How can I know how to punctuate by suchenfz

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									 Commas are necessary for
  comprehension.
 In order to know when to use commas, it
  is important to understand clauses.
 An independent clause can stand
  alone.
 A dependent Clause needs an
  independent clause to be a sentence.
    › Dependent clauses begin with subordinating
      conjunctions
    › After, although, as, because, if, once, since,
      etc.
 I went to class at 3:00.
 Meet me at 8:00.
 The doctor’s office was closed.


   Why are these Independent clauses?
 When you went to the store
 Considering the latest developments
 Until you begin the task
 Sometimes if the pegs aren’t in the right
  order

   Why are these dependent clauses?
   I traveled to Florida although I didn’t
    have much money.

                What punctuation is needed?

                                           Why?
   I went to the store and I bought lots of
    groceries.
      What    punctuation       is   needed?

    These two independent clauses are joined by
      a coordinating conjunction (and).
      Each independent clause can stand alone.
 The library book      I checked out is
  due soon.
 The library book is due soon     I think I
  owe a fine.

   Kind of conjunction and Punctuation?
   after           how                  till ( or 'til)
   although if                   unless
   as        inasmuch            until
   as if           in order that when
   as long as      lest                 whenever
   as much as      now that             where
   as soon as      provided (that)      wherever
   as though       since while
   because so that
   before          than
   even if         that
   even though     though
They introduce dependent clauses and
relate to a noun already named in the
sentence.
› (That, which, what, who, whoever, etc.)


› EX: Sometimes the classes that I want are full.

  I s   p u n c t u a t i o n    n e e d e d ?
   Subordinating conjunctions and relative
    pronouns (That, which, what, who,
    whoever, etc.) make clauses
    dependent.
   A RESTRICTIVE/essential clause is a clause
    that restricts the meaning of the
    sentence.

    › EX: I looked at the car that had been in an
      accident and concluded an insurance
      appraisal was needed.
    › EX: Please take the package that hasn’t
      been opened with you to the office.
   A non-restrictive/essential clause doesn’t
    restrict the meaning of the sentence.

    › EX: The officer, who lives in Lincoln,
      accepted the award.
    › EX: The book, which I read last year, is very
      good.
   Restrictive/essential clauses do not have
    commas around them.
    › EX: The car that was $30,000 was sold off the
      lot.
   Non-restrictive/essential clauses need
    commas. EX: The car that I bought,
    which has GPS, is parked in the driveway.
   How to determine a compound
    sentence
    Ask: Is there a coordinating conjunction and
     does the sentence contain at least two
     independent clauses?
        1. You would use a comma with a coordinating
         conjunction.
        2. You can sometimes substitute a semicolon for a
         coordinating conjunction.
   She created the program and she led
    the team.

   I think that the issue is clear it also may
    have multiple outcomes.

What punctuation is needed?
   Clauses in compound sentences are
    often linked by the conjunctive adverb
    (consequently, however, moreover,
    besides, nevertheless, on the other hand,
    in fact, therefore, thus)

If they are, you need a semicolon before
    the conjunctive adverb.
   The firm has had a change in
    management; therefore, we are not sure
    what we should do.

   It is clear that we should fix the error;
    moreover, we are expected to do it.
   Complex sentences contain both an
    independent and dependent clause.

   There may be no punctuation between
    the clauses, or they may be separated
    by a comma.
EX: Although we don’t have to, we should
  correct the error.



        --An introductory clause with a
 subordinating conjunction is followed by
 a comma.
   Restrictive/essential clauses are essential;
    they restrict the meaning of the term
    they modify. No comma is needed.



   EX: Schools that let out early are
    diminishing student opportunities for
    learning.
   Non-Restrictive/essential clauses add
    additional information but do not restrict
    the meaning of the term it modifies.



   EX: The detective, who was tall and
    handsome, took down my statement.
   Series Commas
    › Series: A list in a sentence of 3 or more items

       Separate by commas,
       ―and‖ preceding the final item

       EX: Please put the cups, jars, and plates in the
        cabinet.
         CMS—Comma should appear before conjunction.
   More on serial commas

 Serial comma important when one item
  includes conjunction
 EX: Registering for classes includes
  knowing your major requirements,
  understanding the registrar’s rules and
  regulations, and making your
  appointment time.
Series Commas and Semicolons
When would you use semicolons in a
 series?
    › When items in the series have parts that are
      separated by commas. (Also, CMS
      6.21(internal punctuation or long, complex)
    › EX: Elected to the council were Mark
      Roberts, 19, a sophomore from Miami, Fla.;
      Suzanne Idley, 20, a junior from Nashville,
      Tenn.; and Alberto Greenberg, 21, a senior
      from Hartford, Conn.
   When adjectives in a series modify a
    noun—
    › Use a comma between the adjectives but
      not before the noun.

    › EX: The newer, more avant garde films are in
      vogue.
   Parallelism--related items share a
    grammatical structure.



    › EX: The responsibility of the cook is creating
      the recipe, cooking the food, and
      supervising the staff.
   When the structure of items in a series
    shifts

 EX: She spent the day visiting all the
  tourist shops and watched the children
  on the beach, and then she went back
  to the hotel for a late lunch.
 What will improve this sentence?
   Introductory Phrases are usually followed
    by a comma unless they are quite short.
      EX: For those with permission statements, the
      rules are fairly easy.
    › Whenever you open with an introductory
      clause, you should consider using a comma.
      With a short introductory phrase, the comma
      is often omitted.
    › EX: After dinner the children returned to the
      yard.
   What do they do?
    › Show possession or contraction
       EX: Dawn’s thesis
       EX: They’re the wrong kind.


   Common Confusion:
    › It’s (contraction of “It is” & Its (possessive
      pronoun)
    › Plural Possessives: “the companies’ rules”
› Remember: The plurals of years,
 abbreviations and some proper names don’t
 take apostrophes (Also CMS 7.15):
   1940s
   FBIs
   CMS lists the following holidays as
    singular possessives: Mother’s Day,
    Father’s Day, New Year’s Eve, New
    Year’s Day. Plural possessive is used for
    Presidents’ Day
   A hyphen shows that two words function
    as a unit.
    › En dash—used where a hyphen addresses
      editorial or typographic confusion (CMS
      6.80)


   Because of inconsistencies (cross
    section/cross-reference), you often need
    to consult a dictionary or style manual to
    see if the phrase uses a hyphen.
   7.90 arranges the guide by:
    › Type
    › Compounds formed with specific terms
       (use of ―all‖– all out, all-American)
    › Words formed with prefixes
       (minivan)
   Noun forms of compound terms tend to
    be open or solid (no hyphen).

   EX: problem solving, bookkeeping

   CMS: pgs. 299-300 offers some help,
    such as inserting a hyphen when it
    makes for easier reading (7.85).
   --Noun forms that are formed by a noun
    and an adjective are more likely to be
    hyphenated or solid.
    › EX: Self-treatment, self-service
   But there are exceptions.
    › EX: patient services


   If unsure, check dictionary or style
    manual. (CMS suggests dictionary first.)
   Compound adjectives are hyphenated if
    they precede the word modified and if
    they are formed in these ways:

    › Adjective or noun + past participle
       EX: green-tinted glass

    › Noun + present participle
       EX: interest-bearing account
   Compounds
    › With all, half, high, low (low-rise apartments)
    › With well if they precede noun (well-done
     paper)


   Numerals
    › Compound adjectives when they precede
     the noun they modify (two-story house)
   When a number is part of a compound
    adjective, hyphenate it when it
    precedes the modifying noun.
    › EX: ―four-course meal‖
    BUT not for predicate adjectives.
    › EX: The road is two miles long.


   Hyphenate spelled-out fractions.
    › EX: two-thirds of the students
   Color terms
    › Does the color term modify another color?
        EX: Reddish brown sunset (No hyphen)
    › Are the color terms equally important?
        EX: mauve-brown color scheme (hyphenate)
    › Is there a combination term that works
     together as a unit?
       EX: black-and-white photo
   If unsure about hyphen use, consult
    dictionary or style manual.
   Can show a break in thought,
    › Or provide emphasis.


   Dashes also signal to the reader
    additional information at the end of a
    sentence, helping the reader to interpret
    the significance of the primary
    information in a sentence.
   Em dash—
    › Length of 2 hyphens w/out space around
     them
        1. Can substitute for parentheses
        2. Show a break in thought
        3. Provide emphasis
        4. Can signal additional information at end of
         sentence
   An em dash—the length of two hyphens
    without space around them-- can
    substitute for parentheses, a break in
    thought, or provide emphasis.
    › Above sentence –dash substitutes for
     parentheses.
   When parentheses enclose an entire
    sentence, include ending punctuation—
    › EX: They finally said (why couldn't they
    › have admitted it earlier?) that she had been
     there.
   When parentheses enclose only part of a
    sentence, punctuations goes outside.
    › EX: Some of the local store owners (Mr.
     Kwan and Ms. Lawson, for example) insisted
     that the street be widened
   Quotation marks should go outside a
    comma or period but inside a semicolon
    or colon.
    › EX: She told the attendant she was
      ―completely satisfied,‖ according to her
      recollection.
    › EX: She told the attendant she was
      ―completely satisfied‖; although, she later
      filed the lawsuit.
 Three spaced periods
 Indicate some words have been omitted
    › EX: The First Amendment provides that
      "Congress shall make no law respecting . . .
      the right of the people peaceably to
      assemble, and to petition the Government
      for a redress of grievances."
   Also see CMS: 11.51-11.61.
   Three-Dot Method (legal works, textual
    commentary & works that require
    frequent reference to quoted material.

    › Appropriate for most general works & many
     scholarly works.
       In this method 3 dots indicate an omission
        within a quoted sentence.
       4 dots mark the omission of one or more
        sentences.
EX: Some state prison systems apply the policy
  of risk-group screening for AIDS only to
  pregnant women—a very small number of
  inmates.
   The project will end January 15—unless
    the company provides additional funds.

   The job will be done—after we are under
    contract.

   Only one person—the president—can
    authorize such activity.
 The important element in the lecture the
  basis of the final conclusions.
 Creating the artwork preventing any
  mistakes.
 I left the field it was too wet.
 The program didn’t fix the problem it only
  made it worse.
 Creating the graph presenting it making
  right.
 Indicates the direction the document will
  take
 Shapes reader’s approach to material
 Announces topic
 Clarifies main points
 Doesn’t contain an argument
 Sums up
 Reflects on
 Reaffirms main idea
   Copymarks
    › Show where changes need to be made to
     make the document correct, consistent,
     accurate, and complete.
   Marginal Notes
    › To author (au: Correct?
    › To typesetter/production specialist (comp:
     set rom)
 Are those groups of words punctuated
  as sentences actual sentences?
 Is the punctuation complete?
 Do subjects and verbs agree in number?
 Do pronouns agree with referents?
 Do modifiers attach logically to the word
  or phrase they modify?
 Are words spelled and capitalized
  correctly and consistently?
 Are numbers spelled or in figures?
 Is identifying information, such as running
  headers, in the same place on every
  page?
 Check data including dates, numbers,
  etc
 Check words including names, titles,
  terms, abbreviations, quotations
 Check organizational information—table
  of contents, index, etc.
   Look for consistency in the document.
    › Verbal (meanings and arrangements of
     words)
       Semantics (meaning). Does the author use
        one term of something in one place and then
        a different term elsewhere?

       Syntax (structure). Is there parallel structure
        where you see related terms, phrases of
        sentences?
   Syntax, cont.
    › Series of steps in a procedure should be
      worded alike.


   Style (word choice, sentence patterns,
    writer’s voice)
    › No mixing of formal language with casual
      language
    › Shifts in person
   Typography consistency
    › Do parallel parts of a document use the
     same typeface and style? Are variations in
     headings consistent?
   Layout
    › Is the amount of space below a heading the
      same throughout?
    › Is indentation used for all paragraphs?
 Spelling
 Capitalization
 Hyphenation
 Abbreviation
 Numbers
 Punctuation
 Documentation

								
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