Leather and tanning Occupational health hazards

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Leather and tanning Occupational health hazards Powered By Docstoc
					       BY DR A K PANDEY
Heidelberg Cements (I) Ltd
          19th AFIH Course
               CLI, Mumbai
INTRODUCTION

 Very ancient industry
 Leather goods being used by mankind since long time.
 Garments and footwear used earlier
 In modern times, a variety of goods are used .
International Trade
 Raw hides and skins           - 5,419
 Leather                       - 13,053
 Leather footwear              - 24,974
 Total                         - 43,445


(Million US Dollars - Average 1994-1996)
MAJOR PRODUCER COUNTRIES
 CHINA
 ITALY
 INDIA
 UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
 ARGENTINA
 BRAZIL
 U.S.S.R.
 AUSTRALIA
Major Production Centres in India

 Southern Region - Chennai, Ranipet,Trichy,
  Dindigul , Hyderabad, Bangalore
 Northern Region – Jallandhar, Delhi
 Eastern Region - Calcutta
 Central Region - Kanpur, Agra
 Western Region - Mumbai
Estimated Production Capacities
 Product Capacity - Leather
- Hides - 65 million pieces
- Skins - 170 million pieces
 Leather Products
- Leather Footwear       - 776 million pairs
- Leather Shoe uppers - 112 million pairs
- Non-leather Footwear - 960 million pairs
- Leather Garments        - 18 million pieces
- Leather Goods           - 60 million pieces
- Industrial Gloves       - 52 million pairs
- Saddlery                - 0.10 million pieces
Features Of Leather Sector In India
 Employs 2.5 million persons.
 A large part (nearly 60-65%) of the production is in
    the Small/Cottage Sector.
   Annual export value poised to touch about 2 billion US
    dollars.
   Amongst top 8 export earners for India.
   Endowed with 10% of the world raw material and
    export constitutes about 2% of the world trade.
   Has enormous potential for future growth.
   Very high value addition within the country.
DEFINITIONS
 Leather : a durable and flexible material created by
  processing of putrescible raw hide and skin
 Hide : skin obtained from large animals like cattle, horse
 Skin : skin obtained from small animals like sheep
 Fur : skin of animals with soft hairs like beaver , mink.
 Tanning : A chemical process that converts animal hide/
  skin into leather using chemical agents (acid, alkali,
  salts, enzymes, tannin, etc)
TANNING
 Tanning process is aimed to remove fat and non-
  fibrous proteins as well as to strenghten the collagen
  fibres by chemical bonding .
 This gives strength and tuffness to the leather
 The dermal layer of the skin used for making leather –
  contains the collagen fibres
DIAGRAM OF SKIN
LEATHER PRODUCTION
 Curing and shipment
 Preparation
 Tanning
 finishing
CURING

   DRYING    DRY-SALTING       BRINING        DISINFECTION

• HEAT      • DRY SALT      • BY DIPPING IN   • DDT
• SUN         APPLICATION     SALT            • CHLORO-
                              SOLUTION          PHENOLS
                                              • Zn/ Hg SALTS
CURING AND SHIPMENT
 Hides are byproducts of meat industry .
 Fur are produced at separate farm houses .
 The hides and furs are preserved by curing process to
  prevent decay during shipment.
 Curing done by- drying, drysalting or brining.
 Disinfecting agents added before shipment to the
  leather industry like DDT zinc/mercury chloride,
  chlorophenols.
PREPARATION

          SPLITTING
 LIMING               PICKLING
          TRIMMING
PREPARATION
(BEAM HOUSE OPERATIONS)
 Washing : with water containing bleaching powder,
  caustic soda, sodium sulphide etc.
 Liming : washed hides dipped in the milk of lime.
 Deliming and bating : done with ammonium sulphate
  / chloride solution.
 Pickling : hides placed in solution of sulphuric acid
  and sodium chloride solution.
TANNING
 VEGITABLE
               CHEMICAL
  DERIVED
• TANNINS-    • CHROMIUM-
  DERIVED       HEXAVALENT
  FROM BARK   • CHROMIUM-
  OF TREES      TRIVALENT
TANNING
 Done in TANYARDS
 Two type of processes available :
- A) Slow method by vegetable tanning with tannins
  obtained from plant sources.
- B) Fast method by chrome tanning with hexavalent or
  trivalent chrome salts.
 Splitting of hides done to make it even thickness all
  over the area.
DYEING/ FAT LIQUORING
    DYEING          FAT LIQUORING

• DIFFERENT TYPE   • BY NATURAL
  OF DYES USED       OIL/FAT
• BLEND OF DYES    • SYNTHETIC OIL
  USED FOR         • MINERAL OIL
  VARIOUS
  SHADES
DYEING/FAT LIQUORING
 Performed with dyes or blend of dyes to give desired
  colour to leather.
 Fat liquoring done by oil and natural fats or synthetic
  products such as mineral oil, synthetic fats etc. It gives
  strength, flexibility and lubricate the leather for
  polishing/ finishing.
FINISHING

  VEGETABLE TAN        CHROME TAN
     LEATHER             LEATHER
• SETTING/ROLLING   • STAKING
• FINAL POLISHING   • BUFFING
                    • FINAL POLISHING
FINISHING
 Vegetable tanned leather rolled and final polishing
  done.
 Chrome tanned leather:
- A)Staking (beating) to make soft,
- B)Buffing- by sanding drum to give shine on grain side
  of leather,
- C)Final polishing- by a solution of dye.
HAZARDS
INJURIES due to
- Slippery surface of the working area(spilling of watery
  solution used for washing/ tanning).
- Machinery used for cutting, splitting etc. These have
  rotating drums & knives.
- Chemicals, acids & alkali- when a worker falls into
  open pits/vats used in beam house/ tannery.
HAZARDS(contd)
INFECTION by
- Raw hides and skins which are not disinfected and
  processed with properly before shipment.
- Agents commonly seen are- Anthrax, Brucellosis.
- Affects the workers of Beam House.
HAZARDS(contd)
CHRONIC BRONCHITIS by DUST & CHEMICALS
- Large amount dust is produced in splitting, staking,
  buffing & polishing.
- Acid, alkali, sulphides, ammonium salts etc used
  produce chemical mist.
HAZARDS(contd)
ALLERGY, DERMATITIS & ULCERATION
- Contact Dermatitis by various chemicals.
- Ulceration of skin by Chromium salts, leading to
  perforation of nasal septum & ‘Chrome holes’ at
  finger-roots and knuckles.
HAZARDS(contd)
PROBABLE CARCINOGENIC HAZARDS
- Lung Cancer by Chromium, Arsenic, Chloro-phenols
- Pancreatic Cancer – no definite cause
- Bladder Cancer – no definite cause
- Testicular Cancer – no definite cause
- Leukemia – due to Benzene used earlier, not being
  used now-a-days
HAZARDS (contd)
 FIRE- due to inflammable solvent vapour and organic
  solvent used at various processes. Dry hide itself is an
  organic material leading to major fire disaster in
  leather industry.
 NOISE- due to various machines used for cutting
  trimming buffing etc.
 CHILD LABOUR- it is also a burning issue with
  leather industry.
WATER POLLUTION
EFFLUENT WATER DISCHARGE
- It deteriorates the quality of water body
- B O D increases heavily
- High concentrations of heavy metals and toxic
  chemicals
  EFFLUENT WATER TREATMENT TO BE DONE
  BEFORE DISCHARGE TO THE WATER BODY
AIR POLLUTION
 Ammonia, sulphide and decomposing hides give the
  characteristic odour of tannery
 Solvent vapour and chemicals used in dyes also lead to
  considerable air pollution
 Dust emitted by splitting and buffing units add to it


SUPPRESION OF DUST, COLLECTION OF SOLVENT
 VAPOUR AND PROPER DISPOSAL OF AMONIA
 AND SULPHIDE REQUIRED
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
 SLUDGE AND OTHER SOLID MATERIALS are
  byproducts.
 Chromium free material can be used for production of
  gelatin, glues, leather board ,tallow grease etc
 Chromium laden material to be disposed in land fills
  or as per guidelines
THANK YOU
          REFERNCES
 Encyclopedia of Occupational Health
  & Safety (4th edition)
 Wikipedia.org/leather
 tannerscouncilict.org/perspective
 India Symposium IBEF Sectoral
  Reports-Leather.
 Indian leather portal.com
    -leather industry overview

				
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Description: Occupational health problems in Leather and tanning industry