f) in signal generator such that f < (4z)^-1 where Z=L/R CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: PROCEDURE: vi. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram ii. Choose square wave made in signal generator and apply a suitable input iii. Observe and plot the waveform iv. Calculate the time required by output to reach 0.632 times the input value(peak) v. This value given practical time constant RESULT: Thus the transient nature of RL circuit has been studied and the waveform plotted MEASUREMENT OF IRON LOSS (MAXWELL BRIDGE) AIM To Measure the iron loss of a given ring specimen OBJECTIVE 5. To study about hysterisis loss 6. To study about eddy current loss EQUIPMENT: Ring Specimen Measurement of iron loss trainer CRO CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE: 9. Patch the circuit as per the circuit diagram 10. Connect the ring specimen to the corresponding connector provided on the front panel left corner 11. Switch ON the trainer observes the CRO output which should be some value 12. We have to null this output for that adjust the R value by using both fine and coarse adjustment. 13. Further adjust the L value until the Vout get a null condition. 14. Observe the ammeter value 15. Switch OFF the trainer 16. Measure the R value, L value using multimeter RESULT: The iron loss of the given ring specimen was calculated by using Maxwell’s Bridge. INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER AIM: To obtain the frequency response characteristics of the instrumentation amplifier. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 6. Operational Amplifier IC741 -3No 7. Resistors 10K -7No 8. RPS 9. Function Generator 10. CRO CIRCUIT DIAGRAM PROCEDURE: 8. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram 9. Input voltage is set at 1V peak to peak in sinusoidal mode 10. Input frequency is varied from 100Hz till the output waveform is not distorted 11. Corresponding peak to peak magnitude of the output waveform is noted down 12. Gain is calculated and tabulated 13. Graph is plotted between input frequency and gain in db scale 14. Calculate the corner frequency from the frequency response plot. RESULT: Thus the frequency response characteristics of an instrumentation amplifier has been obtained & plotted MEASUREMENT OF 3 PHASE POWER AND POWER FACTOR AIM To conduct a suitable experiment on a 3-phase load connected in star or delta to measure the three phase power and power factor using 2 wattmeter method. OBJECTIVES 5. To study the working of wattmeter 6. To accurately measure the 3 phase power 7. To accurately measure the power factor 8. To study the concept of star connected load and delta connected load APPARATUS REQUIRED 1. 3 phase Auto transformer – 1 No 2. M.I Ammeter – 1 No 3. M.I Voltmeter – 1 No 4. Wattmeter – 1 No CIRCUIT DIAGRAM: (0-10)A MI 10A M L R A V C 3 phase 440V, T variable 3 AC resistive supply P load ssupply 10A Y S T 440, 3 AC S supply 440V, 3 AC supply C V ssupply 10A B M L 600V, 10A UPF TPST- Triple Pole Single throw Switch MI- Moving Iron UPF- Unity Power Factor EXERCISE 3. Measure the real power, reactive power and power factor of 3 phase resistive inductive load. 4. Measure the real power, reactive power and power factor of 3 phase resistive capacitive load. PROCEDURE: 1.Connection are made as per the circuit diagram, Keeping the inductive load in the initial position. 2.Supply switch is closed and reading of ammeter and wattmeter are noted .If one of the wattmeter reads negative, then its potential coils (C and V) are interchanged and readings are taken in negative. 3.The above procedure is repeated for different values of inductive coil. Care should be taken that current should not exceed 10A during the experiment. TABULAR COLUMN: S.NO I W1 W2 POWER P.F P (Amps) (Watts) (Watts) Watts COS FORMULA USED: 4. Total power P = W1+W2 (W) 5. = Tan-1 3[W1-W2/W1+W2] 6. P.F = Cos. RESULT: The Power and Power factor of the given coil is measured by using only two wattmeters. 5. = Tan-1 3[W1-W2/W1+W2] 6. P.F = Cos. RESULT: The Power and Power factor of the given coil is measured by using only two wattmeters.

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EXPT NO MEASUREMENT OF RESISTANCE USING WHEATSTONE BRIDGE

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