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Armed Resistance

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					                            Armed Resistance
                     Underground Railroad Tic-Tac-Toe
Objectives:
    Students will understand that the Underground Railroad was not always secretive and
      passive.
    Students will analyze primary sources.
    Students will practice summarization skills.

National Standards:
   Historical Thinking: Historical Comprehension; Historical Analysis and Interpretation
   Content Standards: NSS-USH.5-12.4 ERA 4: EXPANSION AND REFORM (1801-1861)
    Understands how the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion
      of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward
      regional tensions

      Understands the sources and character of cultural, religious, and social reform
       movements in the antebellum period


Differentiation:
     By providing choices, students may choose activities that utilize their strengths. The
       design of the board may also challenge students to step out of their comfort zone.
     Students may work in pairs to anaylize the documents, but each must complete the
       activities independently.

Materials:
  1. Armed Resistance of the Underground Railroad Tic-Tac-Toe Board
  2. Primary Source Document #1: Christiana Riot
  3. Primary Source Document #2: Jerry
  4. Primary Source Document #3: Shadrach
  5. Primary Source Document #4: “The Christiana Tragedy” (Image)
  6. Handout #1: Analyzing Images
  7. Handout #2: Analyzing Primary Sources
Grade level: 7-12

Overview:
Using the primary sources provided, students will complete three activities the tic-tac-toe
board.

         Armed Resistance of the Underground Railroad
Complete three activities on the tic-tac-toe board. You may go vertically, horizontally, or
diagonally.

Act it Out                       Analyzing Primary Sources          Political Cartoon

Find one or more other           Analyze one of the stories of      After reading the newspaper
people to act out a scene of     armed resistance (one you          article about Shadrach, create
armed resistance. Use a          have not yet used).                two political cartoons: one
primary source you have not                                         from an antislavery point of
yet used. Create a script, to    Use Handout #2.                    view and one from a
turn in. You will also perform                                      proslavery point of view.
your scene for the class.
                                                                    Use Primary Source
                                                                    Document #3.

Outline Your Story               R.A.F.T.                           Wax Museum

Outline one of the stories of    You are a witness to the           Using one of the stories of
armed resistance (one you        rescue of of the fugitive slave,   armed resistance (one you
have not yet used).              Jerry, in Syracuse, New York.      have not yet used), choose
                                 You explain what you saw in        the identity of one person
                                 a letter to a close friend.        involved and tell the story.
                                                                    Create a script, to turn in.
                                 Use Primary Source                 You will also perform for the
                                 Document #2.                       class.

Analyzing Images                 Song or Poem                       Draw the Scene

Analyze the engraving of “The Using one of the stories of           Using one of the stories of
Tragedy at Christiana”        armed resistance (one you             armed resistance (one you
                              have not yet used), write a           have not yet used), draw the
Use handout #1 and Primary    song or poem from either a            scene.
Source Document #4.           antislavery or proslavery
                              viewpoint.
Primary Source Document #1: Christiana

ITEM #24086
September 25, 1851
FREDERICK DOUGLASS PAPER
Rochester, New York

MORE ABOUT THE CHRISTIANA AFFAIR.
-------

LANCASTER, Pa., Sept. 6, 1851.

      Mr. GRAY: Rumor has doubtless, ere this, reached you of the recent Slave Case
which occurred in the lower part of this county. I hasten to give you an account of the
matter in all its essential and important features.
      On the morning of Thursday, the 11th inst., about 4 o'clock, a slaveholder from
Maryland, named Gorsuch, together with his son and several understrappers, made their
appearance before the tenant-house of Mr. Pownall, a Quaker, residing in this county, on
the borders of Chester, and which was occupied by a colored man supposed to have
harbored a slave of the aforesaid Marylander, whom they intended to capture. As a
colored man, a guest of the tenant, issued from the door of the dwelling, this chivalrous
party made an attack upon him, when he retreated into the house, into which they
followed him. The man, however, proved not to be the slave of whom the party were in
pursuit; and in the course of a colloquy which followed, he advised the slaveholder to
leave the premises, assuring him that it would be impossible for him to capture any slave
and carry him out of the neighborhood. The Marylander declared that he would not be
baffled in his purpose of recovering his "property," adding that he would not leave the
place alive without accomplishing his purpose. "Then," replied the man, "you will not
leave the place alive. At this juncture, the son entreated his father not to suffer such
insolence from "a nigger," when the latter immediately fired upon the man, with a
revolver, three or four times, one bullet passing through his hair, and another grazing his
body. The man, who is possessed of great personal courage, stood all the while in the
doorway without flinching. The slaveholder, prepared to adopt means so singularly
persuasive toward that portion of his fellow-men who he claimed as his individual
property, and had so thoughtlessly absented themselves from his patriarchal care, was a
pious and exemplary exhorter in the Methodist Episcopal Church.
      Almost immediately an onset commenced from an entirely different quarter. A
number of colored men, who were aware of the intended attack, and had assembled in the
vicinity, fired upon the party in pursuit, killing the slaveholder on the spot, and wounding
the son in such a manner that it is scarcely possible he can recover. The latter has been,
ever since, lying at the house of Mr. Pownall.
      The county, for miles around, is in a state of the highest excitement. The notorious
Ingraham, the Philadelphia Commissioner, is on the ground, together with the United
States Marshal, Roberts, and a company of marines from the Navy Yard. They have
taken up their head-quarters at Christiana a village on the State Railroad, about twenty
miles below this city.
      Gangs of armed riflemen from Maryland, assisted by the lowest ruffians this region
can furnish, are prowling round the county, over a district of ten or twelve miles square,
arresting indiscriminately all colored persons whom they meet, gallantly, including the
women. A colored woman, who had been employed by Mr. Pownall to wash the clothing
of the two Marylanders; was seized at the wash-tub; and dragged away by her brave
captors, who were repeatedly assured that she had been expressly employed for the
above-mentioned purpose. All this is done ostensibly upon suspicion that the persons
arrested were engaged in the affray which ended in the death of the slaveholder. Not less
than fifty persons, in all, have been arrested; among them two white men, who were
seized on no other ground than that of a refusal to assist the government officers in the
capture of their neighbors. The conduct of these patriotic officials is doubtless founded
upon that clause of the Fugitive Slave Law, in which "all good citizens" are called upon
to assist in the noble enterprise of our general government, viz., the catching of runaway
slaves in general.
      Two colored men, employed by our friend Lindley Coates, in whose neighborhood
the affair occurred, were seized, on Saturday, and taken to Christiana. He followed them
to those head-quarters of "law and order," or rather to within half a mile of the village,
but was there dissuaded, by his friends, from going farther, by the earnest representation
that his life would be in imminent danger. Cyrus Burleigh, while passing by, was seized
and treated very rudely, but was protected from personal injury by the intercession of the
Marshal, with whom, I believe he is personally acquainted.
      Such is the insolence of these scoundrels from Maryland, backed by the officers of
the government, that people passing along the public highway in their carriages have
been rudely stopped and detained without any pretext whatever; and it is considered
unsafe for any one not of their own kit and kin to approach their rendezvous. I have all
these facts from perfectly reliable authority. It is highly to the credit of the
neighbourhood that not a man could be found to obey the orders of the government
officers in any of these infamous proceedings.
      A prospectus is in circulation for the establishment of a new Whig newspaper, to
be published in this city, but designed for the State in general, and which will be the
organ of that portion of the Pennsylvania Whigs of whom Mr. Thaddeus Stevens is the
representative. There is little doubt that the effort will meet with success, and that the
journal will be speedily established and ably conducted. H.W.G.
Primary Source Document #2: Jerry

ITEM #24197
October 9, 1851
FREDERICK DOUGLASS PAPER
Rochester, New York

THE SYRACUSE FUGITIVE CASE.
-------

         The examination of the Fugitive case was resumed on Wednesday at 5 P.M., at the
police office with closed doors. A crowd of four or five thousand people, in a high state
of excitement, surrounded the building. - Stones were thrown against the doors and
windows, and a large number of pains were broken. Before any progress could be made,
the excitement outside became so great as to prompt an adjournment until 8 o'clock
Thursday morning.
         After the adjournment the alleged fugitive was taken into an apartment back of the
police office, with the intention of waiting for the dispersion of the crowd, when he was
to be removed to a place of safety; but the excitement in the crowd continued to increase,
and at half past eight an attack was made on the police office by a crowd of persons
disguised as negroes, with clubs, axes, and crowbars. The windows and doors were
entirely demolished, and the office filled with men, but the negro was still beyond their
reach.
         A plank was used as a battering ram, and an entrance forced with it through the
partition separating the office and the apartment in the rear where the negro was.
Resistance was made by the officers having him in charge, but they were overpowered,
and he was borne away by his friends.
The negro was put into a carriage near Brintnall's Hotel, and hurried out of town to a
place of security.
         Marshal Fitch, of Rochester, had his right arm broken twice, in attempting to
escape from the apartment in which the negro was, when the assault upon it was made.
We hear of no one else being injured. In half an hour after the rescue, the crowd had
entirely dispersed and all was quiet.
      Last evening, (Wednesday,) Lear, the agent of Jerry's claimant, was arrested as a
kidnapper, on a warrant issued on a complaint of Charles A. Wheaton. This morning he
gave bail to appear at the trial.
      There was no effort made to re-capture Jerry after his rescue, and he is
undoubtedly beyond reach.
      The case and rescue are the topics of conversation this morning, and all appear
glad at the happy termination of the affair.
(It is rumored that Jerry has since been recaptured, but we have no particulars.)
(Mr. Fitch arrived here last evening. His injuries are pretty severe. He jumped from a
window upon the tow-path, when the rush was made into the room, and fell 18 feet,
breaking his arm twice and spraining his ancle. - Rochester Democrat.)

SYRACUSE, Oct. 2 - 9 P.M.

LATER - THE FUGITIVE NOT RECAPTURED. - The fugitive slave has not been
recaptured, and no one has gone after him, that we know of.
Primary Source Document #3: Shadrach

ITEM #29507
February 20, 1851
THE NATIONAL ERA
Washington, D.C., Vol. V. No. 216 p. 30

From the Boston Traveller, February 15.
AN ALLEGED FUGITIVE SLAVE CAPTURED AND AFTERWARDS RESCUED
BY A MOB.
-------
        At about 12 o'clock this forenoon, an alleged fugitive slave, named Shadrach, was
arrested by the United States Marshal, at Taft's Cornhill Coffee-house. The arrest was
made without opposition. The prisoner was conveyed to the United States Circuit Court
Room, where a crowd of spectators speedily gathered.
The warrant was issued by united States Commissioner G.T. Curtis, upon complaint of
John Kupper, attorney of John De Bree, Purser U.S. Navy, residing at Norfolk. De Bree
claims that Shadrach belongs to him, and that he escaped in 1849. Seth J. Thomas
appeared for claimant, S. E. Sewall, Ellis Gray Loring, and others for the defendant.
      The counsel for the defendant desired a postponement, upon the ground that time
would be wanted to get together evidence and prepare for a defence. The Commissioner
said he was disposed to grant this. In the mean time, for the information of defendant's
counsel, the documents upon which the warrant was issued were read by Seth J. Thomas,
Esq. Counsel for claimant. They consisted of various depositions taken before the United
States Judge at Norfolk, to the effect that Shadrach was the true and lawful slave of John
De Bree, and that he escaped on the 3d of may, 1850.
      At the conclusion of the reading of the documents the Commissioner postponed the
further consideration of the case to Tuesday next, at 10 A.M.
      The court-room was then gradually cleared of its occupants, the prisoner remaining
in the custody of Deputy Marshal Riley and his assistants. The counsel of the defendant
then had a long consultation with him as to the line of defence. Among the most
prominent of them were Richard H. Dans, jr., S.E. Sewall, Esq., and Ellis Gray Loring.
Besides these, there were a number of other lawyers who volunteered their assistance.
        At 1 o'clock, the stairway of the court-room and the avenues of the court-house
were crowded with blacks and whites, males and females, but no acts of violence or
threats were made.


P.S. RESCUE OF THE PRISONER BY A MOE. Since writing the above, we learn the
following facts of the rescue of the alleged fugitive:
About two o'clock, after the consultation of lawyers had ceased, and as Mr. Davis, the
last lawyer was leaving the court room, (which had been locked since the adjournment of
the hearing, with several officers stationed at each door,) the door was forcibly thrown
open by a band of colored men, who, with loud cries of "tear him away," filled the room,
to the number of a hundred or more.
        The officers at the door were kicked, cuffed, and knocked about in every direction;
and, notwithstanding the resistance of a posse of about twenty strong, upon the inside, the
prisoner was seized by the mob and carried off in triumph.
The negro seized the sword of the United States Marshal, and flourished it about the
heads of all who opposed him. The sword was afterwards found in the street, and taken
back.
        No adequate description can be given of the scene in the court-room. The attack
was so sudden and unexpected that the officers had not time to make a defence or gather
around the prisoner. We do not hear that any weapons were used, or that any one was
seriously injured.
        We believe there were no white persons engaged in the rescue.
Primary Source Document #4: “The Christiana Tragedy”




"The Christiana Tragedy"
Engraving published in William Still, The Underground Railroad (Philadelphia, 1872)
http://housedivided.dickinson.edu/ugrr/img_illus.cfm
Handout 1: Analyzing Images

Name:
Class:
Image Title: “The Tragedy at Christiana”



   1. What is the subject of the engraving?


   2. What does the engraving reveal about its subject?




   3. Whose story is being told and whose is left untold?




   4. What is the setting for the engraving?




   5. What other details did you observe?




   6. When and where in the past do you think the engraving was made? How can you
         tell?




   7. How would you describe the engraver’s point of view?




Handout Adapted from: http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/port/ho1.html
Handout 2: Analyzing Primary Sources

Name:
Class:
Title of Document:

   1. Who created the source and why? Was it created through a spur-of-the-moment
         act, a routine transaction, or a thoughtful, deliberate process?




   2. Did the recorder have firsthand knowledge of the event, or did the recorder report
         what others saw or heard?


   3. Was the information recorded during the event, immediately after the event, or
         after some lapse of time? How large a lapse of time?




   4. Was the recorder a neutral party, or did the recorder have opinions or interests that
         might have influenced what was recorded?




   5. Did the recorder wish to inform or persuade others? (Check the words in the
         source. The words may tell you whether the recorder was trying to be objective or
         persuasive.) Did the recorder have reasons to be honest or dishonest?




   6. Was the source meant to be public or private? Was it produced for personal use,
         for one or more individuals, or for a large audience?




Handout adapted from: http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/port/ho2.html

				
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