SANDA CORPORTION 1D
Sanshou Sanda, also known in ancient times called Xiang Bo, hand pump, attack and so on. Simply, is that the two unarmed fighting face to face. GB Wushu Sanda is a major form of expression, to kick, hit, throw, take the four techniques as the main means of attack. In addition, defense, footwork and other techniques. Sanda is one of modern sport, the two sides in accordance with the rules, the use of kicking, punching, wrestling and other offensive and defensive tactics were unarmed fight, fight. Ring is a traditional Chinese form of martial arts is Wushu Chinese Wushu Association in order to be able to adapt to modern sport from the order.
SANDA CORPORTION TM APPLICATION NOTES FACTS ANIONIC SURFACTANTS 1D Thermometric titration of surfactants was investigated earlier by Jordan* with hyamine (ABS) and Weiner & Feldmeister* with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The precision of these titrations was tabulated in Vaughan. See facing insert. SANDA from experiments has found that CPC gives a sharper endpoint. Thus, the precision is better with CPC. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), titrated with 0.4M CPC in a solvent mixture of 2:3 methanol/water, resulted in: Standard Deviation: 0.007 (8 titrations) Slope: 0.99994 Percent (%) SAA: 91.07, repeated: 91:21 Commercial sulfonates, in the titration with CPC, usually agreed well with the conventional, time-consuming hyamine test. A solvent mixture of 1:1 methanol/water enabled us to increase the titrant strength to 1 molar. This was useful since the reaction of sulfonates is not as exothermic as is that of SLS. The addition of a few drops H2O2 seems to catalyze this reaction favorably. Moreover, the addition of 5 mL acetonitrile prior to titration sharpened the relative weaker endpoint. These commercial surfactants, different in composition, in all cases, have given at least two distinct reactions, typically shown in the titration graph below. Sodium lauryl sulfate added to sulfonate has been found in between the two reactions of sulfonate. This is noticeably more exothermic than the reaction of sulfonate. See the following graphs: Sulfates, determined by precipitation with barium chloride in sulfonic acid, as well as in sulfonates, have given accurate and precise results. However, prior to titration an excess of CPC should be added to prevent a partial precipitation of organic sulfates in surfactants. The SANDA 2-buret titration system makes this type of titration easier. It can be set up for a two titrant delivery, first the CPC titration and then the barium chloride titration--one after another. A program for such titrations is provided. Water Determination Sulfonic acid, less than 0.6%, could be rapidly determined by thermometric titration with a ketal, which is a stable titrant and not moisture sensitive, since the reaction has to be acid catalyzed. Surfactants, in the very same way, can be accurately determined for water content with the same titrant. Comments: Rapid information, including a very unique water determination, can be obtained on surfactants by thermometric titration. We realize, however, that the information gathered here is just a beginning in the study of surfactants, whether it be reactivity, composition or simplification of methodology.