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									Accident Prevention & Safety Tips

                 Dr. Prashant P. Lanjewar
                   Dy. Director(Medical),
                   Central Labour Institute,
                   Sion, Mumbai-22
An accident is any unforeseen or unexpected
event that may or may not result in injury or
damage to property or equipment.
•Undesirable event resulting in injury, death or
property damage or all
"I never knew how fast an accident could happen," he said quickly
                                • Physical sufferings
                                • Economic loss
                                • Loss in production,
                                •   Loss of skilled labour
                                •   Loss to family
                                •   Legal troubles
                                •   Compensation &
                                    Increased insurance
One of every eight hospital beds is occupied by an accident victim.
Important Accidents
•   Bhopal, December 1984     • Zhilli Toy
•   Three Mile Island, USA        Factory,China,19-11-
•   Flexbourough, UK              93,Fire, Died: 87,
                                  Injured: 47
•   Chrnobyl,USSR
                              •   Shreeji International,
•   Kader Toy Factory,            Agra, May 25,2002,
    Bangkok,10-05-93, Fire,       Fire, Died:44
    Died: 188,Injured: 469
                              •   BP Oil, Texas Blast, 23-
                                  03-05, Died: 14,
• ILO : 2 Million die each year of occupational injuries and
• 270 million non–fatal accidents
• Major public health problem
• In industrialised countries, it is leading cause of death up to 40
  years of age.
• 4% of Global gross domestic product loss
• ILO Estimates for India: 11 fatal accidents per one lakh
  workers employed.
• India employs 334 million workers. Accordingly annual deaths
  comes to 36,740.
• Under WC Act 1377 deaths were compensated in 2000
Man-days worked : no. of workers and days actually worked.
 For Severity rate:      No. of man days lost X 1x106
                             Man hours worked
For Frequency rate:       No.of injuries X 1x106
                              Man hours worked
                                                1. TEXTILES

                       ACCIDENTS ( 1998)      2. BASIC METALS &
        5.      [ per 100,000 mandays worked] ALLOYS
    MACHINERY/TOO                               3. NON-METALLIC
     LS/ELECT.M/C.      1. TEXTILES             MINERAL PRODUCT
          5.14              8.54
4. TRANSPORT                                    4. TRANSPORT
                          2. BASIC METALS
    3. NON-METALLIC           & ALLOYS          5.
        MINERAL                  7.64           MACHINERY/TOOLS/E
  Accidents Prevention
• Heinrich- Book- Industrial Accident Prevention
    published in 1931.Pioneering work.
•   Unsafe Act, Unsafe Condition – 80:20
•   FR dropped from 15.12 in ‘31 to 5.99 in ’61 in US
•   World War II, Tailorism
•   1970 OSHA, 1981 ILO RESOLUTION NO.155
•   Heinrich: Find fault with ‘this’ or ‘that’.
•   Now it is acclaimed that accidents result form
    unsafe system of work. Chain of events lead to
•   Classification: Falls, Fire & Explosion, falling object,
    crushed between, Electrical, Vehicular, Confined
    space , storage, building parts, poisoning etc.
    Accidents Prevention
• Heinrich: Out of 330, one major and 29 minor accident
• Bird: Out of 601, 500 property damage, 100 minor injury
    and 1 lost time accident.
•   Most accidents are preventable.
•   Safety policy & organization, laws, motivation, house
    keeping, inspection and audit, written down procedure,
    proper tools and PPE, m/c. guarding, work permit

Accident   occur only because of inattentiveness of worker.
Victim   is responsible, he should have been more careful
Workers    put fingers to claim compensation
Drunk    workers cause accident
Managements     are prosecuted and punished for accidents
Agent, Host, Environment
Three phases- Pre-event, Event and Post-event.

• Models:
• Behavioural model- examine alertness & motivation
    or psychological climate at work or risk perception/
    risk taking etc.
•   Descriptive model -notes series of circumstances.
•   Energy model -state that injury occur when energy
    exceed resistance of body.
•   Fault Tree Analysis is example of logical model.
 Distribution of Accidents Causative wise in Descending order.


                                          Material Handling

                                          Stepping on /Striking against Objects.
 26%                  22%
                                          Falling Objects

3%                         13%            Person falling

5%        10%         12%                 Hand Tools.

     9%                                   Molten metals & Hot corrosive

             Accidents Prevention
Goal :   “Zero" disabling injuries and no lost work-time.

Barriers: Many barriers - Human attitude.
"it won't happen to me" or
"it couldn't happen here."

constantly thinking and practicing accident prevention than by
memorizing all of the rules, regulations, and safeguards ever
written or invented..

                 One must THINK before act
     Investigation & Analysis

• Objective : To identify factors responsible.
• Purpose:To prevent recurrence and not fix
•   Build environment of trust and confidence
•   Build team, select from different discipline.
•   OH Physicians role
•   Carefully designed Format.
•   Visit of the place, careful observation
•   In depth Interviews.
•   Draw conclusions.
•   Report preparation.
             General Work Habits
Reporting to work physically and mentally rested,
prepared to perform job safely and properly.

Report any unsafe condition/act.

Work by heart.

Control Emotions.

Report - injury, drug intake.

Not to Use - illegal drugs or intoxicating beverages at
Clothing & Personal Protective Equipment
  Flying objects,
  dust, hot or
  metals, harmful
  rays, caustics or

                                           When working
                                           with moving or
                                           rotating parts

"I never believed in wearing eye protection," he said blindly.
    Work Area Housekeeping

"But I thought someone else would pick up those tools," he said trippingly
  Materials- Good housekeeping
  Clean Spills - earliest; accident .
  Avoid Short cuts.
  Never block work areas, walkways, aisles, traffic lanes, or fire exits
  with vehicles, equipment or materials.
Hand & Power Tools
use the right tool, properly,
If unfamiliar- get the advice
Cutting tools- sharp, safe condition

Never use- burred, broken, damage
or mushroomed heads tools,
faulty-Report & return
Never -carry in pockets.

  Pull-than-push on a hand tool
  Never keep lying around loose.
  Non-sparking, non-magnetic tools-used- in areas such as grain
  storage, sewers, steam tunnels, spray-paint booths, radar unit
  locations, and rooms with electromagnets.

"I never thought a chisel could be that sharp," he said cuttingly
                      Equipment & Machinery
                     Allow - trained - operate power equipment &
                     give safety instruction
                     Control switches- located at suitable point .

rotating machinery Never- try to adjust, repair, clean, or oil
To Prevent accidental start-ups- Use lock out switches.
Always- replace guards after repairs.
        - Maintenance- prevent premature failure or accident.
While testing repaired equipment- keep all safety guards in place.
Regularly inspect for cracks, stretching, etc. on cables, chains,
clamps, hooks.
Report-If equipment is damaged or creating a possible hazard

"Reaching for something near unguarded, operating machinery
never used to bother me," he said off-handedly.
1) hand held pneumatic                      3) employee was struck and severely
grinder to polish a metal                   lacerated by the broken wheel.

2) grinding wheel got stuck
in a joint of the table and
broke off.

                              grinder did not have a guard on it at the time of the
                              injury and no PPE was in use

                              Upon investigation- the grinding wheel
                              was not the right one for the task being

wet stripping methods   Tag   A lockout device and tag

 "Reaching for something near unguarded, operating
 machinery never used to bother me," he said off-handedly.
             Fire Protection
  fire protection equipment & fire alarms- Always visible.

                    Prohibit-Sources of ignition in spl. Areas.
                    Always obey "No Smoking" signs.
                    Never check for possible natural gas
                    leaks with an open flame.
                    Avoid- Refueling a small running/hot
                    Always clean up spills occuring during
                    refueling .

"I never got this big of a bang from one cigarette," he said
      Welding & Cutting Safety
                                Approved eye protection

                                Done by authorized personnel

                                Proper fire extinguishers- keep handy

                                Localized ventilation-whenever required.

                                Welding permit- for spl. location, day.

Always use- soapy water - to check for leaks in hoses, fittings, and
valves in welding equipment.
Recently welded material - marked HOT , keep safely.
Oxygen acetylene torch units- Lit with proper ignition equip. and not
with matches or cigarettes.
Oil in any form- kept away from sources of oxygen.
         Compressed Gas Cylinders
                    Valve caps- on cylinders when not in use.
                    Accidents occur- when the heads of these
                    cylinders were broken off.
                    Empty and full cylinders- stored in separate
                    areas & by approved chain.

 Cylinders in use- properly secured in an upright position & -
 transported only on cylinder carts.

 A cylinder valve should be opened slowly to avoid valve

He felt compelled to admit that, "After the accident, I realized
it doesn't take a rocket scientist to handle a gas cylinder
     Electrical Safety
     Very little electric current to kill-<1/10th of an ampere.
     With good contact, 115 volts is sufficient voltage to
     cause death.
     No electrical work- performed "hot" when it can be
     done "cold.“
     -explosives or other flammable liquids or gases exist
     Periodic inspection of elect.gadgets.
     Properly grounded.
      Spliced or damaged electrical cords- not to be used.
      Use-heavy-duty rubber insulated cords.
     Never use electrical equipment when standing in or
     near water.
     Install GFI in the circuit or-Use- Portable ground-fault
     circuit interrupters(GFI) for use in wet environments.
     Repairs, installations – done by Electrical Dept.
     Do not Stand on metal ladders or wear metal hard hats
     near high voltage electrical power.

"I never bother with the pigtail," she cried shockingly.
        Construction Safety

"I guess I got in over my head," he said crushingly.
Excavation & trenches>4’ deep- have proper sloping/ shoring
Never enter a cave- to rescue another worker without shoring

General Excavation Safety Tips:
•Underground utilities- located & marked.
•Trenches-> 4’- have a safe exit (ramp or ladder)
•Trenches 5 feet or deeper - inspected daily by EHS.
•Excavated material & other objects-kept at least 2’ from a
trench opening.
•Don’t allow Works on the sides of sloped or benched
excavations-unless lower worker is protected from falling
•Station -Top Person outside the trench to detect & warn
•Any excavating under base of a foundation or wall requires a
support system designed by a Regd. Prof. Engineer.
                        Ladders and Scaffolding
                      Use only Right, approved sturdy ladders. Inspect
                      before use.
                      Ladders with structural defects- tag with "Do Not
                      Use non-conductive side rails around live electrical
                      equip .
                      Wear protective clothing and rubber-soled shoes.
                      Tie ladders- parallel to the ground when transporting.
                      Barricade traffic areas in the vicinity of ladder use,
                      and lock, barricade or guard doorways in which a
                      ladder is placed.
Keep the area around the top and bottom of the ladder clear.
Angle out the base one-fourth of the ladder's working length.
The ladder should reach at least three feet above the landing.
Extension ladders shall be kept from slipping or tipping by tying off the
ladder at the top and securing the ladder at the bottom.
Face ladder- while climbing & use both hands.
Lift equipment and materials with a rope only.
Carry- smaller tools in pouches around the waist.
               I usually climb down slowly," he uttered brokenly
Never- allow more than one worker.
Never- stand on the top two steps of any ladder.
Always maintain - at least three points of contact with the ladder
Use the belt buckle- keep in bet. Side rails
Do not move, shift, or extend on the ladder while standing.
Maintain ladders free of oil, grease and other hazards.

Scaffolding- used- if solid footing or a safe ladder is not available.
Apply Caster brakes before.
Scaffolding -secured at 15’ interval to a solid support- Secured by
wire/cable/chain/ rope.
                                  Ladders, boxes, etc. should not be
                                  moved with employee(s) or materials on
                                  the scaffold.
                                  Scaffolding moved- only if ht. < 15’.
                                  “Watcher" - posted to watch.
                                  Keep all tools and materials away from
                                  the edges of the scaffold and platform
                                  Inspected by EHS if Scaffolding 50’ high
                             Back Safety
   > one million workers suffer back injuries each year, and back
   injuries account for one of every five workplace injuries.

Think of- back as a lever. With the fulcrum in the center of the lever, it only
takes ten pounds of pressure to lift a ten pound object.

In fact, it operates on a 10:1 ratio. Lifting a ten pound object actually puts 100
pounds of pressure on your lower back.
When you add in the 105 pounds of the average human upper torso, you see
that lifting a ten pound object actually puts 1,150 pounds of pressure on the
lower back.
                   Avoid Lifting and Bending Whenever You Can!

                   Place objects up off the floor.
                   Raise/lower shelves.
                   The best zone for lifting is between your shoulders
                   and your waist. Put heavier objects on shelves at
                   waist level and lighter objects on lower or higher

                    Stooping over from the waist to lift, with uneven
                    footing/poor balance/awkward positioning- injury,

                  Use carts and trollys to move objects instead carry
                  Push carts than to pull.

Use cranes, hoists, lift tables & other lift-assist devices
Avoid- lifting over head & reaching across a table.
Avoid- awkward, bending/uncomfortable positions for long periods.
Don’t sit/stand idle.- Breaks
                                Proper Lifting
                     "Oh, my aching back. Now what do I do with it?"

                     -Look over the pick-up and delivery area for- tripping
                     hazards/slippery spots/small doors/sharp corners/
                     blind spots, etc.
                     -Inspect object- sharp corners, wet surfaces, slivers,
-Place feet correctly--one foot to the side of the object (stability) & other
behind (thrust/lift). Do the actual lifting with legs only.

Keep- the object closer.-Get a correct grip/hold.- back straight.
While lifting- tuck in your chin (alignment).

ACT OF LOWERING CORRECTLY in the same manner as lifting
Turn whole body if- desire to change position after lifting.

During Team-lifting- Training of safe, correct method of lifting & transport.
                                             Vehicle Safety
                              Follow the laws, Maintain vehicle
                              Notify problems- brakes/steering/lights
                              or horns.
                              Materials or equipment- on trucks
                              shall be strapped/ held down by ropes
                              Never allow workers to ride on top of

Transporting people- Driver's responsibility
Don’t sit on the edge & don’t keep legs outside.
*Never* transport people while they are standing.

Never ride- a piece of equipment if there is no place specifically
designed for that riding on a tractor fender, working out
of a front- end loader bucket, etc.

Most non-collision deaths - caused by falls due to swerving, braking
or rough roads. In one-third of these cases, the victim was standing
up, sitting on the tail-gate or "horsing around."
Trailer- be sure the ball and hitch are sized for use together.

Attach- Safety chains in appropriate manner by crossing them

Place the heaviest part of a trailer load in the front of a trailer/above
the axles,
Large or heavy masses/loads - placed at the middle of the trailer.

Never allow anybody on a trailer.

Use a Red flag on the end of a load that extends 4 feet or more past
the end Test trailer brakes, before going into traffic.

Learn to start slowly, avoid jerking, watch your speed.

Anticipate stops & speed to permit deceleration without hazard.
              Work Area Safety Awareness
                             In unfamiliar work areas- be aware of work
                             going. Check the locations and safety of
                             others in the area-before opening valves,
                             turning on switches, or starting machinery.
                             Have all safety guards and covers attached.
                             Walking surface - secured before stepping
                             onto it.
                             Be careful around slippery spots, loose
                             objects, or jagged edges.

  All electrical cords, ropes, hoses, etc.-placed to avoid hazards such as
  tripping or damage from oil, grease, water, or moving equipment.
  Adequate lights- on all work areas, stairways, & basements.
  When using swinging sledge hammers, elevated loads, make sure the
  area involved is clear.
  Place adequate barricades and/or signs to warn of the danger- If work
  causes hazardous conditions for others e.g., manhole barricade
"I've walked right under a lot of suspended loads," he said flatly.
Maintenance shops and work areas- correct colors used- to identify
hazards, exits, safe walkways, and first-aid stations.
Use- Paint, tapes.

In maintenance shops- Red color markings- used to identify the
following equipment or locations:
Fire alarm boxes (pull boxes), Fire blanket boxes, Fire extinguishing
Fire extinguishers.
Fire hose locations, Fire pumps, Fire sirens, Sprinkler piping, Fire
Fire reporting telephone stations.
Store all idle tools in a safe, dry place.
Emergency stop buttons for electrical machinery.
Emergency stop bars on hazardous machines.
Yellow color markings - used to identify- equipment or locations:
Industrial areas where particular caution is needed, such as
     handrails, guardrails, bottom edge of overhead doors, or top and
    bottom treads of stairways.
•Fire hydrant barrels.
•Caution signs.
•Piping systems containing flammable material.
•Waste containers for highly combustible material.
•A hazardous area or a safe aisle within a hazardous area.
•Lower pulley blocks and cranes.
•Coverings and guards for guy wires.
•Pillars, posts, or columns that are physical or shop hazards.
•Fixtures suspended from ceilings or walls that extend into normal
operating areas.
•Corner markings for storage piles.
•Exposed and unguarded edges of platforms, pits, and wells.
Green color- on a white color background - used for: equipment or locations:
First-aid equipment.
First-aid dispensaries.
Safety starting buttons on machinery.
Safety instruction signs.
Black and white -basic colors -for designating housekeeping and interior traffic
The following are examples of where solid white, solid black, single-color
striping, alternate stripes of black and white, or black and white squares will be
used: Locations and width of aisles in non-hazardous areas.
       Dead ends of aisles or passageways.
       Directional signs.
       Locations of refuse cans.
       White corners of rooms or passageways.
 Clear floor area around first aid, fire fighting, and their emergency equipment.

Blue color markings:           used on the outside of switch boxes electrical
controls that are the starting point or power source for hazardous electrical
machinery or equipment.
Orange markings- used to designate dangerous parts of machines or
energized equipment, including electrical conduits, which may cut, crush,
shock, or injure.
 All signs require a predominant color based on the sign's purpose.

Danger signs: RED.
Caution signs: YELLOW.
Safety instruction signs: GREEN.
Directional signs: BLACK.
Informational signs: A variety of colors may be used, except for red,
yellow, or magenta (purple).
                               FIRST AID
CHEMICAL BURNS : Flush the affected area with water for 10 to 15 minutes and
remove or cut away clothing.
Proper steps are required to control excessive bleeding.
Direct Pressure: Do not take off any of the blood-soaked bandages. Keep a firm
pressure on the bandage(s) until the person is transferred to someone more
A tourniquet should be used only as a last resort for critical emergencies such
as an amputation.
Evacuate the building immediately via nearest exit.
Use building stairwells & not elevators.
Close all doors
Give the information:

Fire extinguishers are labeled as to the kind of fire they
will be effective against.
Class A - wood, paper, grass, cloth
Class B - grease, oil, flammable liquids
Class C - energized electrical equipment
Extinguisher Use Instructions:
Check label and carry extinguisher to vicinity of fire
Remove the ring pin by pulling
Squeeze discharge lever
Direct discharge nozzle at base of fire
Be sure all fire is out before stopping discharge
Back away from extinguished fire
Report to EHS
                                         Off-The-Job Safety

                                        one-half of the injuries suffered
                                        by workers occur off the job?

Practice Good Housekeeping
Avoid using the basement, attic or utility room as a dumping ground.
Yard- clear of broken glass, nail-studded boards, and other litter.
Electric utensils or tools – grounded, disconnect when not in use.
Fuses/circuit breakers- labeled - to identify outlets and fixtures they
Good lighting- work areas, stairways, & bedrooms of elderly.
Emergency phone numbers- keep handy- police, fire, doctor, utilities.
Use a step stool or utility ladder--when reaching into high cupboards
or shelves.
Replace cracked electrical appliance and extension cords.
Don't use aerosols near open flames or while smoking.
Firearms- in a locked rack or cabinet and ammunition separately.
Use - right tool for the job and always get help from others for heavy
or difficult jobs.
Prepare and practice a family escape plan in case of a fire - should
include two ways out of every area and a pre-determined meeting
place outside of the home.
Motor-vehicle accidents- #1 accidental killers of children below 5
-Using a child safety seat.

Wipe up liquid spills immediately.
Turn hot handles away from the stove front so that they don't tempt children.
Grease fire- never pour Water.
Washers and dryers should be electrically grounded.
Always keep household cleaners, disinfectants, insecticides, drain openers,
and medicines in their original labeled containers--separate from food--and
preferably locked up and out of reach from small children.
Read the label before taking any medicine.

Keep all tools properly guarded and out of reach of small children.
Flammable paint thinners and solvents should be kept in metal cans. -keep
them stored away -sources of ignition- gas, hot-water tanks, heaters.
Keep the garage door open while running the car engine inside to avoid
                    Legal Provisions

• Sec.88 of Factories Act : If there is fatal accident FI ,Police
    and DM are to be informed; If injured person is prevented
    from attending duty for more than 48 hrs immediately after
    the event, it become notifiable.; Notification to be done
    within 12 hrs in form 21.
•   Dangerous occurrences like fire, over turning of lift, wall
    collapse etc are also to be notified under rule 103.

• Under ESI Act , Form 16 is to be filled up and sent to both,
    LOM and IMO with in 48 hours
                      Coincident or Not ?
   A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

  K + N + O + W + L + E + D + G + E
 11 + 14 + 15 + 23 + 12 + 5 + 4 + 7 + 5 =       96%            100%
  H + A + R + D + W + O + R + K
  8 + 1 + 18 + 4 + 23 + 15 + 18 + 11      =   98%

  Both are important, but the total falls just short of 100%

        A + T + T + I + T + U + D + E
        1 + 20 + 20 + 9 + 20 + 21 + 4 + 5 =                    100%
  Safety really is about attitude. Make 100% Safe
  Behavior your choice both ON and OFF the job

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